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The Frontier States of Western Yorubaland

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Biodun Adediran

Index

Texte intégral

Abéòkúta, 46
Éhìnòkè and Lémon migrations, 34, 136-142
and clash with Lémon, 103
relations with Dahomey, 177, 180, 191
and Church Missionary Society, 188
assist Şábę against Ìbààbá, 202-203

Abéèsán [Avesan], 35-36, 37, 38
conquest of, 38 legend of, 35, 42,
founding of Akoro ward, Porto Novo, 35

Abomey
Şábę groups in, 11,
origins of progenitor, 64

adé Alákétu, 150

adé ìlèkè (beaded crown), 19, 63, 50, 55-56, 57-58 69, 71, 80

adé oríkògbófo (ordinary crown), 22, 155-156

Adímólá [Àdímúlà, Adémólá] Aja progenitor legend, 29

Adjahoume [Adjahaume] festival(Ilé-Kétu), 44, 112

Adó-Odó, 34, 64, 73

Afajere Pontí (society), 190

Agààni (king's council in Şábe), 24
nine Agààni titles, 161-163, 165-166

Ágbó Akoko splinter group from Òyó, 84

Aja, 2, 15, 43
17th century, 5
and Fon sub-group, 5, 13, 38
progenitor of, 29
pre-Aja, 29
at Tado, 37-40
Mahi and Ègùn sub-group, 38
Popo (Aja sub-group), 63
capital at Savi, 90-91
relation with Òyó, 175

Aja-Ewe, 37, 38, 64
original home, 28
migrations, 29, 37-38
Adímólá, progenitor, 29

Àjàşé (Porto Novo), 193

Ajere Akínkanjú (Onişábę), 135-136
installation of, 192-193
revolts in Ilé-Şábę, 194
overshadows Baálè, Kábua, 196
death of, 196

Ajęran Ajínta
leader of the Amùşù, 200
rivalry with Onişábę, 200-201

Ajíbódù the giant, 119
and security of llé-Kétu, 119

Ajíbóyè (Jagun), 141, 172

Akínkanjú, Ajere (Onişàbe), 135-136

Akoro (oldest ward, Porto Novo), 35-36, 38

Aláàfin of Òyó, 22, 149, 182
relations with Alàkètu, 22
migrations of (16th century), 74-78, 90
reorganization of royal family, 32-33
departure from Òyó-Ilé, 32-33

Aláàfin Abíódún, 176-177

Aláàfin Aganjú, 30

Aláàfin Àjàká, 30
Ògún, deity of, 78

Aláàfin Olúàso, 32, 33

Aláàfin Olúewu, 90

Aláàfin Onígbogí, 33
refuge at Gbere, 75-76

Aláàfin Òrányàn, [Òránmiyàn], 30

Aláàfin Şàngó, 30

Aláàpíni (a royal lineage of Kétu), 24

Alákémon (commoners) in Ìdáìşà, 169, 171, 174

Alákétu, 22-23 [see Ilé-Kétu, and Kétu]
investiture rites, 89, 116, 118, 151
constitutional cheeks, 152
council of chiefs, 152-153
vassalage obligations to, 156
struggle between Òyó and Şódipàşán for title, 115

Alákétu Adébédè, 186-187

Alákétu Adébíyà, 183-186

Alákétu Adégbitè Adéworí, 59

Alákétu Àdìrò Olùmàjá (1858), 188 and Christian mission, 188-189

Alákétu Agòdògbò, 122

Alákétu Ajíbúlú Alàó, 183

Alákétu Apánhùn, 116

Alákétu Arúgbo, 122

Alákétu Dako, 128

Alákétu Èpò, 119, 120

Alákétu Èdé, 83-87
historical antecedents, 83-84
foundation of Ilé-Kétu, 83
foundation of new settlements, 84
displacement of Òyó leadership, 86-87

Alákétu Éşù, 68-69, 83-84, 86, 90, 114-116, 154

Alákétu Ìléké, 122

Alákétu Òkòyì, 112-114, 117
land policies under, 112-113

Alákétu Òrùbú, 125

Alákétu Òşun Òjékú, 124, 190

Alálùmon, 84, 88-89
and installation rites of Alákétu, 118

Ketu chief, 154

Amùşù [Amósù] (Ilé-Şábę)
links with Ifé, 71
dynastic group, 73-74, 126
clash with Ilé-Şábę, 73
migration of, 78-80
origins of, 92-93
Àkíyò, ruler of, 93
royal name, Ǫlá Múşú, 96
move to Ilé-Şábę, 93
establish control over Éhìnòkè, 96-97

Ebúrú war, 97-98
lose control of Ilé-Şábę, 97-98
resistance to Babagídàí, 126-127, 201-204

oriki of, 127-128
submission to Yáì, 128
And [Ifé](western Yorùbá), 7, 11, 15, 20, 21, 38, 41, 207
tribal marks, 16-17
deities, 16
of Mono river, Togo, 15
local dialect of, 18-19
subgroups, 20, 21

Atakpamé, 40

Anàgó, 7-8, 18, 30, 35, 36, 63, 64, 124, 149-150

Yorùbá western dialect, 7
western Yorùbà sub-group, 11, 13, 15, 18, 20-21, 22
territory of, 13
crowned heads, 22-23
pre-Odúduwá migrations into, 30
seven sub-groups of, 13, 15
deities of, 16
tribal marks, 16
relationship to Alákétu, 22, 23
relationship to Òyó. 22
Égbádò corridor, 181

Angara Debu, (Borgu village) 79

Àró, 24, 123, 124, 153, 154
and Şóipàşán group, 77-78, 83-87, 115, 116
and Ogun shrine, 78
settlements by, 87
migration to, 90-91
evacuation of, 89-90
and installation of Alákétu, 118
and fanning, 122
and Ìdòfoyí, 124
alliance with Amùşù, 126

Arúgbo, 133-134

Aşàde (Ilé-Şábę prince), 133-134

Asante, 21, 177
children of Odùduwá, 57

Askia Dawud, 76, 91

Asògo Ìlú (National Progressive Front), 190

Atakpamé
Àná settlement, 20, 40

Awori, 34-35, 38

Avesan [see Abéésán]

Ayétòrò, 180

Baálé defined, 22
at Kétu, 155, 156
at Kàbua, 92, 93, 159, 160

Babagídàí (Şábę dynasty), 71, 73, 78, 80, 90, 100, 125, 160-161
internal struggle for power, 126
overthrew Ifé, 73
origins in Borgu, 79, 80, 91, 92 in Kábua, 98
subjugation of Óòlú of Kàbua, 94-95, 96

Kàbua, spiritual headquarters, 159
marries princess Jimi of Jàbàtá, 94, 125
extension of influence into Jàbàtá, 94
as rulers in Ilé-Şábę, 98, 99, 102, 128, 129, 131
succession problems, 101, 132-135, 192, 193, 195, 196, 200, 204

Biau Olódùmarè, eldest son, 98
Yáì, son by princess Jimi, 101, 102, 125, 130, 131

Akìnkanjù's reign, 195-196
Ina Mega's reign, 198-199
power struggle with Amùşù, 126-127, 201-203
revenue collection, 166

Balogun Kòsòní, (Òtólá of Wòrògì) 197-198

Bánté (principal settlement of Işà), 20, 40

Basàlè (financial chief, Şábę), 163

Benin (Edo Kingdom) 57, 59
origins from Ilé-Ifé, 16

Biau Àìmò, (King in Ile-Şábę), 131

Biau Olódùmarè, [see Olódùmarè] 100, 131-134

Boni Àkéké, 201

Bosman, William (slave trader), 9

Borgu, 2, 5, 18, 75, 76, 79, 92, 93, 195
raids into by Songhai, 76, 91

Bowen, T.J. (Rev.), 152-153, 156, 187

Bussa, 6,
attack on by Askia Dawud, 91
city-states in western Yorùbáland (Hagi, Igbò-Oba, Sáka-Lókè, Sátò-Segun, Kámáátèe, Òkè-Ìta and Sokpa), 52

Cotonou,
Şabé refugees in, 11

Christian missionaries,
and Yorùbá language, 8,
in Kétu, 187, 188

Abéòkúta, 188

Dahomey, 57
origin traditions of among Tado, 62
slave raids, 176, 206-207
against Ìdáìşà, 142-143, 174
relations with Òyó empire, 143, 144, 175-176
annual tribute to Òyó. 176
independence from Òyó (1822), 177
military incursions into Yorùbáland, 181-182, 185-186, 191, 194
and the Christian mission, 188
Muslims desire for peaceful trade, 170
attack on Kétu, 125, 159, 191-192
invasion of Şàbę (1835), 197-198
Şàbę overtures for peace, 200, 201.

Agongolo (king), 142, 177

Adandozan (king), 142, 143, 177, 205
Glélé (king) defeats Şàbę (1865), 203, 204

Agaja (king), 176

Gezo (king) (1818), 177

Kpengla (king) (1774), 176
attacks Ilé-Kétu, 125, 143

Tegbessu (king) (1760) 176, 143
attacks Ilé-Kétu, 125
and collapse of the western Yorùbá kingdoms, 177-208
relations with Ìdáìşa, 177, 181, 204-207
attack on Ìdáìşà (1840s), 204-207
Ìdáìşà destroyed (1881), 207
sack of Èpò, 187
and European powers, 208

Dako (Alákétu), 128

Dassa-Zoumé, 3, 15, 36, 104

deities, Yorùbá

Odùduwà, 16

shrine of at Jàbàtà, 43, 73

Ǫbàtálá, 15, 68

Ògún, 16,47, 48, 67, 78, 154

Òrìşànlá, 68

Éşù, 68-69, 115-116

Şàngó, 16,

Òrìşà Abéésán, (Porto Novo) 35
legends of, 35-36,42

Òrúnmìlá, 68, 71

Nana Bùrùkúùr, 16, 20-21, 47, 62-63, 65

Sànpànná, 16, 20

Dírin, 44, 52, 153, 191
origins, 30

Ebùrù war, 97-98

Édé group, 114
clash with Fon at Òpó-Méta, 87
site at Ilé-Kétu, 83, 89-90, 112-113
and Òkítí Ìmùlé pact, 86
member of Şóipàşán, 84-86
and Òyó refugees at Áró, 84-85
and Ìlíkímu, 86-8

Eesábà (highest Kétu chief) 153

Eesìkì, (council chief, Ketu), 154

Égbá, 7, 33-34, 38, 149-150, 168, 180, 203-204

Ìjeùn section in, 33
pre-kingdom settlements, 43
foundation of northern settlements, 77
and migrations of Jagun Ǫlófin, 102-103
settle in Èpò, 103
coup at Èpò, 104

Şàgbòná replaces Ìwásé, 104 at Yaka, 136
conflict with Lémǫn, 136, 141
wars with Égbádò, 180

Égbádò, 7, 11, 13, 33, 124, 149, 150, 180, 188
attacks by Fon, 181
colonized by Òyó, 176

Égbádò-Kétu, 18

Égbé Afajere Pontí, 190

Ègùá (Engwa) (village near Old Òyó), 124, 157

Ègùn of Porto Novo, 35, 38, 40
subgroup of Aja, 5

Egúngún festival, 13

Éhìnòkè, [see Lèmoné] 33, 34, 36, 43, 47, 50-51, 96-97, 103.
pre-kingdom inhabitants of Ilé-Şábę, 33, 36
ancestral origins, 34
economy, 46
clash with Ilé-Şàbę, 50, 96
foundation of Èpò, 103-104

Èkìtì, 7

Elédùwe war, 178-179

Élégbára (chief priest, Kétu), 115, 154

Èpò (Lèmǫn settlement), 103-104

Dahomey sack of, 187

Epo (Alákétu), 119, 121
and the walling of Ilé-Kétu, 119-120

Éşù (Alàkétu), 68-69, 115
accredited founder of Kétu, 68
Yoruba deity, 68-69, 115-116
Şóipàşán (another name for Èşù), 69, 83-84, 86, 90, 114-116
pre-Oduduwa ruler of Ifé, 69
relation to Ìléşín lineage, 115-116
clash with Òyó dynastic group, 116
shrine at Ketu, 154
festivals, Yorùbá (Ifé), 67

Fon of Dahomey [see Dahomey] 5, 6, 11, 13, 21, 28, 38, 62, 87, 89, 114, 118, 122, 136, 172, 178, 181, 206
interaction with Yorùbá of Kétu, 38, 62
raids on Mahi, 109
pre-Odùduwà inhabitants of western Yorùbáland, 28
subgroup of Aja, 5
fortification of Ilé-Kétu, 119-121

French conquest of Dahomey, 208

Fulani, 12, 168
jihadists from Ilorin, 178-179, 185, 197, 198, 206
raids, 168, 179, 206
residents of Ilé-Kétu (1850), 185

Gáà, Başòrun of Òyó, 143

Gbére, Ìbààba town, 75

Gélédé masquerade, 13

Glélé (Dahomey) defeat of Şábę, (1865), 203, 204

Gezo, (1818) King of Dahomey, 177

Ghana, 62
gònnèşí, festival, 12

Grand Popo, 43
and origins of the Jàlúmòn of Ilé-Şábę, 43

Hausa, 8
trade, 195
and origin of term Yorùbá, 8

Hausa-Gonja trade with Ìbààbá, 47

Ìbààbá (Borgu), 2, 5, 66, 78, 79, 167
distinct from Yorùbá, 4, 6, 11, 15
attack on Ìgbòho, 76
Ìbààbá-Şábę relations, 12, 18
Ibààbá-Yorùbá relations, 6, 92
naming customs, 17
loan words, 18
Hausa-Gonja trade with, 47
King of Bussa, 75
and Òfinràn's raiding groups, 76,77
and origins of Babagídàí in Nikki, 79, 91
raiding groups, 76
and origins of Amùşù of Ilé-Şábę, 80, 93
and formation of Şábę kingdom, 91

Yorùbá-Ìbààbá, 91, 92
and Babagídàí, 92-93

Yoruba and Ìbaaba king of Nikki, 178
and military alliance with Ajeran, 201,202
terrorist tactics under, 202
defeat of Ìbaaba by Égbá, 202-203

Ìbàdàn, 177, 179-180, 191

Ìbarà of Égbáland, 34

Ìdáìşà, 7, 11,
geographic location of, 14, 104
area of kingdom, 168-169
deities of, 16, 47-48,
and Ifá cult, 143
tribal marks, 16
naming ceremonies, 17
local dialects, 18-19
royal lineages, [see Jagun] 23-24, 80, 101-104
early migration patterns, 31-33, 38
claims of autochthons, 36
settlement patterns, 44
early trade, 47
long distance trade, 205
marriage customs, 145
use of iron, 47-48,
city-states under, 50-52

Jagun, 23-24, 50, 80, 101-104, 168-169

Lemǫn and Ègbá, rival claims to throne, 103-104, 136-142
installation ceremonies, 109-110
court of, 171
succession method, 171

Ǫlǫfin, burial customs 80, 170, 130,
royal sanctuary at Yaka, 141-142

Sàgbóná (Ègbá royal line) Jagun, 136-137
replaced by Ògùdù, (Lemǫn royal line), 137-140

Olúsà, female Jagun, 140-141, 143-145

Ajiboye (Jagun), 140-141
pre-Jagun heads, 169
reconcilation with Ìjeùn, 141-142
titled male chiefs, 170, 171
titled female chief, 171-172
council of state, 174
inner cabinet, 173-174
sovereignty over Ijeun, 105-108
and subjugation of Ìfítà, 108
Igbo-Ìdáìşà (capital city), 109, 143, 168, 169, 170, 173, 206

Ǫlǫfin, [see Jagun] 80, 170

Alákémon (commoners) in Ìdáìşà, 74
relations with Òyó, 177
clashes with Òyó, 144
the Jóko Jódò war, 144 and collapse of Òyó,( 1835) 177

Lemǫn sub-group in, 170-171

Ǫba l'ókè, head, 171
and relations with Dahomey, 177, 181, 204, 205, 206, 207
and slave raids by Dahomey, 174, 206
relations with Mahi, 204, 205
collapse of Ìdáìşà, 204-207
Ìdènà (main gate to Kétu), 119, 120, 121

Ìdòfà, 51-52, 85

Ìdúfè, 30

Ìdùfin (lineage of Kétu), 44
non Yorùbá festival, 44

Ìfàà, (royal family of Şábę), 24

Ifá (divination), 7
odù Ifá, 168
adopted by Jagun, 143

Ifá oracle
role is selection of Oníşábę, 24, 161-162

Ìfítà traditions 34, 38, 108
origins of, 36
oríkì of, 44
city-state of Ìdáìşà, 51
subjugation of, 108

Ìfònyìn, 13, 22

Ìgànná, 90-91

Igbó-Ìdáìşà (capital of Ìdáìşà), 109, 143, 168, 169, 206
tribute paid to Màmàhún, 138-142
administration of, 171-173
revenue collection, 173

Ìgbòho, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 90, 91
and Mokolé settlement, 91
occupation by Aláàfins, 74, 77, 78, 90
demographic upheavals, 77

Ìgbómìnà, 7, 30

Igbó-Qba, 52

Ìgbóná, 30

Ìjálé, 155, 187

Ìjàyè invasions, 1860-1865, 175-180
defeated by Ibàdàn, 180

Ìjébú, 7, 30

Ìjeùn, 31, 33, 43, 51-52, 107, 111, 135
migrations, 31-33
oríkì, 31-32
ownership of horses, 32
crowned ǫbàs under, 155
struggle with Jagun over Yaka, 104-109, 141-142
land dispute with Mámáhùn, 137-138
and Jagun Ògùdù, 137-140
and Igbó-Ìdáìşà royal sanctuary 138-139, 140

Ìjéşà, 7

Ìkólájé, 13, 23

Ìlá, 60

Ìlá-Òràngún, 30

Ilé-Ifè, 6-7, 16,
as cradle of Yorùbá civilization, 9-10, 16, 24, 26
and Odùduwà legacy, 26-27 [see Odùduwà]

Ànàgó links to, 33
five princes from Ilé-Ifè, 61-63
Alákétu and Onişábe., 66
and princes of Porto Novo, 65
and foundation of Tado, 62
pre-Odùduwá, 26, 27, 28, 53, 65
and political power of women, 42
dynastic migrations from, 61-63, 66

Ilé-Kétu, [see Kétu]
pre-kingdom settlements, 44-45, 52
and Ìdùfin lineage, 44
oriki of, 83-84
foundation by Èdé, 83-89, 90, 112-113
member of Şoipáşán group, 84
alliances of pre-dynastic groups, 113
installation of Alákétu, 89, 116, 118, 151
and clashes with Pánkú, 117-118
walling of the town, 119
rising discontent from, 119-120
assasination of Alákétu Èpò, 120, 121
important centre for trade, 156-157

Iléşà, 30

Ilé-Şábę, [see Şábę], 3, 34, 37, 43, foundation of, 41
pre-Şábę clusters, (Jàbàtá, Kábua, Ilé-Şábę), 50
non Babagfdai lineage heads, 161
ancestral migration, Togo, 43

Jálùmón group, 43
dynastic struggles, 47, 131-132, 144
early trade, 47
oríkì of Olóró (trader), 48
Àkíyò, first
Amùşù king, 93
Amùşù consolidate control of, 96-97
Amùşù clash with Jalumon, 97-98
Amùşù lose control of Ilé-Şábę, 98-99
clash with Èhìnòkè, 50, 96
use of beaded crowns, 50
Babagídàí take control from Amùşù, 98
Oníşábę. Yáì, imposed as ruler of, 98-99, 125-132
Oníşabę Sàbì Aiémà, 130, 134
Oníşáb Biau Àìmé, 131
Oníşibę Mònsíà, 132, 134
Oníşábę Sàbì Ǫlá Àimoni, 134-135
Oníşábę Ajere Akínkanjú, 135 hub of Şábę economy, 159

Iléşín, 115-116

Ìlíkìmu, 34, 44, 52

Iluké ǫmǫ, 86

Ìmáşàyí, 52

Ìméri, 30

Ìná Mégò, 197-199

Ìpínlè (Ikpinle) district, 13

Ìpòbé (Pobe) district, 13

Ìpókíà, 13

Isà (sub-group of Aja) 7, 11, 15-16, 20, 21, 40-41

Ìtagi, 52

Ìtàkété (Sakete) district, 13-14, 22

Iwásé, (Lémǫn ruler), 104

Ìyá Mépéré,
head, Òpó-Mèta, 87-88

Jàbàtá (Şábę city), 37, 50, 94, 99- 101, 131, 159

Odùduwà shrine, 43, 71-73

Yorùbà town, 125

Jagun dynastic group, 168-169

Jagun [see Ìdáìşà] 101-104, 136-137
subjugation of Ìfìtá. 108
subjugation of Ìjeùn at Yaka, 104-108, 170
oríkì of Jagun of Yaka, 107-108
consolidate hold over Yaka, 109
enthronement ceremonies, 105, 109-110
succession pattern, 170
Éléfin, 80, first Jagun, 102, 103, 170
royal title of Ìdáìşà 24
Éhìnòkè clash with Amùşù, 96

relationship with Òyó, 144

Jagun Ajíbóyè, 140-141, 143-145, 172
Òyó origins, 143 independence from Òyó, 144
Jóko Jódò War, 144

Jagun Ajíbóyèdé, 200

Jagun Égbákòtán, 207

Jagun Kìnìún, 206

Jagun Ndeju, 206

Jagun Ògùdù, 137

Jagun Şàgbóná, 136-137

Jàkùta (Sango cult), 70

Jàlúmǫn lineage (llé-Şábę), 98, 129, 163
origins of 43

Ebùrù war, 97, 98

Jóko Jódò War, 144

Kábua, 3, 33, 35-37, 43, 50, 92, 93, 98-102, 135, 159-160
Baálè of, 160-162, 192
spiritual headquarters of Babagídàí, 182

Kamáátéè, 52

Kétu, [see Ilé-Kétu and Alákétu] 7, 11, 12, 15, 28, 30, 66, 77
geographical spread, 12-13
importance of crafts, 13
tribal marks of, 16, 150
local dialects, 18
royal lineages, 24
original home Aja-Ewe, 29
progenitor, Ifé, 65-66, 67, 68-69
pre-Odùduwà settlement,42
links with Odùduwà, 66, 67
and imperialistic moves of Òyó, 64
foundation of, 41, 83, 66, 83-90
clash between dynastic groups and pre-kingdom heads, 111-116
Ókiti Ìmùlè convenant, 86, 115
Alákétu Okóyí, 112-114,
clash with Pànku, 113-114, 117
fled to Tóbóló, 114
Alákétu Éşú, [Éşú], 67-71, 114-115
broke Òkìti Ìmùlé accord, 86, 114-116
Şóìpáşán element from Àró, 90, 115
links to Édę, 77-78, 84, 86
relation with Òyó group, 115, 116
Ifè legend of, 69
and Òrànmìyán, 71
and foundation of Şábę, 71
rotational monarchy, 86, 116
role of Ìléşín group, 115-116
economic pursuits, 117
conflict with Pànkù, 116-117
walling of Ilé-Kétu, 119-121
constitutional monarchy, 149, 151
investiture of adé Alaketu, 150-151
constitutional checks and powers, 121
Oní-ojà, counterbalance to Alákétu, 121, 151
Kébalédè (council of chiefs) 152-153, 154-156
administrative divisions, 157
major occupations, 157
brass and iron crafts, 157
growth of Muslim population (1853), 185, 188-191, 209
relation with Òyó kingdom, 124, 125, 149-151
principal deities, 154
relations with Dahomey, 125
attack on Kétu (1760), 125
hostility toward Ketu, 177, 181, 182
rise of Gezo (1818), 177
death of Aláàfin Abíódún, 177
attack and defeat of Ilé-Kétu, 191-192
raids by Fulani, 178-179
raids by Ìjàyè and Ìbàdàn, 180
instability in Kétu (1816), 183
influx of refugees, 184
decline of Ketu, 183-186
visit of Rev. Bowen (1858), 152, 187
conflict with influential Muslims, 189, 190
consolidated under Dahomey, 208
secessionist feelings, 211
Christian missionaries, 212

Kìlìbò, 11, 91-92, 159, 195

Kìsí, 76

Kisra legend, 6, 75, 85

Kókiá, 30

Kòsòní, commander-in-chief, Şábę
army 197
de facto ruler, Şábę, 197

Kuşu, 76

Kwa language group, 2

Lagos (territory), 11

Şábę refugees in, 11
Benin activities, 34

Lémǫn group, 52
in Ìdáìsà, [see Éhìnòkè], 33
pre-kingdom settlement, 44
migration to Şábę, 103
migration to Èpò, 103
power struggle with Ègbá, 103, 136-137, 140

Mahi, 5, 12, 17-19, 38, 40, 87, 89, 109, 136, 139, 142-143, 169, 205
Aja sub group, 5, 38, 18-19
influence in Şábę, 12, 17
and origin of the Ana, 40
raids on Èpò, 104
Dahomean raid on, 109, 142

Mahi of Savalou, 5, 12, 16, 38

Mali empire, 47

Mòkólé (Ìbààbá subgroup), 12
Òyó refugees, 91

Màmáhún group, 36, 38, 44, 46, 51-52, 137-138,
tradition of origin, 36
pre-kingdom group, Ìdáìsà, 44

land ownership, 51-52, 137, 141
orílé, 51

Mépéré, pre-Odùduwà settlement, 42.

Mànígrì, 7, 11, 15, 16 20-21, 38, 40

Méfù (Kétu royal lineage), 23

Mónsíá,(OniŞábę Ǫlá Àjágbó) 133-134

Muslim
and Christians in Kétu, 188, 189
political influence, 191

Muslim militia, 192

Nàgó, (western Yorùbá), 11

Nàná Bùrùkúù (shrine of), 16, 20, 21, 47, 167
a pre-Odùduwà deity, 62-63

Nikki, 11, 75, 79, 91, 92

Nénémí, 30

Nupe, attacks on Òyò-Ilé, 33, 75

Ǫba (paraphenalia of office), 19 oba'l'onile, 145-146

Ǫbàradá (prince) links to Ifé, 62-63

Odùduwà period, 22, 26-28, 41-53, 80, 81, 175,
lineage groups, 42-43
as cradle of Yorúbá civilization, 56-57
and right to wear beaded crowns, 55-57
model monarchy, 55-58
Ilé-Ifé diaspora, 56-62

and Ǫòni of Ifé, 58
Alàkètu as son of Odùduwà, 66-67
cult in Porto Novo, 64
Olúòpó as Ifè prince, 65
shrine in Jàbàtá, 73
socio-political development, 44
Asante, Dahomey and Porto Novo descent claims, 57
dynasty, 68, 69

Odùduwà socio-political structure, 40

Odùduwà (pre), 56, 81-82
migrant groups in western Yorúbá region, 30-33
socio-political structures, 41-45
and establishment of western Yorúbá kingdoms, 65-66
Şóipáşán (Ésù) as Ifè prince, 69, 70, 77-78
Jákúta cult, 70
Şàngó, 70
and Jàlúmòn, 43
and Ogun deity, 47-48
women rulers during, 42
and Nana Bùrùkúù deity, 62-63, 65
and Ifè festivals, 65-66

Òfínrán (Aláàfin) 76

Ògbòrò, 30

Ògo (Alákétu), 116-117

Ògùdù (Jagun), 137-140

Ògún (god of iron), 47-48, 67, 78, 154

Òhòrí-ìjé, 13, 22

Òhòrí -Kétu, 18

Òhúmbó, 13

Òjè Àkànbí, (Olúpòpó) links to Ife, 65

Òjó, Afǫlábí, 60

Òkànbí [Àkànbí], 65

Òkè Àgbèdę, 159

Òkè-Òyán, 82, 83, 84-86, 90, 102, 104, 123

Òyó refugees, 77-79, 123
founders Ìdáìşà, 80
founders of Àró, 83-85

Òkítì Ìmùlè, 86, 114-115

Ola Yǫngè (Amùşù leader), 97-98

Ǫla Òjòdú (Amùşù leader), 98, 129

Ogun Jànkárè (Fulani warrior), 179

Olódùmarè, Biau
eldest son, Babagídàí, 98, 100-101
by-passed as successor to Ilé-Şábę), 99-100, 101, 131-132
ruler of Kàbua, 100, 101, 132, 133
de facto ruler Ilé-Şábę, 133

Olódùmarè (God Almighty), 69

Olóró, 33, 48-49, 50, 129-130

Olóyè (king's council of advisors Kétu), 24

Ǫlóyòò, Ife prince, Sango (?), 70

Olúbarà, 33, 43, 46, 50
pre-kingdom inhabitants of Kábua, 33
ancestral links, 34

Olúmǫ rock 34

Olùkòíbí, Yáì, 125 [see Yáì]

Olúodó, Lord (tax collector) Ouéme River, 163

Olupópò, 62-63, 65
and ancestral links with Odùduwà, 64
and beaded crown, 64

Òjè Àkànbí, (Olúpópò), 65

Olúsà (female Jagun), 140

Onílè, 50, 83, 145

Onínàná, Ife prince, 62-65, 71

ǫmǫ onílè, 50, 83, 97, 145-146

Oní-Ǫjà (owner of market, Alákétu chief), 121-122, 151
counter balance to the Alákétu, 121, 151

Onípòpó (Ifè prince), 62, 63

Onişábe, [see Ilé-Şábę] 159, 166
and preeminence of Babagìdáì dynasty, 160
administration under, 161
investiture rites, 161-162
role of Agàànì (council of chiefs), 23, 161, 162-163

Ònkò district (old Ǫyò), 18

Òòlú Àdágbá, 46

Òòlú of Jàbàtá, 94, 125

Òòlú Kabé, 94
subjugation by Babagídàí, 95

Òòlú Òsì, 43, 46, 50, 129

Òòlú Òtún, (chief of intelligence) 43-50, 129, 162, 163

Òòlú Sinika, 94-95

Ǫóni Adelęgán Òlúbùşe, 61

Ǫóni Adésǫjí Adérèmí, 59-62

Ǫóni of Ifé, 58

Òpò-mèta, and Èdé group, 87-88

Ǫràngún of Ìlá, 60

Ǫranmíyàn [Ôrànyàn], 69-71, 75 first Aláàfin of Òyó, 69-70

Ǫré-ǫba (king's council of advisers, Ìdáìşà), 24

orìşà [see deity]

oriki

Ìjeùn exodus from Òyó, 31-32
of Olúbarà, 34
of Ìfítá, 44
hunting of Şábę, 45-46
personal of Olóró, Şábę trader, 48-49
orílè of Màmàhún, 51
of Ajíbóyedé, 68
of Aláàfin Òfinrán, 76
Édé's personal, 83-84
Áró royal family, 84-95]
Ìlíkímu royal family, 86-87
of Óólá of Kábua, 95-96
of Éhìnòkè, 97
of Yáì, 99
oríkì orílè, 102
of Jagun of Yaka, 107-108
of Amùşù defeat, 127-128
Sàbì Aimǫnà, 130-131
Bapónà, (customs officer), 163
Òòlú Étún 163
of agriculture, 164
Ilé-Şábę, 165-166
Akínkanjú (Onişábę), 193-194
Àìmǫni, 199

Òrìşà Abéésan, (Avesan), 35-36, 37, 42
and Akoro ward in Porto Novo, 42

Òrúnmìlà, 68, 71

Ǫşun Ǫjékù, 190

Ouémé river/region, 40

Òwu, 7, 30, 61

Òyò, 16, 90
origin of first rulers, Ìdáìşà, Kétu and Şábę 80
invasion of Nupe, 33, 75, 90
Alaafin exile in Gbére, 75
Alàáfin exile to Ìgbòho, 74, 77, 78, 90
migration into Égbá, 77
expansion into Égbádò, 150
sack of (16th century), 80
faction in Kétu, 83-85
Ǫyò refugees, 79-80
progenitors/first Aláàfin(s), 69
Òrànmíyán, 69
Şàngó, 68, 70
most powerful kingdom in West Africa, 175
campaigns against Mahi, 104
alliance with Mahi, 109
links to Kétu, 64, 115, 116, 124-125,149-151, 159
Gáà Başórun, 124
links to Amùşù dynasty, 74
and Şábę, 168
local Yorúbá dialect, 18
clashes in Ìdáìşà 44, 177
control over Dahomey, 175, 176
collapse of (1835), 177-178

Ǫyé-Ilé, 16, 31-33, 91, 143
origins of, 70, 80
destruction of, 33, 75
renamed Òyó-Òrò, 77, 79

Pánkú, 42, 113-114, 117, 118, 123

Paraku (Şábę groups in), 11, 91

Pírà (priest of Nana), 20

Pòpó people, 5, 28, 34, 72-74
ruler of Benin, 61

Porto Novo, 3, 5, 11, 35-36, 57,
and cult of Odùduwà, 64
calabash of Aláàfin Abiodun, 65, 176
major Òyò trading port, 176
and slave trade, 176
Òríşà Abéésan, 35-36, 37, 42
Akoro ward in Porto Novo. 42

Pínhùn Asèwele, 59

Republic of Benin, 2, 5, 9, 11, 13, 15

Şábe, 11-12, 15, 30, 31, 41, 110, 111, 125, 159, 168, 207
geographical boundaries, 11, 167
people of; 11-12
naming system, 17
local dialects, 18
royal title of, 23
early migration, 33, 34, 38
pre-Odùdùwà settlements, 36-37, 43
three early clusters, 50
origins of, 73,78 links to Odùduwà, 71-72
links to Òyò, 74-80
Amùşù migrants from Ilé-Ifè, 71-74
foundation of kingdom 90-102
emigration from Borgu, 91-92
Babagídàí dynasty group in Kábua, 92, 93, 95

Àkíyò group (Amùşù) 93,
Babagídàí in Jàbàtá, 94, 125
Babagídàí try to take Ilé-Şábę, 98
Babagídàí expands control of ábę. region, 99-100
Babagídàí names Yáì his successor (1750), 100-102, 128 Yáì consolidates kingdom of Şábę, 100-102
initiates kingship rituals in Ilé-Şábę, 102
first Oníşábę, 102
struggles to maintain political control, 125-130
conflict with Amùşù, 126-128
internal intrigues, 129-135
death of Yáì, 130-131
rejection of Babagídàí dynasty in Ilé-Sábę, 131
puppet Onişábę, Ǫlá Àjágbó installed, 133
Kabua, spiritual capital of Şábę, 3, 33, 35, 43, 50, 92-93, 95-96, 98-102, 159-160, 159, 182, 195-196
investiture of Oníşábę, 160
occupations of 164-165
military prowess of, 167-168
Ìjàyè raids into, 179-180
Dahomean raids into, 181
Oníşábę, Ajere Akínkanjú, 192-196, 203
oríkì of wealthy Porto Novo trader, 193-194

opposition by Baálè of Kabua, 195-196
relations with Òyó, 194
death of Akínkanjú and succession crisis, 196
and Àfùdá, Baálè of Kabua, 192, 193, 195
Yabi Pasi (regent Oníşábę)

Balogun Kòsòni's bid to become
Oníşábę, 197
death of (1835), 198
female Oníşábę, Ìná Mègò (1835-1945), 197, 198-199
ousted by Àìmoni, 199
succession crisis, 199-200
Sàbì Ǫtéwà (Oníşábę), 200
conflict with Amùşù, 201

Ajeran (Amùşù) intrigues of, 200-210

Ajinta, 200-201
conflict with Sàbì, 201
assassination of, 201
Boni Akeke, Babagídàí leader in exile, 202, 203
Amùşù solicits support of Ìbààbá army, 201-202
Ìbààba defeat Babagídàí and displace Amùşù, 202
Şábę groups mount resistance to Ìbààbá army, 202
Égbà assist to drive out Ìbààbá army, 202-203
Babagídàí dynasty restored, 203
Dahomey sacks Ilé-Şábę 203
Şábę in-exile pursues peace with Dahomey, 203-204
Dahomey burns Ilé-Şábę (1885), 204

Şábigànná, 90

Şàgbóná (Jagun), 104, 141, 143
from Égbá group, 136, 140
reduced status of Lémǫn, 136, 137
Lémǫn coup during, 137, 139
power struggle with, 136-141

Sáká-lókè, 52

Şàngó cult, 68, 70

Sátó-segun, 52

Sero Kpera of Ilorin, 178
Ìbààbá king of Nikki, 178

Sóipàsàn [Şóropàsán] [see Éşù], 67- 71, 78, 83-84, 86, 90, 114-115
death of at Àró, 77-78
progenitor of Alákétu, 67-71
as husband of Odùduwà, 68
as pre-Odùduwà Ifè prince, 69, 70

Songhai empire, 21,
early trade with, 47
incursions into Borgu, 76, 91
Askia Dawud, 76, 91
Sonni Ali, 91

Tado town, 5, 29, 62
Aja at, 38, 40
traditions of Aja origins, 35, 62, 63
Kétu and Yoruba expansion, 28-29
and Àdìmólà legend, 29, 93
and origins of Popo, 64

Tegbessu (Dahomey king), 176
attack on Ilé-Kétu, 125

Togo, 2, 5, 10, 15, 42, 47

Townsend, Henry (Rev.), 206
women, political power of
in pre-Odùduwà clusters, 42
Ìyá Mépéré, 88
in Şábę, 198-199
in Ìdáìşà, 140, 171-172
Ìná Mégò, Oníşábę, 197, 198

wars
Ebùrù war, 97, 98,. 178, 179
Elédùwe war (1835) 178, 179
Kétu civil war, 119-120
Jóko Jódò, 144
Òwu war (1821), 177, 184
Ìjàyè war (1860-65) 179-180
Kíríjí-Èkìtìparapé war, 180
western Yorùbáland
physical environment, 2-4, 45
Yorùbá sub-groups, 11-15
religious beliefs, 15-16
dialects, 17-18
political organizations, 19-24
origin legends and Odùduwà, 25-28, 41
early migration into western Yorùbáland, 29
pre-Oduduwa, 30
refugees from raids by Òyó empire, 30-35
Ògun, pre-Odùduwà deity, 48
original inhabitants in, 35-45
social organization, 49-53
early occupations, 45-49
external raids, 178-183
Fulani, 179
Ìjàyè, Égbá 179
Égbá, 180
Dahomey, 181-182

Yáì (Olúkòíbí) son of Babagídàí, 98-102, 125-132
and opposition to Amùşù, 129
ascendency in Şábę, 140-146
rivals to power
Olóró, 129-130
Biau Olódùmarè, 132-133
Sabi Aimònà, successor to Yáì, 130-131
choosing a successor, 144-145

Yaka (Ìjeùn town) 105, 107
Jagun displace Ìjeùn, 104-107
installation of Jagun, 105-107
Ìjeùn claims, 141
as royal sanctuary of Jagun, 141-142
refugees settle in, 109

Yorùbá
traditions, 5, 10
relations with the Fon, 6
local customs, 7-8
deities, 15-15, 68, 78
social customs, 15-16
tribal marks, 16
language, 9, 17
sub-ethnic groups, 7-8
and origins of Babagídàí, 79

Yorùbá-Ìbààbá joint force, 92, 202

© IFRA-Nigeria, 1994

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