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The Frontier States of Western Yorubaland

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Biodun Adediran

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A. ORAL SOURCES

As discussed earlier, oral data were collected extensively in the study area. The names and particulars of major informants can be found in the notes.

B. PRIMARY WRITTEN MATERIALS

The early part of the study was devoted to a scouting exercise for written materials. This proved only marginally successful. However subsequent visits to archives in Bénin, Togo, Britain and France yielded some fruitful results. The following are materials consulted and found useful.

1. Archival Documents

a. Archives Nationales du Bénin, Porto-Novo

Mainly newspapers such as: France-Dahomey, Afrique Nouvelle and Notes Africaines

b. Bibliothèque du Centre National des Recherches Scientifiques et Techniques, Porto-Novo (formerly IRAD)

i. Father Thomas Mouléro’s Papers

L’Histoire du Peuple d’Idacha dit Dassa. 25 p mimeo.

Histoire et Légende de Banté

Des villages de la sub-division de Savalou. 23p mimeo

Kétou. 11p mimeo (Doc-p. Novo-20)

Guezo ou Guedizo Massigbe. 13pp (Doc-p. Novo-20)

ii. Lt. Nouaillac, ‘Hollidgè’ 9p (Doc-p. Novo-18)

iii. Huchet, R.P. ‘Les Dassa’ (1941)

iv. Mercier, Paul, ‘L’ancien Royauté de Savè et son Evolution’

v. Brasseur-Marion, P. ‘Porto-Novo-Cotonou, Double Agglomération’

vi. Huchet, R.P. & da Silveira, ‘Dassa-Savè’

c. Égbá National Archives, Abéòkúta (ENA)

At the time of search, documents of the ENA were in the bindery section of the National Archives in Ìbàdàn. They were consulted with the kind permission of Professor S.O. Bíóbákú. The following files were found useful.

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d. National Archives, Ìbàdàn (NAI)

i. Various files of the Old Òyò and Abéòkúta provinces were consulted but only a few were found useful:

ABE DISTI/ED4 12 Ìmálà Intelligence Report by Captain Balmer.

ABP (i) 1604: Ìyámǫde Shrine, Abéòkúta.

Òyó Prof. I. files 1372, 133 and 203.

ii. CSO 26 Series: Intelligence and Assessment Reports particularly: File No.

21790 Assessment Report on Ìmálà District, Ègbá Division of Abéòkúta Province, 1929 by A.C. Cooper.

30030 Badagry District of the Colony Province by W.G. Wormal (ag. D.O.) 1935.

30030/51 Ègùn Area of Badagry District, 1937, by R.J.M. Curwen

30030/52 Intelligence Report on Àwórì Area of Badagry District, Colony Province, 1939, by R.J. Curwen

30375 Intelligence Report on Ìpókíá Group of the Ànàgó Tribe in Ilaro Division, 1935, by J.H. Ellis (A.D.O.)

30435 Intelligence Report on Ajílété, Ìláshè, Òkè-Òdàn, Ilaro and Ìlóbí Groups of Ègbádò people in Ilaro Division, 1935 by J. A. Ellis (A.D.O.)

31065 Intelligence Report on Ìhúmbó Group, Ilaro Division, 1935 by Hatch, W.R. (A.D.O.)

RG/W3 A Report on the Égùn Speaking People of Badagry District of the Colony, 1934 by Wormal, W.G.

e. District Office Archives

1. Dassa-Zoumé (DOAD)

i. ‘Listes des dignitaires formant les collectives, maîtresses des cérémonies traditionnelles et de la cour de Djagou’ (n.d.) 6.p. mimeo

ii. Hutchet, R.P. ‘Origines des noms de villages, Cantons Dàssà’ (1941) 8p. mimeo

iii. Àbíssí A. ‘Les Responsables de dynasties princières’ 13p. mimeo

iv. Ediku Lazzare, ‘Les Rois ou Jagou de Dassa-Zoumé’

v. Mouléro, T., ‘L’Histoire du Peuple d’Idacha dit Dassa’ 25p. Mimeo

2. Şábę (DOAS)

i. ‘La descendance de Babagidai’

ii. ‘La succession des rois de Savè’

iii. ‘Les quartiers de Savè’

iv. ‘Aperçu Historique sur les Rois’

v. ‘Les villages de la sub-division de Savè’

f. C.M.S. Archives, Birmingham University Library, Birmingham, U.K.

1. Journals, diaries, letters and private papers of missionaries; the following were found useful.

i. CA2/021 James Barber

ii. CA2/016 Mischellaneous

iii. CA2/031 S. A. Crowther

iv. CA2/035 S. W. Doherty

v. CA2/037 V. Faulkner

vi. CA2/047 C. A. Gollmer

2. CA2/L3 Letter Books

3. CA2/L4 Letter Books

4. C.M.S. Intelligencer from 1853

5. Church Missionary Gleaner

6. C.M.S. Recorder from 1860

g. Archives Départementales de Nantes, France

C. 739 ‘Rapport sur la situation de Juda et le commerce de Guinée, 1732’

h. Archives Nationales (section d’outre-mer) 27, Route d’Oudinot, Paris

Sénégal et Dépendances III

Dossier 17: Explorations et mission, 1863-1888 especially

(b) Mission VIARD au Moyen Niger à partir du Dahomey, 1886.

1. Public Records Office, London (PRO)

i. Parliamentary papers relating to slave trade and the wars in the interior of the slave coast.

ii. Records, papers and letters of African consuls at Lagos, Fernando Po and Badagry.

2. Private collections

a. Professor Pierre Verger’s collections

i. Field Notes on Póbé, Àjàwéré, Tàkòn, Sàkété, Lèmǫn, Ìfònyìn, Ìsùgán and Kétu

ii. ‘Histoire du pays de Kétou’ 11pp.

iii. ‘Historical Notes on Ìfànhìn (Ìfònyìn) and Sàkété’ 6pp.

iv. ‘Kétou: Les Rois’/‘Les Rois de Kétou’ 5pp.

b. Adébáyò, D.A. ‘Ìtàn Ìjálè bí ati şe jé Ǫba aládé’

c. Adotevi, A.K.L. ‘L’Histoire d’Atakpamé’

d. Adéyę, A. ‘Àwǫn Ará Ìjè (Òhòrí-Ìjè)’

C. SECONDARY WRITTEN MATERIALS

Local History

Abíólá, J.D.E., Babáfémi, J.A. and Atáíyérǫ, S.O. Ìwé Ìtàn Ìjèshà Ǫbòkun. (first edition, 1932).

Adémákinwá, J.A. Ifè, Cradle of the Yorùbá: A Handbook on the History of the origin of the Yorùbás. 2 parts (Lagos, 1958).

Ajíşafé, A.K. History of Abéòkúta. (Suffolk, 1924).

——— Ìwé Ìtàn Abéòkúta. (Hardcore, Abéòkúta, 1972).

Akíndélé, A. & Aguessy, C. Contribution à l’Étude de l’Ancien Royaume de Porto Novo. (IFAN, Dakar, 1953).

Aşíwájú, A.I. and Igué, O.J. A History of Şábę (ms).

Asongba, R. Les réalités tribales à Dassa-Zoumé. Ègbákòkóú Octobre, 1975.

Egharevba, J.U. A Short History of Benin. (Ibadan, 1960).

Fábùnmi, M.A. Ifè Shrines. (Ifè University Press, 1970).

——— Notes on Ilé-Ifè. Nigeria 100 (April, 1969) pp. 400-404.

Faroud, F. Chez les Dassa. Echo Missions Africaines de Lyon, 6-9 June-September, 1929.

Gayibor, N.L. Recueil des Sources Orales du Pays Aja-Ewe (Lomé, Togo, 1977).

Gbaguidi, B. Origine des noms des villages, Cercle de Savalou, Canton des Dassas. ED 8 (1952).

George. J.O. A Historical Note on the Yorùbá Country and Its Tribes. (Lagos, 1895).

Glele, M.A. Le Danxomè du Pouvoir Aja à la Nation Fon. (Nubia, Paris, 1974).

Hazoume, P. Journal de voyage de Cotonou à Dassa-Zoumé. La Reconnaissance Africaine. April-December, 1929. p. 14.

Johnson, S. The History of the Yorùbá from the Earliest Times to the Beginning of the British Protectorate. O. Johnson, ed. (CMS, Lagos, 1921).

Kényo, E.A. Àwǫn Ilè Yorùbá. (Ìfé Old Printing Works, Lagos, 1948).

———Ìwè Àwǫn Ǫba Aládé Yorùbá. (Lagos, 1955).

Mákindé, M.A. Ilé-Ifè, An Introduction. (Abíódún Printing Works Ìbàdàn, 1970).

Mouléro, T. Histoire et légende de Shabe (Savè): Les villages Nago de la Sous-Préfecture de Savè. ED (NS) 14-15, Sept.-Dec. 1969, pp. 29-58.

——— Histoire et légende de Chabe (Savè). ED (NS), 2 juin, 1964, pp. 51-92.

Ǫdúnjǫ, J.F. Ìjìnlè Májèmú Larin Ègbá at’Ègbádò (Alébíoşù Press, Lagos, 1946).

Òjó, S. Ìwè Ìtàn Şaki àtí Şakí kejì. (Atoro Press, Òyó, n.d.).

———Ìwè Ìtàn Yorùbá Apa kini. (Òyó,. n.d.)

Orou, G. Origine de la Dynastie de Parakou. NA 66 (1955).

Oyèrindé, N.D. Ìwè Itàn Ògbómòsó. Jos, 1934.

Parrinder, E.G. The Story of Kétu: An Ancient Yorùbá Kingdom. 2nd ed. Ìbàdàn, 1967.

Sedolo, M.D. Considération sur la Guerre de Kétou Wòtó-tó. NA 57, 62 & 64 (1953-1954).

———Sur le Royaume de Kétou et ses origines. NA 66 avril (1955).

Tony, T. Origines et Fondations de Dassa. Filao. Cotonou, 1957.

Táíwò, M.K. Ìtàn Aiyétòrò àti Agbègbè rè (Adégbénró Press, Abéòkúta, 1950).

BOOKS

Abímbojá, Wándé. Ifá: An Exposition of Ifá Literary Corpus. (Ìbàdàn, OUP, 1976)

———Ìjìnlè Ohùn Ęnu Ifá 2 parts (Collins 1968 & 1969)

———Sixteen Great Poems of Ifá. (UNESCO, 1975)

———(ed.) Yorùbá Oral Tradition: Poetry in Music Dance and Drama.

(Ifè 1977).

Abraham, R.C. Dictionary of the Hausa Language (Stephen Austin, 1949).

———A Dictionary of Modern Yorùbá. (London, 1958)

Adédìran, ’Bíódún, Ǫlómólà. G.O.I, and Adébáyò, A.G. (eds) War and Peace in Yorubáland 1793-1893. (Ìbàdàn: Heinemann) forthcoming

Adédìran, ’Bíódún and Èkémǫdé, G.O. The Proceedings of the Conference on Yorùbá Civilisation. (Ilé-Ifè, 1976).

Adéjùyígbé, O. The Boundary Problems in Western Nigeria (University of Ifè Press, 1975).

Adéríbigbé, A.B. (ed.) Lagos: The Development of an African City. (Longman, Nigeria, 1975).

Àjàyí, J.F.A. and Crowder, M. History of West Africa2 Vols. (Longman 1974, 1975 & 1985)

Àjàyí, J.F.A. and Smith, R.S. Yorùbá Warfare in the Nineteenth Century. (Cambridge, 1964).

Akínjógbìn, I.A. Dahomey and Its Neighbours, 1708-1818. (Cambridge, 1967).

Akíntóyè, S.A. Revolution and Power Politics in Yorùbáland, 1840-1893 (Longmans, 1971).

Anene, J.C. The International Boundaries of Nigeria 1835-1860 The Framework of an Emergent Nation. (Longman, 1970).

Argyle, W.J. The Fon of Dahomey; History and Ethnography of the old Kingdom (Oxford, Clarendon, 1966).

Aşíwájú, A.I. Western Yorùbáland Under European Rule 1889-1945: A Comparative Analysis of French and British Colonialism. (Longman, 1976).

Àtàndá, J.A. The New Òyó Empire: Indirect Rule and Change in Western Nigeria 1894-1934. (Longman, 1973).

———An introduction to Yorùbá History, Ìbàdàn University Press, 1980.

Balandier, G. Political Anthropology. Translated by A.M. Sheridan Smith. (Pelican, 1972).

Barth, F. (ed.) Ethnic Groups and Boundaries: The Social Organisation of Culture Difference. (London, George and Unwin, 1970).

Bascom, W.R. The Yorùbá of South Western Nigeria. (New York, 1969).

Bíòbákú, S.O. The Ègbá and Their Neighbours. (OUP, 1957).

———The Origin of the Yorùbá. (Lagos, 1955).

———ed. Sources of Yorùbá History. (Oxford, Clarendon, 1973).

Blake, J.W. European Beginnings in West Africa 1454-78. (London, 1937).

Bowen, T.J. Adventures and Missionary Labours in Several Countries in the Interior of Africa from 1849-1856. (New York, 1857).

Brasseur-Marion and Brasseur, G. Porto Novo et sa Palmerie. Mémoires de L’IFAN No. 32 (Dakar, 1953).

Clapperton, H. Journal of a Second Expedition into the Interior of Africa from the Bight of Benin to Soccatto. (First published 1829, Frank Cass, 1966).

Cornevin, R. Histoire du Dahomey. (Paris, 1962).

——— Histoire du Togo. (Paris, 1969).

Crowder, M. Revolt in Bussa: A Study of British ‘Native’ Administration in Nigerian Borgu 1902-1935. (Faber, 1973).

Crowder, M. and Ikime, O. (eds) West African Chiefs: Their Changing Status under Colonial Rule and Independence. (University of Ifè, 1970).

Couchard, A. Notes Sur le Cercle de Savè. (Bordeaux, 1911).

Dazel, A. The History of Dahomey, An Inland Kingdom of Africa. (London, 1793).

Ellis, A.B. The Yorùbá Speaking Peoples of the Slave Coast of West Africa. (London, Curzon. Reprinted 1974).

Fádípè, N.A. The Sociology of the Yorùbá. (Ibadan, 1970).

Forde, D. The Yorùbá-Speaking Peoples of Southwestern Nigeria. (London, 1951).

Fortes, M.M. The Dynamics of Clanship Among the Tallensis. (Oxford, 1945).

Frobenius, Leo. The Voice of Africa: Being an Account of Travels of the German Inner Africa Exploration Expedition in the Years 1910-1912, 2 vols. (New York, 1968).

Gbàdàmóşí, T.G.O. The Growth of Islam Among the Yorùbá 1841-1908. (Longman, 1978).

Goody, J. Death, Property and Ancestors. (Standford, 1962).

———ed. Succession to High Office. (Cambridge, 1966).

———Technology, Tradition and the State in Africa. (Oxford, 1974).

Greenberg, J.H. The Languages of Africa, (Indiana, 1963).

Hallet, Robin, ed. The Niger Journal of Richard and John Lander. (Routhledge, London, 1965).

Henige, D.P. The Chronology of Oral Tradition: Quest for a Chimera? (Oxford, 1974).

Hodgkin, T. Nigerian Perspectives: An Historical Anthology. (Oxford, 1975).

Ìdòwú, Bólájí. Olódùmarè: God in Yorùbá Belief. (Longman, 1962).

Igué, O.J. and Ìrókò, F.A. Les Villes Yorùbá du Dahomey: L’Exemple de Kétou. (Cotonou, 1974).

Koelle, S.W. Polyglotta Africana: Or a Comparative Vocabulary of Nearly 300 words and Phrases in More than 100 Distinct African Languages. (First Published, 1853, CMS, London 1963).

Law, R.C.C. The Òyó Empire, C.1600-C.1836: A West African Imperialism in the Era of the Atlantic Slave Trade. (Clarendon, Oxford, 1977).

Levtzion, N. Muslims and Chiefs in West Africa: A Study of Islam in the Middle Volta Basin in the Pre-Colonial Period. (Oxford, 1968).

Lloyd, P.C. The Political Development of Yorùbá Kingdoms in the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries. (London, 1971).

———Yorùbá Land Law. (NISER, Oxford, 1962).

Lombard, J. Structures du Type ‘Féodal’ en Afrique Noire, Études des Dynamismes Internes et des Relations Sociales chez les Bariba du Dahomey. (Paris, 1965).

Lucas, O. The Religion of the Yorùbá. (CMS, Lagos, 1948).

Mábogùnjé, J.O. and Omer-Cooper, J. Òwu in Yorùbá History. (Ìbàdàn, 1971).

Manning, P. Slavery, Colonialism and Economic Growth in Dahomey 1640-1960. (Cambridge, 1982).

Manoukian, M. The Ewe-Speaking People of Togoland and the Gold Coast. (London, 1952).

Mercier, P. Cartes Ethno Démographiques de l’Ouest Africain No. 5. (IFAN, Dakar, 1954).

———Civilisation du Benin. (Paris, 1962).

Murdock, P. Africa, Its People and their Culture History. (Mc-Grawhill, New York, 1969).

Nadel, S.F. A Black Byzanthium: the kingdom of Nupe in Nigeria. (Oxford, 1942).

Newbury, C.W. The Western Slave Coast and Its Rulers. (Oxford, Clarendon, 1961).

Ògúntómisìn, G.O. Kúrunmí of Ìjàyè: A Political Biography of a Military Ruler in Yorùbáland in the mid-19th century (Lagos: John West, 1990).

Òjó, G.J.A. Yorùbá Culture: A Geographical Analysis. (University of Ifè and University of London, 1966).

——— Yorùbá Palaces: A Study of Àfins of Yorùbáland. (London, 1966).

Oliver, R. and Fagan, B. Africa in the Iron Age. (Cambridge, 1975).

Palau-Marti, M. Le Roi Dieu au Benin. (Paris, 1964).

Shaw, T. (ed.) Lectures on Nigerian Pre-History. (Ibadan, 1969)

Skinner, E.P. The Mossi of the Upper Volta. (Standford, 1964).

Smith, R.S. Kingdoms of the Yorùbá. (Methuen, 1969)

Vansina, J. Oral Tradition: A Study in Historical Methodology. Translated by H.M. Wright. (Penguin, 1965).

Vansina, J., Mauny, R. and Thomas, L.V. (eds.) The Historian in Tropical-Africa. (London, 1964).

Verger, P. Notes Sur le Culte des Orisa et Vodun à Bahia, La Bale de Tous les Saints au Brésil et à l’Ancienne Côte des Esclaves d’Afrique. (IFAN, Dakar, 1957).

———Trade Relations Between the Bight of Benin and Bahia in the 17th-19th Centuries. Translated by Evelyn Crawford. (Ìbàdàn, 1976).

Willet, F. Ifè in the History of West African Sculpture. (Thomas and Hudson, London, 1967).

ARTICLES

Adédìran, ’Bíódún. A descriptive analysis of Ifè palace organisation. African Historian 8 (1976) pp. 3-30.

——— Aspects of the political economy of western Yorubáland: A preliminary survey. Alóre: Ilorín Journal of the Humanities III (1987) pp. 58-79.

——— From constitutional troubles to civil war in Şábę: Internal crises in a 19th century Yorùbá community. Africana Marburgensia xviii/1 (1984) pp. 3-21.

——— Ìdáìşà: The making of a frontier Yorùbá state. Cahiers d’Études Africaines xxiv/1, 93 (1984) pp. 71-85.

———Ifè-Western Yorùbá dynastic links re-examined. Afrika-Zamani Nos 14 and 15, (1984) pp. 82-95.

———In search of identity: The eastern Yorùbá and the Odùduwá traditions. ODÙ No. 36, (July 1989) pp. 114-136.

———Islam and political crises in Kétu: A case study of the role of Muslims in a 19th century Yorùbá polity. Ifè Journal of Religions 3 (1984) pp. 3-18.

———Kings, traditions and chronology in Yorùbáland: The case of the Kétu Kingdom. Africa Zamani Nos. 18-19 (1987) pp. 74-87.

———Kinship and political authority in pre-colonial Yorùbá: The example of Şábę. In: Abórìşàdé, A. (ed.) The Role of Traditional Rulers in Nigeria. (University of Ifè Press, 1984) pp. 66-76.

———Research on pre-colonial western Yorùbáland: A note on source materials. Anthropos-Redaktion 80 (1985) pp. 545-554.

———State formation in Yorùbáland: A look at the traditions. Yorùbá: Journal of the Yorùbá Studies Association 4, 1982.

———State formation in Yorùbáland: Towards a working hypothesis. 1980/81 History Seminar Series, University of Ifè.

———The formation of Şábę kingdom in central Bénin Republic. Africana Marburgensia xvi/2, 1983, pp. 60-74.

———The Kétu Mission, 1853-1859: An abortive experiment by the C.M.S. in western Yorùbáland. Journal des Africanistes 56/1, 1986, pp. 89-103.

———The structure of administration of pre-colonial Ìdáìşà. Anthropos Redaktion 79, 1984, pp. 55-63.

———Yorùbá ethnic groups or a Yorùbá ethnic group: A review of the problem of ethnic identification. Africa: Revista do centro de Estudos Africanos da USP 7, 1984, pp. 57-70.

Adédìran, ’Bíódún and S.O. Arífálò. The religious festivals of Ifè. In: Akíhjógbìn I.A. (ed.) A Cradle of a Race: Ilé-Ifè, From the Beginning to 1980. (Port Harcourt: Sunray Publishers, 1992) pp. 305-317.

Adéjùyígbé, O. The allocation of ethnic frontiers in Nigeria: The example of Àkókó-Èdó Division. ODÙ 10 (July 1974), pp. 118-132.

Adépégba, C.O. The descent from Odùduwà: Claims of superiority among some Yorùbá traditional rulers and the arts of ancient Ifè. The International Journal of African Historical Studies 19:1, 1986.

Agírí, B.A. Early Òyó history reconsidered. History in Africa 2, (1975), pp. 1-16.

———The Ògbóni among the Òyó. LNR 3: ii (1972) pp. 50-59.

Àjàyí, J.F.A. How Yorùbá was reduced to writing. ODÙ 8, 1960, pp. 49-59.

———The aftermath of the fall of Old Òyó. In: Àjàyí, J.F.A. and Crowder, M. (eds.) History of West Africa II. London, 1974, pp. 129-166.

Àjàyí, J.F.A. and Samuel Johnson. Historian of the Yorùbá. Nigeria 81, June 1964, pp. 141-146.

Akínjógbìn, I.A. The concept of origin in Yorùbá history: the Ifè example. 1979/80, History Departmental Seminar, University of Ifè, pp. 65-80.

———Dahomey and Yorùbá in the nineteenth century. In: Anene, J.C. and Brown, G. (eds.) Africa in the 19th and 20th Centuries. (Nelson, 1966) pp. 255-269.

———The ębí system reconsidered. 1978/79 History Departmental Seminar, University of Ifè, pp. 1-25.

———The Expansion of Òyó and the Rise of Dahomey. In: Àjàyí, J.F.A. and Crowder, M. eds. History of West Africa vol.1, pp. 373-412.

———Ifé: The home of a new university. Nigeria 92 (1967) pp. 40-46.

———The Òyó Empire in the eighteenth century — A reassessment. JHSN 3:iii, Dec. 1966, pp. 449-460.

———The prelude to the Yorùbá civil wars of the nineteenth century. ODÙ i:ii (1965) pp. 24-46.

Akínjógbín, I. A. and O. Àyàndélé. Yorùbáland up to c. 1800. In: Ikime, O. (ed.) Groundwork of Nigerian History. Heinemann, 1980, pp. 121-143.

Akinǫlá, G.A. The origins of the Eweka dynasty: A study in the use and abuse of oral traditions. JHSN 8:iii (1976) pp. 21-36.

Akíntóyè, S.A. The north-eastern districts of the Yorùbá country and the Benin Kingdom. JHSN 4:iv (1969) pp. 539-553.

Alagoa, E.J. King-lists: Myths or history. LNR 5 (1974) pp. 31-35.

Amenumey, D.E.K. The problem of dating the accession of the Ewe people to their present habitat. In: Akínjógbín, I. A. and Èkémǫdé, G.O. (eds.) The Proceedings of the Conference on Yorbá Civilisation, pp. 133-153.

Anene, J.C. The eclipse of the Borgawa. JHSN 3:ii (1965) pp. 211-220.

———The Nigeria-Dahomey boundary. JHSN 2:iv (1963), pp. 479-85.

Anon. Native crowns. JAS 8, (April 1908) pp. 313-315.

Aşíwájú, A.I. The Alákétu of Kétu and the Onímèko of Mèko: The changing status of two Yorùbá rulers under French and British rule. In: Crowder, M. and Ikime, O. eds. West African Chiefs: Their Changing Status under Colonial Rule and Independence. pp. 134-160.

———The Aja-speaking peoples of Nigeria: A note on their origins, settlements and cultural adaptations up to 1945. Africa 49:i (1979) pp. 15-28.

———A note on the history of Şábę. LNR 4 (Jan., 1973) pp. 17-29.

———Political motivation and oral historical traditions in Africa: The case of the Yorùbá beaded crowns, 1900-1960. Africa 46:ii (1976) pp. 113-127.

Aşíwájú, A.I. and R. Law. From the Volta to the Niger, c 1600 to 1800. In: Àjàyí J.F.A. and Crowder, M. (eds.) History of West Africa vol. I, (Longman, 1988) pp. 412-464.

Àtàndá, J.A. The Ògbóni cult: Did it exist in Old Òyó? JHSN 6:iv (1973) pp. 365-372.

———Dahomean raids on Òkè-Ògùn towns, 1881-1890: An episode in 19th century Yorùbá-Dahomey relations. Historia III, April, 1966 pp. 1-12.

Awé, B., The Ìyálóde in the traditional Yorùbá political system. In: Schlagel, A. (ed.) Sexual Stratification: A Cross Cultural View. New York, 1977 pp. 341-349.

Babáyęmí, S.O. Upper Ògùn: A historical sketch. AN 6:ii, pp. 72-84.

Bascom, W. Les premiers fondements historique de l’urbanisme Yorùbá. Présence Africaine 23 (1959), pp. 22-40.

Beier, U. Before Odùduwà. ODÙ 3, pp. 25-32.

———The historical and psychological significance of Yorùbá myths. ODÙ 1, January 1955.

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