Version classiqueVersion mobile
OpenEdition Books

Atlas of Jordan

 | 
Myriam Ababsa

Chapter ten - Jordan Mega Projects for Water, Energy and Transportation

The Protection of Groundwater Reserves

Myriam Ababsa

Texte intégral

1Jordan consumed 900 Mm3 per year in 2010. 65% of this water, 500 Mm3, is used for agriculture (3% of GDP), 360 Mm3 by municipalities and 40 Mm3 by industry. Since 2002 the government has implemented a policy of tiered pricing by sector, but is having difficulties enforcing it in the agricultural sector, and illegal drilling of wells is on the rise in the highlands.

2The government has also begun to control more strictly the pumping of groundwater and pollution of groundwater reserves. Nationwide, groundwater resources are exploited at twice the rate of their replenishment [501 Mm3/year used in 2004 whereas renewable groundwater resources are estimated at 275 Mm3/year (THKJ, 2004)]. As a result of too many wells being drilled and excessive pumping, seven of the twelve basins are overexploited. 54 Mm3 are pumped every year from the Azraq basin to supply water to the city of Amman, whereas its safe yield is only 24 Mm3 (GTZ MWI 2008).

3In 1997, the Jordanian authorities adopted a new policy for water allocation; priority is now given to the urban sector, then to industry and tourism, and finally to agriculture (THKJ and MWI, 1997). Consequently, the amount of water allocated to irrigation of public land has been reduced, and By-law No.85 of 2002, amended in 2004, was passed to limit the amount of groundwater pumped by private farm wells, through the establishment of a quota and taxation system (Van Aken, Courcier, Venot and Molle, 2007) (table X.2). However, in Azraq the legal drilling of wells has increased since 2000 for intensive market-gardening projects in greenhouses and the overexploitation of the basin is continuing (fig. X.9 andX.10).

Table X.2 — Price of water based on the volume pumped from private farm wells.

Volume of water pumped

Price of water from wells with withdrawal authorisation

Decree of 2002

Price of water from wells with withdrawal authorisation

Amendment of 2004

Price of water from wells without withdrawal authorisation

0 to 100,000 m3

Free

Free

$0.035/m3

101,000 to 150,000 m3

$0.042/m3

151,000 to 200,000 m3

$0.035/m3

$0.007/m3

$0.05/m3

Over 200,000 m3

$0.085/m3

$0.085/m3

$0.098/m3

Source: THKJ and MWI 2002, 2004 : as stated in decree no. (85) of 2002

Figure X.9 — Jordan Groundwater Status and wells in 2005.

Figure X.9 — Jordan Groundwater Status and wells in 2005.

Venot 2009

Figure X.10 — Abstraction from Azraq Basin since 1983.

Figure X.10 — Abstraction from Azraq Basin since 1983.

Table des illustrations

Titre Figure X.9 — Jordan Groundwater Status and wells in 2005.
Crédits Venot 2009
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifpo/docannexe/image/5061/img-1.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 140k
Titre Figure X.10 — Abstraction from Azraq Basin since 1983.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifpo/docannexe/image/5061/img-2.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 77k

© Presses de l’Ifpo, 2013

Conditions d’utilisation : http://www.openedition.org/6540