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Atlas of Jordan

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Myriam Ababsa

Chapter eight - Social Disparities, Poverty Alleviation and Employment Policies

Jordan Adjusted Human Development

Myriam Ababsa

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Jordan Human Development Index (HDI) and Adjusted Human Development Index (IHDI)

1In 1990, the United Nations Development Programme designed a Human Development Index composed of life expectancy at birth, level of education and gross domestic product (GDP) per capita. In 2011, the UNDP ranked Jordan 95th out of 187 countries with a human development index of 0.698, up from 0.591 in 1990, making it the leading medium-range country for human development (fig. VIII.1). In 2010, the inequality adjusted human development index (IHDI) was introduced globally for the first time. It represents the true level of development, since the HDI is now only considered to be an indicator of potential development. Jordan’s IHDI index is only 0.565, a 19% drop due to internal inequalities for each index. This is due less to life expectancy at birth (which drops by 13.1%), than to inequalities in education (which lower the index by 22.4%) and to inequalities of income (which lower the index by 21.1%). Note that inequalities are higher for all Arab countries with a difference between the HDI and IHDI of 26.4% (UNDP, JDHR explanatory note 2011).

Figure VIII.1 — Human Development Index: Ranks of the main Arab countries in 2010 (World Databank 2011).

Figure VIII.1 — Human Development Index: Ranks of the main Arab countries in 2010 (World Databank 2011).

2Life expectancy at birth in Jordan is continually improving. It stood at 73.4 years in 2011, up from 72 years in 2000, 70.4 in 1990 and 67 in 1980. Jordan has a very good student enrolment at 97.6% (up from 86.7% in 1990). As a result, illiteracy in over 15 year-olds dropped to 7.8% in 2008 (compared to 17% in 1990 and 68% in 1961). It has been eradicated for 15-24 year-olds (0.9%), and now only affects the elderly, especially rural women in Ma‘an, Wadi Rum, Wadi Araba and near Mafraq (fig. VIII.2). The highest rates of population with only elementary education are located in rural districts in the south (Tafila, Ma‘an and Wadi Musa) (fig. VIII.3). Note that the top graduates are in the urbanized districts in west Amman, Irbid and Kerak. This is due to university quotas that favour children from military families and students from rural areas with predominantly Transjordanian populations, and Kerak is a region where military recruitment is common (fig. VIII.4).

Figure VIII.2 — Illiteracy rate in 2008 by subdistrict (caza).

Figure VIII.2 — Illiteracy rate in 2008 by subdistrict (caza).

Figure VIII.3 — Percentage of persons with preparatory education in 2008 by subdistrict (caza).

Figure VIII.3 — Percentage of persons with preparatory education in 2008 by subdistrict (caza).

Figure VIII.4 — Percentage of persons with high education in 2008 by subdistrict (caza).

Figure VIII.4 — Percentage of persons with high education in 2008 by subdistrict (caza).

Table des illustrations

Titre Figure VIII.1 — Human Development Index: Ranks of the main Arab countries in 2010 (World Databank 2011).
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifpo/docannexe/image/5035/img-1.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 68k
Titre Figure VIII.2 — Illiteracy rate in 2008 by subdistrict (caza).
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifpo/docannexe/image/5035/img-2.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 160k
Titre Figure VIII.3 — Percentage of persons with preparatory education in 2008 by subdistrict (caza).
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifpo/docannexe/image/5035/img-3.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 160k
Titre Figure VIII.4 — Percentage of persons with high education in 2008 by subdistrict (caza).
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifpo/docannexe/image/5035/img-4.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 150k

© Presses de l’Ifpo, 2013

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