Version classiqueVersion mobile

Contribution to the History of the Wheeled Vehicle in India

 | 
Jean Deloche

II. Carriages in Indian Iconography

Texte intégral

Introduction

  • 26 To avoid confusion, in this study, cart is used for two-wheeled vehicles; wagon for those with fou (...)
  • 27 Chandra Moti 1953 (ills. 24, 28, 29–38), has collected some representations of vehicles in archaeo (...)

1To document the history of carriages in India is not an easy task.26 A few studies of value have been written on the subject for the ancient period,27 but a critical analysis pertaining to a longer period in order to provide a clear picture of the development of transport vehicles remains a desideratum.

Sources for the Ancient Period

Vehicles in Classical Literature

  • 28 See Vedic Index, vol. II, 201–3, s. v. ratha; vol. I, 21–22, s.v. anas.
  • 29 Mayamata, XXXI, 29–57; Kāmika, II, 78, 1–88; Mānasāra, XLIII; Iśānaśiva, XLVIII, 64b–82. See Achar (...)
  • 30 Obviously the vehicles they refer to are used in connection with rituals, as said in the Mayamata (...)

2There are references to vehicles in classical literature. In the Ṛgveda, a detailed description of the war chariot is found.28 The Sanskrit technical treatises29 mention (two-wheeled?) vehicles, indicating the size of most of their component parts, which are apparently ceremonial carts.30

3Classical texts often refer to various vehicles, but usually they don’t describe them and the classifications they suggest are conventional.

  • 31 Arthaśāstra 1963, Part II, p. 207.
  • 32 Agrawala 1963, p. 149.
  • 33 Aśvaratha, uṣṭraratha, gardabharatha, goyānam, hatthīyānam, ajayānam, meṇḍakayānam (Puri 1957, p. (...)

4In the Arthaśāstra, the types of vehicles are distinguished by their size (small, medium and big);31 Panini, on the occasion of grammatical examples, classifies them according to the goods they carry;32 Patanjali and others, according to the draught animal species used (horses, camels, donkeys, oxen, elephants, goats and rams).33

  • 34 Perumpāṇāṟṟuppaṭai, 46–82 and Ciṟupānāṟṟuppaṭai 250–60, quoted by Singaravelu 1966, pp. 62–63.

5However, we can mention the suggestive sketches found in certain Tamil texts which refer to slender spokes, fastened to big axles, or slim spokes which look like the rays of the moon with well-decorated hubs,34 or bars radiating from the hub, similar to the present fine wheels of the carts in the Tamil country.

6But, on the structure of country carts, the written sources provide little information.

Archaeology

7The most precise information we can collect, though fragmentary, is supplied by archaeology: a few objects found in protohistoric sites of the Indus valley; some carvings decorating Buddhist monuments dating from the Christian era or found in Medieval temples, to which should be added paintings from a more recent period.

8In these documents, war chariots, ceremonial or racing chariots, are well represented, particularly for the protohistoric period, but country carts are also depicted. They often appear in the development of certain themes in which they are the subject of composition, such as merchants and pilgrims in Buddhist monuments, the episode of the overturned cart (śakaṭa-bhaṅga) in the Krishna legend, shown in ancient carvings (4th–8th c.) and Rajput miniatures, procession scenes in Jain paintings and carvings (11th–16th c.) and daily life events in Mughal miniatures.

9Unfortunately we don’t have a systematic survey of representations of vehicles in monuments at our disposal, particularly in the Medieval temples of Central India.

  • 35 Mackay 1943, p. 164.
  • 36 Vats 1940, p. 451.
  • 37 Smith 1901, p. 22 and pl. XV.

10It is of greater concern that it is not easy to give an accurate interpretation of this scanty documentation. Some explanations are fanciful. Mackay35 thinks that the small copper toy cart found at Chanhu Daro resembles the ekkā of modern India. Vats36 considers that a toy cart found at Harappa is a prototype of a bahal. For Smith,37 Mathura vehicles are similar to the cīkkiram (shigram).

11It is unnecessary to play comparison games, because the outward appearance of two-wheeled vehicles is almost the same; but the learned authors have forgotten that the solid wheels represented in the documents quoted above are different from the radially spoked wheels of the modern vehicles they mention, and that the ekkā and cīkkiram are provided with a pair of shafts instead of the draught-poles of the ancient vehicles.

12Stylised details of sculptures can also be identified in different manners. Here is a significant example of this process: Sanchi chariots (fig. VIII, b & c).

  • 38 Mitra 1881, vol. I, pp. 340–341.
  • 39 Needham 1965, vol. IV, 2, p. 317.
  • 40 Ibid., p. 271 ng.

13Most of the archaeologists, when looking at the Sanchi war chariot, see a strap tied to the tail of the horse. Mitra,38 however, thinks that this interpretation is wrong, that what is taken for the tail of the animal is in fact a shaft; he therefore considers that the Sanchi specimens ‘have three or rather a long pole in the middle and two short shafts on the sides’. Needham39 suggests that this could be a similar system to the Chinese harnessing. The same author40 finds that a cart represented in a basrelief of Mount Abu (Divalda temple) surprisingly resembles a Korean litter, though it is drawn by a horse.

14Evidently if there are several ways of interpreting a small sculptured detail, it is because of the inadequacy of our knowledge on carriages and the complexity of the subject.

1. Wheeled Vehicles in the Protohistoric Period

15Wheeled vehicles were in use in the 3rd millennium B. C. in the Indus Valley as shown by the considerable amount of model carts which were found in excavations of Harappan sites and also by the presence of chariots in early rock paintings.

  • 41 These terms are synonyms for the Harappan culture and the period preceding the Mauryan Empire betw (...)

16Excavations have not revealed remains or parts of actual wheeled vehicles since they were made of perishable materials, but a large number of miniature carriages made of clay, bronze or copper have been reported from a number of sites for the prehistoric or chalcolithic period41 and early historic times.

A. Miniature Wheeled Carts from Protohistoric Times

  • 42 See Marshall 1931, vol. II, p. 554, vol. III, pl. CLIV, 7, 10, 11; Vats 1940, vol. I, pp. 99, 451, (...)

17The earliest toy carts made of terracotta have been reported from Mohanjo Daro, Harappa, Chanhu Daro, Lothal and Kalibangan (fig. V, a, b, c, g, h).42 They give an insight into the technique of their manufacture and use.

18They are found in several shapes and patterns. In the most common variety, the underframe of the cart is made of two longitudinal and three transversal bars; it has four vertically pierced holes on each side, probably meant to fix poles for panelled sides (fig. V, b, g); sometimes, the vertical poles on the sides are strung with horizontal bamboo screen or wickerwork (fig. V, c).

  • 43 In certain representations, however, both sides of the wheel are convex, or some wheels are plain (...)
  • 44 Marshall 1931, vol. II, p. 554.

19As shown in Chanhu Daro, the wheels are made of three solid pieces of wood that are securely fastened together; the projecting hub is in the middle (fig. V, a).43 We don’t know whether the wheels rotated on a fixed axle or were fixed to an axle that revolved with them, as seen on the modern Sindhi cart.44 We are also unaware of how the pole was fixed to the frame of the vehicle.

  • 45 Vats 1940, vol. II, pl. CXXV, fig. 35; A. S. R. 1926–7, pl. XXIII, fig. d; Mackay 1943, pl. LVIII, (...)
  • 46 Dawn of Civilisation 1975, pl. 46, p. 41.

20Two fragmentary miniature copper carts covered with a roof (unfortunately the pole, axle and wheels are missing) have been found at Harappa and Chanhu Daro45 (fig. V, e) and, in Maharashtra, at Daimabad,46 a well-preserved cart made of bronze and drawn by two oxen (see fig. V, d) was unearthed; to this should be added, at Inamgaon, a chariot is depicted on a shard (fig. V, f).

21On the three previously mentioned metal toy carts, there are two bearings over which the platform is fastened and the traction is relayed via the pole and platform. Obviously inside these bearings the axle is rotating and the wheels are set directly into it.

22It is significant that all the miniature carts dating from protohistoric times are provided with solid wheels.

B. Wheeled Vehicles Depicted in Rock Paintings47

  • 47 Our analysis is mainly based on Neumayer 1993, pp. 157–169, 211, figs. 411–428.

23Most of the vehicle representations of the chalcolithic period in rock paintings appear in the highly stylistic pictures of this period: they are exceedingly schematic, so much so that it is difficult to identify the draught animals and to distinguish the construction details of the vehicles.

Fig. V. Miniature wheeled carts from protohistoric times: a, c, terracotta toy carts found at Chanhu Daro (rep. from Mackay 1943, pl. LVIII); b, terracotta toy cart found at Lothal (rep. from Rao 1952, Lalit Kala, No. 11 pl. XVI, fig. 52); d, bronze toy cart found at Daimabad (rep. from Dawn of Civilisation in Maharashtra, pl. 46); e, copper toy cart found at Harappa (rep. from A.S.R., 1926–7, pl. XXIII, d.); f, shard found at Inamgaon (rep. from Dawn of Civilisation in Maharashtra, pl. 41); g, terracotta toy cart found at Mohanjo Daro, and h, Sindh country cart (rep. from Marshall 1931, vol. III, pl. Cliv, 10–11).

  • 48 According to Neumayer 1983, p. 31.

24The animals are never drawn in sufficient detail for us to determine their species; the hump seen in a few of them indicates that they are cattle, but, for almost all of them, the absence of horns would suggest that the chariot animals are horses (fig. VI, a).48

25Additionally, the rendering of technical features is frequently inaccurate: in a number of chariots there is no superstructure and draught animals are only connected with the charioteer by the reins! (fig. VI, b, c).

26While clay carts consist of a rectangular frame connected by the central pole-shaft to the yoke of the animals, the vehicles depicted in rock art usually consist of a roughly triangular frame with draught animals brought in pairs or in double pairs under a straight yoke connected to the wheeled parts of the chariot by a pole (fig. VI, a-e).

27Most of these vehicles are lightweight vehicles that are suitable for high speed: they are made of an axle with a spoked wheel on either side of a platform on which the charioteer can stand (fig. VI, d, e). They are clearly depicted as chariots and not as bullock carts.

28There is a single depiction of a cart with solid wheels (fig. VI, f) which resembles the miniature carts found in the Harappan region, particularly the Inamgaon bullock cart (fig. V, f).

  • 49 Neumayer 1983, p. 36; 1993, p. 211.

29In historic rock paintings, on the other hand, surprisingly, chariots are not depicted and bullock carts are extremely rare.49

30These representations present us with a difficult problem since the paintings cannot be correlated with archaeologically known facts: most of the miniature wheeled carts of the chalcolithic age are shown with solid wheels, while most of the carriages represented in rock paintings of the same period are depicted with spoked wheels and, to crown it all, chariots with spoked wheels, abundantly depicted in the reliefs of the early historic period (as seen infra), are virtually absent in paintings of that time. The chronological position of the early Indian cart is therefore puzzling.

31If the periodisation is supported by a chronological framework based on the thematic analysis of the pictures, and if the cart has been depicted within the framework of a specific cultural context, we should find some connection between toy carts and vehicles depicted on rock. Are there any shortcomings in the dating of rock pictures? Or rather do the paintings have a mythological content unknown to us?

Fig. VI. Wheeled vehicles depicted in rock paintings: a, Urden; b, Kathotia; c, Putli Karar; d, Pahargarh; e, Chatur Bhoj Nath Nulla; f, Koppagallu (repr. from Neumayer 1993, figs. 412, 409, 408, 411, 419, 452).

2. Wheeled Vehicles in the Early Historic Period

A. Miniature Wheeled Carts from the Early Historic Period

32Cart models in metal or terracotta of the early historic period (circa 300 B.C. to A.D. 300) have been reported from a number of sites, predominantly showing radially spoked wheels (fig. VII).

  • 50 Marshall 1951, vol. II, pp. 452, 602–603, vol. III, pl. 134, No. 60, pl. 185, i, = 391.

33At Sirkap (fig. VII, a), a terracotta cart made of a simple chassis mounted on its axle and a copper toy cart, which appears to be a light racing chariot with spoked wheels, were found.50

  • 51 Khandalawala 1960, pp. 66–67 and pl. XX, figs. 32 & 33.

34In the Kolhapur Museum are two magnificent copper toy carts from Brahmapuri giving a faithful representation of covered carriages (fig. VII, b, c).51

  • 52 I.A.R. 1962–3, p. 35 and pl. LXVII, A.

35From Atranjikera52 comes a fine model toy cart in terracotta with two welldesigned spoked wheels (fig. VII, d).

  • 53 Puri 1971, pp. 44–45 and pl. XXII, 6, 7, 8.

36Finally, at Rairh, two well-preserved models of chariots in bronze and a couple of wheels of the same material (fig. VII, e, f, g) give a good impression of this type of vehicle: one is provided with sloping sides, the other is provided with curved mudguards; the wheels are fitted to an axle which passed through the rings provided beneath the body.53

  • 54 Other sites: Tilaurakot, Champa, Bangarh, Rajghat, Kausambi, Chandraketugarh, etc. (see Margabandh (...)

37Similar types of miniature vehicles have been reported at various other sites, some with solid wheels.54

38It is a matter of speculation whether the presence of the spoked wheel in these representations is connected to the more common use of the horse as a draught animal. Probably the wheels of these light vehicles had spokes which rotated on a fixed axle with hubs held in place by lynchpins.

B. Carts with Radially Spoked Wheels Depicted in Stone Reliefs from the Early Historic Period

  • 55 See the two articles by Gode: The Indian Bullock-Cart: its Prehistoric and Vedic Ancestors and Car (...)

39Clay carts and rock painted carts are very poor documents compared to the clear, detailed, precise, faithful representations of wheeled vehicles found on the stone reliefs of the religious monuments of the early historic period.55 Evidently, these carvings show that the replacement of oxen by horses and the substitution of spokes for solid wheels revolutionised warfare, ceremonial marching and racing.

Fig. VII. Miniature wheeled carts from the early historic period (circa 300 B.C.–300 A.D.): a, copper toy cart found at Sirkap (Taxila) (rep. from Marshall 1951 vol. III, pl. 185, i); b, c, copper toy cart found at Brahmapuri (rep. from Khandalavala, Lalit Kala, No. 7, 1960, pl. XX, figs. 32 & 33); d, terracotta toy cart found at Atranjikhera (rep. from I.A.R., 1962–3, pl. LXVII, A); e, f, g, bronze toy carts found at Rairh (rep. from Puri 1971, pl. XXII, 6, 7).

a) War and Processional Chariots

  • 56 Kangle 1963, p. 207.
  • 57 Stupa of Bharhut (2nd c. B. C.); see Barua 1934, book III, pls. L, p. 52, XC, p. 134.
  • 58 Relief on a pillar of Besnagar preserved at the National Museum, New Delhi (2nd c. B.C.; see Szela (...)
  • 59 Stupa of Sanchi (late 1st c. B.C.–late 1st c. A.D.); see Maisey 1892, pl. XV, 11, 12, pl. XXXVI, 1 (...)
  • 60 Terracotta medallion found at Bhita (late 1st c. B.C.); see A.S.R. 1911–12, Part II, pl. XXIV.
  • 61 Stupa of Amaravati (2nd c. B.C.), bas-relief preserved at the Madras Museum; see Sivaramamurti 194 (...)
  • 62 Terracotta plate found at Mahasthan (2nd c. B.C.–1st c. A.D.); see Nazimuddin Ahmed 1964, pp. 47–4 (...)
  • 63 Terracotta medallion found at Pataliputra, preserved at the Patna Museum (Mauryan period); see Pan (...)
  • 64 Stupa of Bodhgaya (1st c. B.C.), vedikā; see Pandey 1971, pl. 5.
  • 65 Small vihāra found at Bhaja (1st c. B.C.); see Pandey 1971, pl. 6.
  • 66 Terracotta plate found at Ahichchatra, preserved at the National Museum, New Delhi (middle 5th c. (...)

40War and processional chariots (called saṅgrāmika or pusyaratha in the Arthaśāstra)56 are abundantly represented in battle or ceremonial scenes between the 1st century B.C. and the 2nd century A.D. at Bharhut,57 Besnagar,58 Sanchi,59 Bhita,60 Amaravati,61 Mahasthan,62 as well as in the representations of Surya at Pataliputra,63 Bodhgaya,64 Bhaja,65 and in a carving of the 5th century at Ahichchatra.66

41This type of vehicle consisted of bodywork, open at the back, forming a screen in front, made of three rounded lobes, resting on a fixed axle at the extremities of which wheels rotated with between 12 and 32 spokes, secured by lynchpins. At the bottom of the chassis, a curved-shaped long central draught-pole was fixed, to which the yoke, a simple wooden bar, was secured by woven leather thongs.

42Horses were yoked on either side of the pole and controlled by the reins; the yoke rested on the withers of the horse through a kind of pack saddle which was fixed to a leather band that surrounded the chest of the animal, to which should be added a kind of girth and a tail strap (fig. VIII, b-f).

Fig. VIII. War and processional chariots, after the ṚgVeda and the bas-reliefs of Sanchi: a, ṚgVeda chariot (reconstruction by Piggott 1962, p. 280); b, Sanchi chariot (1st c. A.D.), stupa I, after Maisey 1892, pl. XV, 12; c, same motif as seen by Mitra 1881, vol. 1, p. 340, No. 167; d, e, f, Sanchi, stupa I (rep. from Maisey 1892, pl. XV, p. 11. pl. XXXVI, p. 12, 13). Note, in a, how Piggott has interpreted the literary sources (swingle tree and traces), in c, how Mitra has interpreted the archaeological sources (short side shafts).

  • 67 See Foucher 1905, vol. I, pp. 311–3, figs. 158 (b), 159, 160; Ingholt 1957, pl. 174.

43In Gandharan art, however, representations of light horse-drawn vehicles made of a simple platform or a square box are seen.67

44There is still some misunderstanding regarding the traction of the chariot.

  • 68 Mitra 1881, vol. I, pp. 340–341.
  • 69 It is surprising to note that Gode 1960, vol. II, p. 128 n. 3, after Mitra, has written: ‘The Sanc (...)

45Mitra68, as said supra, looking at the Sanchi chariot (fig. VIII, b, c), considers that, on each side of the chariot, there is a short shaft, whereas it is the tail of the animal tied to a leather strap.69

  • 70 See Vedic Index, vol. II, pp. 201–207.
  • 71 The chariot (ratha) had a body (kośa) consisting of panels (ratha-śīrṣa), probably made of leather (...)
  • 72 Experts do not agree on this point and the commentators remain rather vague (see Gode 1960, vol. I (...)

46The reconstruction of the Vedic chariot, described in detail in the ṚgVeda, is conjectural.70 Piggott, however, tried to interpret the meaning of the technical vocabulary of the text71 (fig. VIII, a). The reconstituted vehicle appears to have been built on the same principle as the light chariots shown in the carvings, but he assumes that there was a swingle tree in front of the vehicle to which traces were fastened on the outer sides curving upward,72 a fact which is not confirmed by the iconographic sources.

  • 73 Chakravarty 1941, pp. 25–26.

47This light vehicle is rarely represented after the 2nd c. A.D.; it means that this vehicle, which played a prominent part in warfare, had gradually declined and finally gone out of use in Harsha’s time.73

b) Farm Carts with Radially Spoked Wheels

48In the narrative scenes depicted on stone of this period, a number of farm carts are shown with two spoked wheels, open or covered, with or without traction-harness, most of them being travelling carriages, which are of exceptional interest.

  • 74 Stupa of Bharhut (2nd c. B.C.), medallions; see Barua 1934, book III, pls. XLV, 45, LXIX, 86.
  • 75 Bas-relief of Takht-i-Bahi (middle of the 1st c. A.D.); see A.S.R. 1907–8, pl. XLV.
  • 76 Stupa of Sanchi (end of the 1st c. B.C.), south gate; see Marshall & Foucher 1940, vol. II, pl. XI (...)
  • 77 Stupa of Amaravati (end of the 1st c. B.C.– end of the 2nd c. A.D.), frieze preserved in the Madra (...)
  • 78 Fragment of a carved pediment of Mathura (2nd c. A.D.) preserved at the National Museum, New Delhi (...)
  • 79 Bas-relief of Sannathi (1st–2nd c. A.D.); see Seshadri 1972, pl. 13.
  • 80 Carved stone of Belvadigi (3rd c. A.D.); see Ramesh 1967, pp. 131–133, pl. f.p. 132.
  • 81 Relief of a vedikā from Goli (3rd c. A.D.), preserved in the Madras Museum; see Ramachandran 1929, (...)

49They are found at Bharhut,74 Takht-i-Bahi,75 Sanchi,76 Amaravati,77 Mathura,78 Sannathi,79 Belvadigi80 and Goli.81

50All the draught animals are yoked on either side of a pole; some are horses (fig. IX, b, d) but most of them are bullocks (fig. IX, a, c, e-h; fig. X, a, c-g).

51The body of some of these vehicles is a simple flat platform of wood (fig. IX, g, h) or a box-like shell (fig. X, d); most of them have panelled sides, either planks (fig. IX, a-d; fig. X, a, b, f, g) with slight staves or pieces of wood supporting a roof (fig. IX, a, c-e; fig. X, f) or a fabric, possibly leather, over a wooden frame (fig. X, a-c, f), or a side screen of woven leather strips (fig. IX, f).

52In the case of the Mathura carts (see fig. IX, a-d), we can’t explain the function of the longitudinal element fixed under the platform which evokes a system of suspension. Is it an arched body made of supple bamboo pieces? The draught-pole is often shown as a long, thick piece of wood (see fig. X, f, g), and as a strongly built triangle to which the yoke is tied (fig. IX, g, h; fig. X, d).

53Regarding traction-harness and yoke, certain representations, particularly of unyoked animals give us significant details. The animals are used in pairs. The harness is very simple: the neck of the animal is attached to the yoke (fig. IX, g, h; fig. X, c, d); the yoke consists of a round beam tapered and rounded at the ends; on either side from the centre the yoke is bored, and round tapered wooden sections are inserted, projecting downwards at right angles (fig. IX, g, h; fig. X, d, e); a strap is put around the necks of the animals and is attached to the two pegs at the yoke ends; and a rope attached through the nostril to the forehead is used for control (fig. IX, a, c, g).

Fig. IX. Farm carts represented in Buddhist monuments (A): a, b, c, d, at Mathura (2nd c. A.D.), fragments (rep. from Smith 1901, pls. XV, XX, XIX, and Vogel 1930, pls. VIII, a & b, LVII, a & b); e, at Sanchi (end of the 1st c. B.C.), south gate of stupa I (rep. from Marshall & Foucher 1940, vol. II, pl. XIX, c); f, at Takht-i-Bahi (middle of the 1st c. A.D.), bas-relief (rep. from A.S.R., 1907–8, pl. XLV, a); g, h, at Bharhut (2nd c. B.C.), medallions (rep. from Barua 1934, book III, pls. XLV, 45, LXIX, 86).

Fig. X. Farm carts represented in Buddhist monuments (B): a, b, at Goli (3rd c. A.D.), relief of a vedikā (rep. from Ramachandran 1929, pl. V, C, D); c, d, e, at Amaravati (end of the 1st c. B.C.–end of the 2nd c. A.D.), reliefs (rep. from Sivaramamurti 1942, pl. X, fig. 19; after a photo of IFP-EFEO, No. 1843–7; Burgess 1887, pl. XXXII, fig. 2); f, at Belvadigi (3rd c. A.D.), carved stone (rep. from Ramesh 1967, f.p. 132); g, at Sannathi (1st c.–2nd c. A.D.), bas-relief (rep. from Seshadri 1972, pl. 13); h, map showing the location of the Buddhist monuments.

  • 82 The existence of iron bands is attested by the texts (see Gode 1960, vol. I, p. 126 n. 1).

54On the morphology of the radially spoked wheels, we can gather more details because they are sometimes clearly shown. The wheel is a circular disc with a felloe made of several parts, probably bound with an iron tyre;82 the hub is protuberant; the spokes are mortised into the hub and mortised or dowelled into the felloe; their number varies according to the site: from 14 to 16 at Bharhut, from 14 to 24 at Mathura, 24 at Sanchi and 28 at Amaravati.

  • 83 See L.A.M.B.O., p. 101 and photo, fig. 68; Patna Museum 1965, p. 350 and pl. LVIII.

55It is interesting to note that in Bihar at Bulandi Bagh (Pataliputra), a wheel dating from the Mauryas has been found and preserved in the Patna Museum.83 Its diameter is 1.20 m, its felloe, made of several sections is thin, its hub is bound with three small iron rings; there are 24 slender spokes as in the Sanchi cart. It looks like the Puri cart of today (see photos 49–50), though it has double the number of spokes.

56Thus, the wheels of the ancient vehicles had more spokes than those of the modern bullock carts.

3. Wheeled Vehicles in Peninsular India (7th c.–13th c.)

A. Farm Carts with Solid Wheels

  • 84 See Census of India, 1961, Part XI-V, Temples of Madras State, vol. V, f.p. 408.
  • 85 Several representations are found in the temples of Papanatha, Virupaksa and Mallikarjuna; they ar (...)
  • 86 See Deloche 1981, pp. 11–20 and pls. I-XVIII.

57Solid wheels don’t appear on Buddhist monuments. However, they have an important place in the narrative scenes of peninsular India of a later period (fig. XI, a-h).84 In Karnataka, particularly at Pattadakal (8th c.)85 and in Hoysala sites such as Amritapura, Halebid and Somanathapura (12th–13th c.),86 war or ceremonial vehicles with two or four wheels drawn by horses (fig. XVIII, a, b, c, g, h, i) can be observed, and we marvel at seeing carriages which are supposed to be light vehicles with solid wheels!

  • 87 Vishnu temple at Badami (śakaṭa-bhaṅga): this frieze is shown in Szelagowski 1974, pl. 84, 2.
  • 88 Lakshmana temple of Khajuraho (śakaṭa-bhaṅga); see Banerjee 1978, fig. 37; Jain temple in the same (...)
  • 89 Reproduction in Ann. Rep. of the Arch. Dep. of his Exalted Highness the Nizam’s Dominions 1929–30,(...)
  • 90 See Deloche 1981, pp. 14–15, pls. VI–IX, XII–XIII.
  • 91 See Gangoli 1956, photo 76.
  • 92 See Census of India, 1961, Part XI-V, Temples of Madras State, vol. V, f.p. 408.

58Depictions of bullock carts are not as common. We found one in a frieze of a temple in Badami (8th c.),87 two in panels at Khajuraho (10th–11th c.),88 one on a wall of Raychur fort, and one in the doab of the Krishna and Tungabhadra rivers, dated 1294;89 other representations are found in the Hoysala temples (13th c.) of Amritapura and Somanathapura90 on the Karnataka plateau; finally, in bas-reliefs from the Konarak temple (13th c.)91 and in Tirukkurunkudi temple in the south of the Tamil country.92

Fig. XI. Farm carts with solid wheels in the historic period (peninsular India): a, Vishnu temple at Badami (7th c.) (rep. from Szelagowski 1974, pl. 85–2); b, Laksmana temple at Khajuraho (10th c.) (rep. from Banerjee 1978, fig. 37); c, Jain temple at Khajuraho (11th c.?) (rep. from Prakash 1967, pl. XXII, fig. 21); d, f, Kesava temple at Somanathapura (13th c.); e, Amritesvara temple at Amritapura (13th c.); g, Sri Alakiyanampiraya temple at Tirukkurunkudi (16th c.); h, Sun temple at Konarak (13th c.); i, Mysore cart at the beginning of the 19th c. (after a drawing by Buchanan 1870, vol. I, pl. V, fig. 11, f.p. 83); (d, e, f, g, after photos by IFP-EFEO, Nos. 7443–5, 7431–6, 7446–10, 862–4; h, after photo by L’Hernault).

  • 93 See Deloche 1981, pp. 16–18, and particularly the vivid photographs in Deloche 1989, pls. XXXIII–X (...)

59We assume that the wheels of these vehicles are in wood, but it is likely that, at least for the Mysore plateau and surroundings, the wheels were in stone. If we compare the wheels of the vehicles represented in the temples of Karnataka with the stone wheels of the temple chariots and even farm carts of this region, we are struck by the similarity in the decoration of the wheels (fig. XVIII and photos 3–4, 75–80).93

B. Carts with Radially Spoked Wheels

60After the Gupta period, we find, in plastic art, representations of war or parade scenes in which vehicles with a body similar to the bullock carts, but drawn by horses, are also shown.

a) Bullock Carts

  • 94 Gate pillar (4th c.–5th c.) from Mandor (śakaṭa-bhaṅga), in Jodhpur Museum; see Banerjee 1978, fig (...)
  • 95 Relief from Devagarh (5th c.) (śakaṭa-bhaṅga), in National Museum, New Delhi; see ibid., fig. 36.
  • 96 Painting from Ajanta (end of 5th c.–6th c.), caves XVI and XVII; see Yazdani 1930–55, Part III, pl (...)
  • 97 Bas-relief from Badami (end of 6th c.–beginning of 7th c.), cave II; see Banerji 1928, pl. XII, c.
  • 98 Frieze from the Kasivisvanatha temple of Pattadakal (circa 600) (śakaṭa-bhaṅga); see Banerji 1928, (...)

61Bullock carts are depicted in some sites dating from the 5th to the 7th century at Mandor,94 Devagarh,95 Ajanta,96 Badami97 and Pattadakal98 (fig. XII).

62The first two figures show a vehicle with low wheels and a long body made of planks or panelled sides (fig. XII, a, b); the third one is covered with a cloth or leather awning (fig. XII, c); the fifth consists of a simple platform (fig. XII, e) while the fourth is a plank construction (fig. XII, d) similar to the horse carriages presented infra.

Fig. XII. Bullock carts with radially spoked wheels in peninsular India (5th–8th c.): a, pillar of Mandor (4th–5th c.) (rep. from Banerjee 1978, fig. 9); b, bas-relief of Devagar (5th c.) (rep. from ibid., fig. 36); c, cave XVII of Ajanta (end of 5th–6th c.) (rep. from Yazdani 1930-55, part IV, pls. VI [a] and VII [a]); d, cave II of Badami (end of 6th c.) (rep. from Banerji 1928, pl. XII, c); e, Kasivisvanatha temple of Pattadakal (circa 600) (rep. from Banerji 1928, fig. 14).

b) Horse Carriages

  • 99 Cave XVII of Ajanta (end of 5th c.–6th c.): painting; see Yazdani 1930–55, Part IV, pl. XXVIII; ca (...)
  • 100 Frieze of cave III of Badami (end of 6th c.); see Banerji 1928, pl. XXIV, a.
  • 101 This site is particularly rich in representations of horse carriages: one in Kasivisvanatha temple (...)
  • 102 Kailasanatha temple of Ellora (circa 750–850), carved panels; see Gupte and Mahajan 1962, pl. XCIX (...)
  • 103 Kesava temple of Belur (13th c.); Hoysala sculptors have abundantly represented horse carriages, b (...)

63Carts drawn by horses are also represented for the same period at Ajanta,99 Badami,100 Pattadakal101 and Ellora,102 as well as at a later monument, Belur103 (fig. XIII).

64In these depictions the traction-harness and the draught-pole are rarely seen, except at Pattadakal, in the Papanatha temple, where two representations of a curved draught-pole are found (fig. XIII, d), and the body and the wheels are clearly represented. They are light two-wheeled open carts for passengers, with a rectangular body closed by side planks (fig. XIII, a-g); one of them has triangular slatted sides (fig. XIII, h), on another there are corner posts (fig. XIII, a).

65Regarding the wheels, their felloe is relatively thin; the spokes, bulging or slender, vary in number from 4 to 18; 8 on most of the vehicles (fig. XIII, c, d, e); apparently the Belur wheel (fig. XIII, h) is of the cross-bar type.

66Here, a novelty should be mentioned: on several vehicles there is a vertical wooden piece fixed outside the wheel, supporting the axle through the hub and fastened to the upper part of the body of the cart.

4. Wheeled Vehicles in North-West India (8th c.–16th c.)

67The vertical plank shown on some of the carts of the peninsula (fig. XIII, a, c, e) appears to be a guard to protect the wheel, but, in Jain paintings from Gujarat and Rajasthan dated 11th–15th century and in carvings of temples of the same zone dated 8th–13th century, we find representations of carts with a special arrangement of elements connecting the wheel units or axles to the chassis frame, i.e. a V-shaped double strut fastened to the body of the vehicle.

  • 104 The V–shaped double struts are shown on a painted wooden panel, dated end of the 12th c., of the J (...)

68In the Jain paintings, well known today since they have been the subject of several publications,104 the vehicles depicted are highly decorated: one of them is a racing car (fig. XIV, a), others are bullock carts covered with a canopy or fabric over a wooden frame (fig. XIV, c, d, e); others are long, ceremonial vehicles, with the body slightly curved (fig. XIV, b, f, g); at the extremity of one of the vehicle’s draught-poles, there is a single wheel (fig. XIV, b).

Fig. XIII. Horse carriages with radially spoked wheels in peninsular India (5th–13th c.): a, cave XVII of Ajanta (end of 5th–6th c.); b, cave III of Badami (end of 6th c.); c, bas-relief of Pattadakal, in National Museum, New Delhi (8th c.); d, Papanatha temple at the same site (8th c.); e, f, g, Virupaksa temple at the same site (8th c.); h, Kesava temple of Belur (13th c.) (after photos by the author).

  • 105 The first representation is in the Surya temple (see Bhandarkar 1908–09, pp. 100–115), under the c (...)
  • 106 Surya temple, dated 11th c.: photos L’Hernault.
  • 107 Samiddhesvara temple, dated 12th–13th c.: photos L’Hernault.
  • 108 Bas-relief, dated 12th c.: photos L’Hernault.
  • 109 Kumbhariya temple (11th c.); see Jain and Fischer 1978, Part I, pp. 29–30 and pl. XXXIII.
  • 110 Luna Vasahi (Dilvada), Mount Abu (13th c.); see Goswami 1956, pl. 101.

69In some bas-reliefs of the temples of Western India the same type of vehicle is represented but in a simpler manner (fig. XV). At Osian,105 it is an open horse light carriage (fig. XV, a, c), at Modhera106 and at Chittaurgarh,107 a bullock cart (fig. XV, b, d). Similar representations are found at Mandor,108 Kumbhariya109 and Mount Abu.110

  • 111 Photo IFP-EFEO, No. 6698–2.

70A vehicle of this type has been found in a bas-relief of the Kasivisvesvara temple at Lakkundi (Dharavar district), dated 12th century,111 but this representation appears to be exceptional south of the Vindhyas.

71Obviously, in this arrangement, in which the axle projecting through the hub is supported by struts that are strongly fastened to the body of the cart, there is the seed of a kind of suspension.

5. Wheeled Vehicles in North India (16th c.–19th c.): a Rudimentary Form of Suspension Units

72From the 16th century onwards, in Gujarat, Rajasthan and the Gangetic plain, vehicles are usually represented with more sophisticated wheel suspension units: to the V-shaped double strut (tulāvā) fastened to the body of the cart is added a curved piece (paiñjanī) which passes under the axle and is pulled tightly up against the axle by ties. This device is shown in carts with radially spoked wheels and also in carts with a new type of wheel, i.e. cross-bar wheels.

Fig. XIV. Carts represented in Jain paintings of western India (11th–15th c.): a, painted wooden panel of Jñāna Bhaṇḍār of Jaisalmer (end of 12th c.) (rep. from Sarabhai 1959, pl. I, fig. 9); b, painted wooden panel in the same site (middle of 12th c.) (rep. from Chandra Moti 1949, fig. 197); c, d, e, painted cloth (Pañcatīrthī) private collection (15th c.) (rep. from ibid., figs. 178, 181); f, g, painted wood, private collection (middle of 12th c.) (rep. from ibid., fig. 199).

  • 112 The representation of Lodurva is in the Jain temple (base of the sthala vṛkṣa) (16th c.); photo L’ (...)
  • 113 Among the recent publications on Rajput and Mughal miniatures, dated cart representations are foun (...)

73The newly represented wheel, made of two or three pairs of two parallel bars which run completely through the hub from one segment of the felloe to the opposite one, appears in Jain wooden panels of North-West India, depicting magnificent bullock carts with a canopy112 (fig. XV, e, f) and in Rajput, Mughal and Himalayan miniatures, showing light carriages drawn by horses or bullocks, comprising a square or rectangular body with panelled sides, sometimes with a covering supported on poles (fig. XVI, a-f).113 A few representations of country carts by European draftsmen should be added to this, which accurately portray this device.

  • 114 Solvyns 1811, vol. III.
  • 115 In Martin 1838, vol. I, p. 124, vol. II, p. 581, vol. III, p. 118: chakṛā, laṛhī, ratha, majholī, (...)

74The magnificent etchings of Solvyns114 depict the carts used at the end of the 18th century in Bihar and Bengal: saggaṛ, rahṛū, ghoṛ bahal, ekkā and ratha (fig. XVII, b-f); they all have wheels with paired cross-bars. Buchanan, in his survey of eastern India, took care to note the main features of the vehicles and their local names.115

  • 116 Forbes 1813, vol. I, f.p. 84.

75The representation of the Gujarat bahlī, a light vehicle with a canopy, published by Forbes,116 shows the same type of wheel supports.

  • 117 Or perhaps a century earlier, as the datings of some of the Jain paintings are doubtful.
  • 118 According to Buchanan (in Martin 1838, vol. III, p. 319), in the district of Purniya (Bihar), ‘the (...)

76Thus, according to iconographic sources, from the 16th117 to the 19th century, in a vast area of North India, from Gujarat to Bengal, a rudimentary form of suspension was adopted by the cart-wrights: the arrangement of struts or planks strongly fastened to the body of the cart accounted for better distribution of the load on the wheels, and the device with two independent short axles had the particular advantage of reducing the negative effects of friction and permitting heavy loads to be carried.118

Fig. XV. Carts represented in bas-reliefs of western India (8th–16th c): a, Surya temple at Osian (8th c.); b, Surya temple at Modhera (11th c.); c, chapel of Mahavira temple at Osian (11th–12th c.); d, Samiddhesvara temple at Chittaurgarh (12th–13th c.); e, Jain temple at Lodurva (16th c.?); f, Vadi Parsvanatha temple at Patan (16th c.) (in Metropolitan Museum of New York) (a, after photo by Meister; b, after photo by author; c, d, e, after photos by L’Hernault).

Fig. XVI. Carts represented in miniatures of the Mughal period (17th–18th c.): a, Mughal miniature (1620) (rep. from Lalit Kala, No. 8, pl. XII, fig. 25); b, Mughal miniature (1610) (rep. from Chandra 1960, Lalit Kala, No. 8, pl. XI, fig. 20); c, Mughal miniature (1630) (rep. from Falk & Archer 1981, 374, No. 62); d, miniature, school of Kangra (18th c.) (rep. from Randhawa 1960, fig. 3); e, Mewar painting (1649) (rep. from Kala series, portfolio, No. 9, pl. VI); f, miniature, school of Kangra (18th c.) (rep. from Randhawa 1960, pl. XVIII).

Fig. XVII. North Indian carriages represented in drawings of the end of the eighteenth century: a, bahlī from Gujarat (after Forbes 1813, vol. I, f.p. 84); b, ghoṛ bahal; c, rahṛū; d, ekkā; e, ratha; f, saggaṛ, carts from West Bengal (after Solvyns 1811, vol. III).

77This system is still in use today, and it can be observed in the northern plains, as said supra in our description of present-day country carts.

6. Shafts, Four-Wheeled Vehicles

78This survey of vehicles demonstrates that the Indian subcontinent does not seem to have appreciated the advantages of substituting two shafts with the pole and of using four-wheeled wagons.

A. Shafts

79Substituting two shafts with the pole meant that a vehicle could be drawn by one animal instead of two.

  • 119 Singer 1956, vol. II, pp. 544, 553.

80In the traction-harness shown in all the representations of vehicles we have collected, the animals (oxen, horses) always work in pairs, yoked on either side of a single shaft, i.e. the pole. In this system, on the horse’s back the yoke pegged to the pole rested on a saddle which was held in place by a girth-strap to which the breast-harness was also attached. The change which took place in several parts of the world was that the yoke and pole were changed to two shafts. Shafts became common in China from about the beginning of the Christian era and in the western world in about the 3rd century A.D.119

  • 120 Arrian (Indika, XVII), in an obscure passage, gives us to understand that it existed: ‘to be drawn (...)

81This type of vehicle, called ekkā (from ek [H.], one) in North India, seems ancient but its development cannot be traced. Perhaps it existed before the Christian era,120 but we do not have figures before the modern period. It is true that it is not always possible to recognise the characteristic features of vehicles and distinguish the number of draught animals in sculptures. Thus, at Mount Abu, one of the carts depicted in the Dilvada temple could be identified as an ekkā, but the image is so stylised that we cannot see whether there are one or two horses, and whether there is one pole or two shafts. This type of vehicle is not shown in Rajput or Mughal miniatures.

  • 121 Annual Report of the Arch. Department, Baroda State, 1938, p. 12 and pl. X.
  • 122 Solvyns 1811, vol. III, s.v. ekka; Grierson 1926, f.p. 41.

82We have found one representation in a fresco of Tarabh (Gujarat), dated 17th century,121 and in an etching by Solvyns showing the ekkā of Bengal (end of the 18th c.).122

  • 123 Grierson 1926, pp. 40–42. Baden Powell, 1872, p. 248, gives a good description of the ekkā or yekk (...)

83In this type of draught-harness, shafts are attached to a breast-band; the pull of the horse is taken at the withers (fig. XVII, d; fig. XXIV, c). Grierson,123 in the end of the 19th century, describes each part of this vehicle for Bihar and gives a good drawing of it. We know that this system is imperfect since the breast-band exerted a choking pressure on the windpipe when the animal pulled hard and that it limited the use of horses for heavy draught work. But in India it is of no consequence since the ekkā is a light travelling vehicle carrying little weight.

  • 124 Kipling 1891, p. 211.

84This type of cart was obviously less common before the British period. At the end of the 19th century, Kipling says that it was used in Panjab, Hindustan and parts of Bengal, but it was unknown in the Deccan, Western India and Sindh.124 It is from the 19th century that various horse carriages used for short distance travel were built in different parts of India, as seen infra. With European influence, there was a change in the draught-harness, the girth-band was abandoned and padded shoulder and breast collar were adopted. Is it not significant that, in the Tamil country, in the jhaṭkā, a modern light vehicle, the new elements of the harness are known by English words kallar (collar) and taras (traces) (fig. XXVII)?

B. Four-Wheeled Vehicles

  • 125 Mackay 1943, pl. LVIII, figs. 9, 13, 163–164. Apparently, in the cart shown in fig. 9, the front w (...)
  • 126 Strabo, 15.1, pp. 69–70.
  • 127 See Dikshitar 1948, pp. 157–166.

85According to archaeological and literary sources, four-wheeled vehicles were used from a very ancient period. Mackay125 found some terracotta models at Chanhu Daro. Their existence is attested by Strabo126 and in texts such as the Mahābhārata or the Rāmāyaṇa,127 but they are rarely represented during the historic period, except in the Hoysala monuments of the 12th–13th century.

  • 128 See Deloche 1981, pp. 14–15 and 1989, pp. 43–46 & pls. 32–35. In South Indian temples, beautiful c (...)

86These vehicles are well represented in Hoysala mythological friezes, with front and rear solid wheels of the same size, and a rectangular body connected to a single pole (they don’t have pivoted front axles to facilitate turning) (fig. XVIII, a-i). They are robustly constructed, with long slatted or solid sides decorated with geometric motifs; some have a long body that widens at the top, others are embellished with various supports outside the wheels. With rigid fixed axles, they are not easily manipulated and are ill adapted to war conditions; they could never have been used except for ceremonial purposes, and in fact, in structure and ornamentation, they resemble the modern ritual chariots with stone wheels still seen today in some temples in Karnataka (photos 75–80).128

  • 129 See Pal 1974 and 1978, vol. I, fig. 268, vol. II, fig. 167.
  • 130 Das Gupta 1972, f.p. 80, c, 2.
  • 131 See Banerjee 1978, figs. 248, 251.
  • 132 See Mate 1977, pl. XXXI, a, b, c, d.

87In a few paintings and carvings dating from the 17th and 18th century, fourwheeled vehicles are represented, but not in a realistic manner; for example, in Nepal, in a bas-relief of the Krishna temple at Patan (17th c.) representing a battle, in a painting dated 1800 of the Bhāgavata Purāṇa, with wheels decorated with floral motifs,129 and in Assam in paintings (end of the 18th c.), fancifully depicted.130 On the other hand, in Western India, this vehicle is represented rather faithfully in the 18th century in some paintings of Kishangarh showing episodes of the life of Krishna131 or in Jain paintings of Jamoda representing royal cars.132

Fig. XVIII. Four-wheeled wagons represented in Hoysala bas-reliefs (12th–13th c): a, Kedaresvara temple, at Halebid; b, c, Kesava temple, at Somanathapura; d, e, f, g, i, Hoysalesvara temple, at Halebid; h, Amritesvara temple, at Amritapura (Karnataka) (after photos by IFP-EFEO, Nos. 7355–4, 7446–2, 7329–4, 7331-3, 7335–12, 7680-4, 7333–7).

  • 133 Solvyns 1811, s.v. routh.
  • 134 See the photo of this vehicle reproduced in Anand Mulk Raj 1981–82, p. 16.

88The best representation is given by Solvyns.133 The ratha (H.) used in the northern plains was a light four-wheeled wagon, with a domed and ornamental pavilion of cloth and tinsel over it, built on the same principles as the bahal with wheels with paired cross-bars and drawn by bullocks (fig. XVII, e). In the Baroda Museum, a ratha used in the court of Akbar Shah II and Bahadur Shah II at Delhi (circa 1830–1857) and offered to one of the Gaekwad maharajas of Baroda, can be seen. A Sikh family of Amritsar owns a ratha which belonged to Ranjit Singh.134

  • 135 Buchanan, in Martin 1838, vol. I, p. 124, vol. III, p. 118; Broughton 1892, p. 117. Rousselet 1875 (...)
  • 136 According to Abu’l-Fazl (Āin-i-Akbarī, vol. I, p. 285), Akbar invented an extraordinary carriage, (...)

89It is said that this vehicle was used almost exclusively by the wealthy, bankers and dance groups.135 In princely residences there were extravagant carriages, but obviously these fantastic vehicles only had a decorative or symbolic role.136

  • 137 To transport this gigantic pillar to Delhi, Firuz Shah, according to Ta’rīkh-i-Firūz-Shāhī (Elliot (...)
  • 138 On the transport of cannons in Akbar’s time, see the documents collected by Verma 1978, pp. 111–11 (...)
  • 139 Ann. Rep. of the Arch. Dep. of his Exalted Highness the Nizam’s Dominions, 1929–30, pp. 7, 8 and p (...)

90For sustaining heavy loads, stout vehicles with solid wheels, drawn by several pairs of oxen, buffaloes or coolies were used. This is the way Firuz Shah managed to carry an Asokan pillar weighing 50 tonnes to Delhi (fig. XIX),137 and this is also how huge pieces of ordnance were moved during military operations in the days of pl. VII, a); b, transport of the famous Bharatpur cannon in 1826 (after the Mughals (fig. XX, b).138 On a wall of the Raychur fort dated 1294, the transport of an enormous stone pillar on two carts with solid wheels hitched up by means of a strong beam drawn by four pairs of buffaloes is shown (fig. XX, a).139

Fig. XIX. Transport of a 50 tonne pillar in Firuz Shah’s time (after a manuscript preserved at the Oriental Public Library of Bankipur, Patna). Note the ropes tied to each wheel with the sticks for the coolies.

Fig. XX. Four-wheeled vehicles with solid wheels used for heavy loads: a, transport of a 14 m long granite pillar (after a drawing carved on a wall of the Raychur fort (end of the 13th c.) (rep. From Annual report of the Arch. Depart. of the Nizam’s Dominions, 1929–30, pl. VII, a); b, transport of the famous Bharatpur cannon in 1826 (after an engraving by Creighton 1830, pl. 8, f.p. 145).

91We wonder that the four-wheeled vehicle has been so underused in the Indian subcontinent; even today its role is negligible in the countryside compared to the two-wheeled cart.

92Apparently there is no relation between this type of vehicle and an ethnic group or a particular type of rural organisation, but its quasi-absence in the daily life of the people could be explained by the conditions set by the physical environment. Indian roads were for the greater part fair weather roads, natural beaten tracks, lacking genuine foundations and without fixed course, exposed to all the vicissitudes of nature. The use of a simple, easy to handle and drive vehicle, such as the twowheeled cart, was therefore a necessity.

Concluding Remarks

  • 140 Gode 1940, pp. 144–151.

93This analysis of iconographic sources shows that Indian country carts have ‘ancestors’, as Gode stated.140

  • 141 Piggott 1962, p. 176.

94a. In the Indus valley the carts of the Harappan civilisation were constructed in the same way as the contemporary carts in Sindh, except that today their solid wheels are hollowed out in a semicircular shape. Piggott,141 while describing them, notes that, near Mohanjo Daro, the type of carts in clay found at this site is exactly that which today creaks and groans in the villages, since excavations have revealed cart ruts belonging to an early phase of the city’s occupation, which have a width of some 3 feet 6 inches, which is the same as the modern carts in Sindh.

  • 142 Information communicated by N. Mehta.

95The same observation has been made by N. Mehta142 during excavations at Nagara in Gujarat. He also had the idea of measuring the distance between two cart rut marks discovered by his assistants and found that it was the same length as the axle of modern carts.

96b. Farm carts with solid wheels depicted in the narrative scenes of peninsular India of a later period can be compared with the solid wheels made of wood or stone, found quite recently in some places in Karnataka or Andhra Pradesh. The Mysore cart drawn by Buchanan at the beginning of the 19th century does not differ from the carved Hoysala carts (fig. XI, i, f).

97c. The vehicles with radially spoked wheels depicted in stone reliefs from the early historic period in Buddhist monuments seem familiar to us, since structurally they look like today’s farm carts. If we consider the size of their wheels (small, medium, high), we find that their distribution roughly tallies with that of the present time. Thus, the medium-size carts depicted at Sanchi and Bharhut are not different from the bullock carts of Central India, whereas the carts with high wheels found at Goli and Amaravati, evoke the vehicles seen in the coastal area of Andhra Pradesh.

98d. The vehicles with cross-bar wheels seen from the 16th century onwards, in Jain, Rajput, Mughal and Himalayan miniatures and in Solvyns’ etchings, are similar to today’s carts with wheels made of paired cross-bars used in the northern plains from Gujarat to Bengal (however, the late appearance of this type of wheel in iconography is puzzling).

99Be that as it may, this means that certain types of vehicles devised during ancient periods were so efficient as a means of transport that they did not undergo any fundamental changes and have indeed survived to the present day.

Notes

26 To avoid confusion, in this study, cart is used for two-wheeled vehicles; wagon for those with four wheels; chariot for two-wheeled vehicles used for warfare, procession and racing; farm cart for twowheeled vehicles serving not only agricultural purposes, but travel, festivities and ceremonies.

27 Chandra Moti 1953 (ills. 24, 28, 29–38), has collected some representations of vehicles in archaeological reports; Srivastava 1968 (pp. 135–46, pls. I–IV), inspired by Moti Chandra’s book, tried to link literary documents and archaeological data on the subject; Szelagowski 1974, has written a rich memoir based on archaeological sources particularly pp. 27–30, 31–189 and pls. 76–99. See the articles by Margabandhu 1973, pp. 182–189, and 1983, pp. 163–169 and pls. 25–31.

28 See Vedic Index, vol. II, 201–3, s. v. ratha; vol. I, 21–22, s.v. anas.

29 Mayamata, XXXI, 29–57; Kāmika, II, 78, 1–88; Mānasāra, XLIII; Iśānaśiva, XLVIII, 64b–82. See Acharya 1979, pp. 38, 257, 284, 303, 313, 325, 379, 435, 539.

30 Obviously the vehicles they refer to are used in connection with rituals, as said in the Mayamata (XXXI, 48b–49); see Dagens, Mayamata, Part 2, XIV, pp. 248–258. Their wheels are very elaborate. For example, in Iśānaśiva (XLVIII, 74) it is said that the spokes may be narrow in their middle like ants, or bulbous like grains of barley or similar to lemons.

31 Arthaśāstra 1963, Part II, p. 207.

32 Agrawala 1963, p. 149.

33 Aśvaratha, uṣṭraratha, gardabharatha, goyānam, hatthīyānam, ajayānam, meṇḍakayānam (Puri 1957, p. 140; Srivastava 1968, p. 144).

34 Perumpāṇāṟṟuppaṭai, 46–82 and Ciṟupānāṟṟuppaṭai 250–60, quoted by Singaravelu 1966, pp. 62–63.

35 Mackay 1943, p. 164.

36 Vats 1940, p. 451.

37 Smith 1901, p. 22 and pl. XV.

38 Mitra 1881, vol. I, pp. 340–341.

39 Needham 1965, vol. IV, 2, p. 317.

40 Ibid., p. 271 ng.

41 These terms are synonyms for the Harappan culture and the period preceding the Mauryan Empire between 2500 and 200 B.C.

42 See Marshall 1931, vol. II, p. 554, vol. III, pl. CLIV, 7, 10, 11; Vats 1940, vol. I, pp. 99, 451, vol. II, pl. CXX, 1–7; Mackay 1943, pp. 162–164, pl. LXIII; Rao 1973, p. 123, pl. XXXV.

43 In certain representations, however, both sides of the wheel are convex, or some wheels are plain on both sides (Jaggi 1969, vol. I, p. 83).

44 Marshall 1931, vol. II, p. 554.

45 Vats 1940, vol. II, pl. CXXV, fig. 35; A. S. R. 1926–7, pl. XXIII, fig. d; Mackay 1943, pl. LVIII, fig. 2.

46 Dawn of Civilisation 1975, pl. 46, p. 41.

47 Our analysis is mainly based on Neumayer 1993, pp. 157–169, 211, figs. 411–428.

48 According to Neumayer 1983, p. 31.

49 Neumayer 1983, p. 36; 1993, p. 211.

50 Marshall 1951, vol. II, pp. 452, 602–603, vol. III, pl. 134, No. 60, pl. 185, i, = 391.

51 Khandalawala 1960, pp. 66–67 and pl. XX, figs. 32 & 33.

52 I.A.R. 1962–3, p. 35 and pl. LXVII, A.

53 Puri 1971, pp. 44–45 and pl. XXII, 6, 7, 8.

54 Other sites: Tilaurakot, Champa, Bangarh, Rajghat, Kausambi, Chandraketugarh, etc. (see Margabandhu 1973, pp. 182–189, and 1983, pp. 163–169, pls. 25–31); some terracotta toy carts of this period, found in the north of India, at Sambhar in Rajasthan and Hastinapura near Delhi, show vehicles with solid wheels (see Sahni 1999, p. 44 and pl. XIII, h; Ancient India, Nos. 10 & 11, 1954–55, p. 88, pl. XLVIII, 2; Margabandhu 1973, pp. 186–187: wheels of toy carts).

55 See the two articles by Gode: The Indian Bullock-Cart: its Prehistoric and Vedic Ancestors and Carriage-Manufacture in the Vedic Period and in Ancient China in 1121 B.C., reproduced in Gode 1960, vol. II, pp. 123–128, 129–141.

56 Kangle 1963, p. 207.

57 Stupa of Bharhut (2nd c. B. C.); see Barua 1934, book III, pls. L, p. 52, XC, p. 134.

58 Relief on a pillar of Besnagar preserved at the National Museum, New Delhi (2nd c. B.C.; see Szelagowski 1974, pl. 85, 3).

59 Stupa of Sanchi (late 1st c. B.C.–late 1st c. A.D.); see Maisey 1892, pl. XV, 11, 12, pl. XXXVI, 12, 13.

60 Terracotta medallion found at Bhita (late 1st c. B.C.); see A.S.R. 1911–12, Part II, pl. XXIV.

61 Stupa of Amaravati (2nd c. B.C.), bas-relief preserved at the Madras Museum; see Sivaramamurti 1942, pl. X, 13.

62 Terracotta plate found at Mahasthan (2nd c. B.C.–1st c. A.D.); see Nazimuddin Ahmed 1964, pp. 47–48, pl. XIV, b.

63 Terracotta medallion found at Pataliputra, preserved at the Patna Museum (Mauryan period); see Pandey 1971, pl. 4.

64 Stupa of Bodhgaya (1st c. B.C.), vedikā; see Pandey 1971, pl. 5.

65 Small vihāra found at Bhaja (1st c. B.C.); see Pandey 1971, pl. 6.

66 Terracotta plate found at Ahichchatra, preserved at the National Museum, New Delhi (middle 5th c. A.D.); see Harle 1974, pl. 136.

67 See Foucher 1905, vol. I, pp. 311–3, figs. 158 (b), 159, 160; Ingholt 1957, pl. 174.

68 Mitra 1881, vol. I, pp. 340–341.

69 It is surprising to note that Gode 1960, vol. II, p. 128 n. 3, after Mitra, has written: ‘The Sanchi chariot had one long pole in the middle and two short shafts on the sides.’

70 See Vedic Index, vol. II, pp. 201–207.

71 The chariot (ratha) had a body (kośa) consisting of panels (ratha-śīrṣa), probably made of leather or wicker; to the wooden chassis (rathopastha) was fixed the axle (akṣa) on which pivoted the wheels (cakra) secured by a lynchpin (āṇi); the wheels had spokes (ara), (the number of which is not mentioned), a hub (nabhya) and an iron rim (pradhi). To the pole (īṣā) was attached the yoke (yuga), equipped with a leather band surrounding the neck of the animal. There is still an obscure point: the word raśmi or raśanā could mean reins, and vāṇī might have the significance of swingle tree (Piggott 1962, pp. 280–281 and fig. 32).

72 Experts do not agree on this point and the commentators remain rather vague (see Gode 1960, vol. II, pp. 126 n. 1 & 130). This vagueness is probably the origin of the strange interpretations (short shafts) given to the vehicles represented in the Buddhist monuments.

73 Chakravarty 1941, pp. 25–26.

74 Stupa of Bharhut (2nd c. B.C.), medallions; see Barua 1934, book III, pls. XLV, 45, LXIX, 86.

75 Bas-relief of Takht-i-Bahi (middle of the 1st c. A.D.); see A.S.R. 1907–8, pl. XLV.

76 Stupa of Sanchi (end of the 1st c. B.C.), south gate; see Marshall & Foucher 1940, vol. II, pl. XIX, c.

77 Stupa of Amaravati (end of the 1st c. B.C.– end of the 2nd c. A.D.), frieze preserved in the Madras Museum; see Sivaramamurti 1942, pl. XLIII, fig. 5, c, and pl. X, fig. 19; relief preserved at the Amaravati Museum; relief drawn by Mackenzie, in Burgess 1887, pl. XXXII.

78 Fragment of a carved pediment of Mathura (2nd c. A.D.) preserved at the National Museum, New Delhi, and part of a lintel in the same site preserved at the Lucknow Museum; see Smith 1901, p. 22, pls. XV, XIX, XX; Vogel 1930, pls. VIII, b, and LVII, a & b.

79 Bas-relief of Sannathi (1st–2nd c. A.D.); see Seshadri 1972, pl. 13.

80 Carved stone of Belvadigi (3rd c. A.D.); see Ramesh 1967, pp. 131–133, pl. f.p. 132.

81 Relief of a vedikā from Goli (3rd c. A.D.), preserved in the Madras Museum; see Ramachandran 1929, pl. V, C, D. A terracotta plaque of the 1st c. B.C. from Kausambi is preserved at the Allahabad Museum on which a cart drawn by four bullocks is represented, with a body made of a kind of basket (see Kala 1980, p. 60, fig. 153).

82 The existence of iron bands is attested by the texts (see Gode 1960, vol. I, p. 126 n. 1).

83 See L.A.M.B.O., p. 101 and photo, fig. 68; Patna Museum 1965, p. 350 and pl. LVIII.

84 See Census of India, 1961, Part XI-V, Temples of Madras State, vol. V, f.p. 408.

85 Several representations are found in the temples of Papanatha, Virupaksa and Mallikarjuna; they are shown with a vertical side plank above the hub (see Cousens 1926, pl. XLIV).

86 See Deloche 1981, pp. 11–20 and pls. I-XVIII.

87 Vishnu temple at Badami (śakaṭa-bhaṅga): this frieze is shown in Szelagowski 1974, pl. 84, 2.

88 Lakshmana temple of Khajuraho (śakaṭa-bhaṅga); see Banerjee 1978, fig. 37; Jain temple in the same site; see Prakash 1967, pl. XXII, fig. 21.

89 Reproduction in Ann. Rep. of the Arch. Dep. of his Exalted Highness the Nizam’s Dominions 1929–30, p. 8 and pl. VII, b.

90 See Deloche 1981, pp. 14–15, pls. VI–IX, XII–XIII.

91 See Gangoli 1956, photo 76.

92 See Census of India, 1961, Part XI-V, Temples of Madras State, vol. V, f.p. 408.

93 See Deloche 1981, pp. 16–18, and particularly the vivid photographs in Deloche 1989, pls. XXXIII–XXXV in which representations are found of vehicles and today’s temple chariots.

94 Gate pillar (4th c.–5th c.) from Mandor (śakaṭa-bhaṅga), in Jodhpur Museum; see Banerjee 1978, fig. 9.

95 Relief from Devagarh (5th c.) (śakaṭa-bhaṅga), in National Museum, New Delhi; see ibid., fig. 36.

96 Painting from Ajanta (end of 5th c.–6th c.), caves XVI and XVII; see Yazdani 1930–55, Part III, pl. I, Part IV, pls. VI (a) & VII (a).

97 Bas-relief from Badami (end of 6th c.–beginning of 7th c.), cave II; see Banerji 1928, pl. XII, c.

98 Frieze from the Kasivisvanatha temple of Pattadakal (circa 600) (śakaṭa-bhaṅga); see Banerji 1928, fig. 14.

99 Cave XVII of Ajanta (end of 5th c.–6th c.): painting; see Yazdani 1930–55, Part IV, pl. XXVIII; carved frieze in cave I (end of 5th c.); see Zimmer 1984, vol. II, pls. 145–145.

100 Frieze of cave III of Badami (end of 6th c.); see Banerji 1928, pl. XXIV, a.

101 This site is particularly rich in representations of horse carriages: one in Kasivisvanatha temple, four in Mallikarjuna temple, twenty-eight in Virupaksa temple and seven in Papanatha temples (some carts have solid wheels).

102 Kailasanatha temple of Ellora (circa 750–850), carved panels; see Gupte and Mahajan 1962, pl. XCIX, f.p. 177; Zimmer 1984, pl. 212.

103 Kesava temple of Belur (13th c.); Hoysala sculptors have abundantly represented horse carriages, but, as seen supra, almost all of them have solid wheels.

104 The V–shaped double struts are shown on a painted wooden panel, dated end of the 12th c., of the Jñāna Bhaṇḍār in Jaisalmer (in Nawab 1959, pl. I, fig. 9); on another painted wooden panel dated middle of the 12th c., at the same place (in Chandra Moti 1949, fig. 197); on a painted cloth (Pañcatīrthī) dated 15th c., in the Jain collection, Tatapatriya Pustak Bhandar (in Chandra Moti 1949, figs. 178, 181, 184); on a painted wooden panel dated middle of the 12th c., in Sarabhai’s collection (in Chandra Moti 1949, fig. 199); finally in a manuscript of Kalpasūtra, dated middle of the 15th c. (in Nawab 1956, pl. LXXII, fig. 273).

105 The first representation is in the Surya temple (see Bhandarkar 1908–09, pp. 100–115), under the ceiling of the antarāla, dated beginning of the 8th c., according to Michael W. Meister who provided us with a photo; the other one is found in the same site, on the base of a chapel of the Jain temple of Mahavira, dated 11th–12th c. (see Kalia 1982, pp. 59, 62, photo 44, pl. XXVI, 2, 4).

106 Surya temple, dated 11th c.: photos L’Hernault.

107 Samiddhesvara temple, dated 12th–13th c.: photos L’Hernault.

108 Bas-relief, dated 12th c.: photos L’Hernault.

109 Kumbhariya temple (11th c.); see Jain and Fischer 1978, Part I, pp. 29–30 and pl. XXXIII.

110 Luna Vasahi (Dilvada), Mount Abu (13th c.); see Goswami 1956, pl. 101.

111 Photo IFP-EFEO, No. 6698–2.

112 The representation of Lodurva is in the Jain temple (base of the sthala vṛkṣa) (16th c.); photo L’Hernault; see Ghosh 1975, vol. III, pp. 433, 435, 437, pls. 295, 297, 300; Gandhi 1978, Nos. 3–4, pp. 107, 108, 110, figs. 3–6; in fig. 3 is shown a beautifully carved ‘two-wheeled carriage known as veladun; this type of carriage was common in Saurashtra and Kachch up to the first decade of the last century and the advent of the automobile put them out of fashion.’

113 Among the recent publications on Rajput and Mughal miniatures, dated cart representations are found in Mewar Paintings, Lalit Kala Series, Portfolio No. 9, pl. VI (with paired cross-bars) (1649); Chandra 1960, Lalit Kala, No. 8, pl. XI, fig. 20 and pl. XII, fig. 25 (with radial spokes) (1610 and 1620); Swarup 1957, f.p. 14 (with radial spokes) (Jahangir period); Percy Brown 1924, pls. XXXIII & XXXVI (with paired cross-bars) (1580 and 1593).
Himalayan paintings usually depict strong vehicles with paired cross-bars of the saggaṛ type; see Randhawa 1960, p. 21, fig. 3, p. 23, fig. 4, pls. V, XVIII, XIX; Lal 1968, pls. XXII, XXVIII, XXIX. Verma 1978, pp. 107–108 and pl. LXX, has collected representations of vehicles from the Akbar period; plate LXX shows the various types of vehicles with solid wheels, radially spoked wheels and wheels with paired cross-bars. The Gujarat cart described by Thévenot in the middle of the 17th century apparently has wheels of the second type: ‘this machine hath no more but two wheels put under the side of the cart and not advancing outwards; they are of the height of the fore wheels of our coaches, have eight square spokes, are four or five fingers thick, and many times are not shod’.

114 Solvyns 1811, vol. III.

115 In Martin 1838, vol. I, p. 124, vol. II, p. 581, vol. III, p. 118: chakṛā, laṛhī, ratha, majholī, rahṛū.

116 Forbes 1813, vol. I, f.p. 84.

117 Or perhaps a century earlier, as the datings of some of the Jain paintings are doubtful.

118 According to Buchanan (in Martin 1838, vol. III, p. 319), in the district of Purniya (Bihar), ‘the chief occupation of the carpenters is the making of carts or other wheeled carriages, in which they have shown considerable ingenuity, especially in fastening the wheels. These are suspended on a small iron spindle supported between the carriage on the inside and outside by two sticks that are hung from above. The plan seems to have many advantages. Its principal excellence seems to consist in the method of suspending the wheels by which the friction is made to fall equally on both sides, whereas in the axle tree the friction is chiefly oblique by which its effects seem to be greatly increased’.
In a survey dated 1853 (Selections from the Records of Government, N. W. Provinces, vol. III, p. 133), on the carts used to carry wood from the tarai, between Kumaon and Pilibhit (Uttar Pradesh), it is said that the carts, pulled by 6 or 8 yokes of oxen, could carry enormous loads (7 to 8 tons and even 12 tons in the plain: ‘they are able to do this from having a bearing outside the wheel admitting of a very small axle, less than 1/2 or 1/3 of what would suffice for a cart to carry the load on the other construction and the friction is of course reduced in proportion. The subject is well worth consideration in the construction of devil or timber carriages and indeed in every description where lightness is the chief consideration’.

119 Singer 1956, vol. II, pp. 544, 553.

120 Arrian (Indika, XVII), in an obscure passage, gives us to understand that it existed: ‘to be drawn by a single horse is considered no distinction’. See Gode 1960, vol. II, p. 126 n. 1.

121 Annual Report of the Arch. Department, Baroda State, 1938, p. 12 and pl. X.

122 Solvyns 1811, vol. III, s.v. ekka; Grierson 1926, f.p. 41.

123 Grierson 1926, pp. 40–42. Baden Powell, 1872, p. 248, gives a good description of the ekkā or yekkā of Panjab.

124 Kipling 1891, p. 211.

125 Mackay 1943, pl. LVIII, figs. 9, 13, 163–164. Apparently, in the cart shown in fig. 9, the front wheels are higher than the back; the bodywork of the two vehicles forms a screen in front, probably to protect the driver. We don’t know the meaning of this representation.

126 Strabo, 15.1, pp. 69–70.

127 See Dikshitar 1948, pp. 157–166.

128 See Deloche 1981, pp. 14–15 and 1989, pp. 43–46 & pls. 32–35. In South Indian temples, beautiful cars, known as tēr, are drawn, at the time of festivals, by thousands of men with the help of thick coir, through the streets around the temple; they are noted for their size and construction; they are very high; the weight of the Tiruvarur car for example was ascertained as 170 tonnes; their lower part above the wheels resembles the mouldings and sculptures of a temple; the superstructure is composed of bamboo work; the car is covered with colourful draperies and pendants; the wheels are controlled by experts with the help of solid blocks of wood cut in the form of a right angled triangle (See Pieper & Thomsen 1979, pp. 1–10). In Orissa, at Puri, the car of Jagannatha, drawn in procession at the Ratha-yātrā, is 14 m high, the base is 11 m square and it is supported on 16 wheels of 2 m diameter with prancing horses in front (see Mansbach 1833, vol. III, pp. 253–260).

129 See Pal 1974 and 1978, vol. I, fig. 268, vol. II, fig. 167.

130 Das Gupta 1972, f.p. 80, c, 2.

131 See Banerjee 1978, figs. 248, 251.

132 See Mate 1977, pl. XXXI, a, b, c, d.

133 Solvyns 1811, s.v. routh.

134 See the photo of this vehicle reproduced in Anand Mulk Raj 1981–82, p. 16.

135 Buchanan, in Martin 1838, vol. I, p. 124, vol. III, p. 118; Broughton 1892, p. 117. Rousselet 1875, p. 579, gives an engraving of a large four-wheeled carriage drawn by four oxen, called caupāyā, 3 m long and 2 m broad, divided in two parts, the back being a bedroom, the front a sitting room.

136 According to Abu’l-Fazl (Āin-i-Akbarī, vol. I, p. 285), Akbar invented an extraordinary carriage, used for travelling and also for grinding corn; in addition, he invented a large cart drawn by elephants but also by cattle, large enough to hold several bathrooms. This fanciful type of vehicle could still be found recently in maharajas’ palaces. Two of them were kept in a shed below Jodhpur fort in 1911, another one, belonging to the raja of Alvar, took part in the parade of indigenous troops, on the occasion of the darbar of Lord Curzon in 1902 (see Arch. Surv. of India, Loan Exhibition of Antiquities Coronation Durbar 1911, pl. XVII, f.p. 38). The nawab of Rampur had, in the beginning of the last century, an extraordinary two-storied car, connected by staircases (Crooke 1806, p. 84). The maharaja of Mysore also had ceremonial vehicles made after European models, but drawn by elephants (see Arch. Surv. of Mysore, Annual Rep. 1938, pl. XXIX, f.p. 62: mural paintings of the Jaganmohan Palace, Mysore).

137 To transport this gigantic pillar to Delhi, Firuz Shah, according to Ta’rīkh-i-Firūz-Shāhī (Elliot 1866, vol. III, pp. 350–351), ordered the construction of a vehicle with 42 wheels: a long rope was tied to each wheel to which 200 men were hitched up, that is to say 8,400 labourers. According to the Sīrat-i-Firūz-Shāhī, it was a laṛha with ten wheels. The illustrations which decorate the manuscript of this text, preserved at the Oriental Public Library of Bankipur, Patna, show the various stages of the operation, particularly the way the ropes were tied to each wheel (see Page 1937, pp. 33–44, pl. VI, a–d, and figs. 1–9).

138 On the transport of cannons in Akbar’s time, see the documents collected by Verma 1978, pp. 111–112 and pl. LXIII, 5, 11, 12. A miniature dated 1568 from Akbar-nāmah (reproduced in Hambly 1968, pl. 21), depicting the siege of Rantambhor by Akbar, shows the transport of a heavy gun on a four-wheeled vehicle, drawn by at least four pairs of oxen. Father Wendel (Memoirs, p. 136), who was in the service of the Jats in the middle of the 18th century, mentions the large gun, a 48-pounder, brought from Bharatpur which ‘was marched an entire month to cover half the route from Bharatpur to Vair, which altogether is 15 kos and there it remained, though drawn by five hundred oxen, with four elephants to push it’. Also see Creighton 1830, pl. 8, f.p. 145: brass gun taken at Bhurtpore. It is in a vehicle of this type, but smaller, that, at Puri, the trunks of the sacred tree (dāru) used to make the gods’images are carried (see photo in Mishra 1971, p. 140, pl. 52).

139 Ann. Rep. of the Arch. Dep. of his Exalted Highness the Nizam’s Dominions, 1929–30, pp. 7, 8 and pl. VII, a.

140 Gode 1940, pp. 144–151.

141 Piggott 1962, p. 176.

142 Information communicated by N. Mehta.

Table des illustrations

Légende Fig. V. Miniature wheeled carts from protohistoric times: a, c, terracotta toy carts found at Chanhu Daro (rep. from Mackay 1943, pl. LVIII); b, terracotta toy cart found at Lothal (rep. from Rao 1952, Lalit Kala, No. 11 pl. XVI, fig. 52); d, bronze toy cart found at Daimabad (rep. from Dawn of Civilisation in Maharashtra, pl. 46); e, copper toy cart found at Harappa (rep. from A.S.R., 1926–7, pl. XXIII, d.); f, shard found at Inamgaon (rep. from Dawn of Civilisation in Maharashtra, pl. 41); g, terracotta toy cart found at Mohanjo Daro, and h, Sindh country cart (rep. from Marshall 1931, vol. III, pl. Cliv, 10–11).
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/774/img-1.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 321k
Légende Fig. VI. Wheeled vehicles depicted in rock paintings: a, Urden; b, Kathotia; c, Putli Karar; d, Pahargarh; e, Chatur Bhoj Nath Nulla; f, Koppagallu (repr. from Neumayer 1993, figs. 412, 409, 408, 411, 419, 452).
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/774/img-2.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 363k
Légende Fig. VII. Miniature wheeled carts from the early historic period (circa 300 B.C.–300 A.D.): a, copper toy cart found at Sirkap (Taxila) (rep. from Marshall 1951 vol. III, pl. 185, i); b, c, copper toy cart found at Brahmapuri (rep. from Khandalavala, Lalit Kala, No. 7, 1960, pl. XX, figs. 32 & 33); d, terracotta toy cart found at Atranjikhera (rep. from I.A.R., 1962–3, pl. LXVII, A); e, f, g, bronze toy carts found at Rairh (rep. from Puri 1971, pl. XXII, 6, 7).
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/774/img-3.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 426k
Légende Fig. VIII. War and processional chariots, after the ṚgVeda and the bas-reliefs of Sanchi: a, ṚgVeda chariot (reconstruction by Piggott 1962, p. 280); b, Sanchi chariot (1st c. A.D.), stupa I, after Maisey 1892, pl. XV, 12; c, same motif as seen by Mitra 1881, vol. 1, p. 340, No. 167; d, e, f, Sanchi, stupa I (rep. from Maisey 1892, pl. XV, p. 11. pl. XXXVI, p. 12, 13). Note, in a, how Piggott has interpreted the literary sources (swingle tree and traces), in c, how Mitra has interpreted the archaeological sources (short side shafts).
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/774/img-4.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 373k
Légende Fig. IX. Farm carts represented in Buddhist monuments (A): a, b, c, d, at Mathura (2nd c. A.D.), fragments (rep. from Smith 1901, pls. XV, XX, XIX, and Vogel 1930, pls. VIII, a & b, LVII, a & b); e, at Sanchi (end of the 1st c. B.C.), south gate of stupa I (rep. from Marshall & Foucher 1940, vol. II, pl. XIX, c); f, at Takht-i-Bahi (middle of the 1st c. A.D.), bas-relief (rep. from A.S.R., 1907–8, pl. XLV, a); g, h, at Bharhut (2nd c. B.C.), medallions (rep. from Barua 1934, book III, pls. XLV, 45, LXIX, 86).
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/774/img-5.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 571k
Légende Fig. X. Farm carts represented in Buddhist monuments (B): a, b, at Goli (3rd c. A.D.), relief of a vedikā (rep. from Ramachandran 1929, pl. V, C, D); c, d, e, at Amaravati (end of the 1st c. B.C.–end of the 2nd c. A.D.), reliefs (rep. from Sivaramamurti 1942, pl. X, fig. 19; after a photo of IFP-EFEO, No. 1843–7; Burgess 1887, pl. XXXII, fig. 2); f, at Belvadigi (3rd c. A.D.), carved stone (rep. from Ramesh 1967, f.p. 132); g, at Sannathi (1st c.–2nd c. A.D.), bas-relief (rep. from Seshadri 1972, pl. 13); h, map showing the location of the Buddhist monuments.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/774/img-6.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 453k
Légende Fig. XI. Farm carts with solid wheels in the historic period (peninsular India): a, Vishnu temple at Badami (7th c.) (rep. from Szelagowski 1974, pl. 85–2); b, Laksmana temple at Khajuraho (10th c.) (rep. from Banerjee 1978, fig. 37); c, Jain temple at Khajuraho (11th c.?) (rep. from Prakash 1967, pl. XXII, fig. 21); d, f, Kesava temple at Somanathapura (13th c.); e, Amritesvara temple at Amritapura (13th c.); g, Sri Alakiyanampiraya temple at Tirukkurunkudi (16th c.); h, Sun temple at Konarak (13th c.); i, Mysore cart at the beginning of the 19th c. (after a drawing by Buchanan 1870, vol. I, pl. V, fig. 11, f.p. 83); (d, e, f, g, after photos by IFP-EFEO, Nos. 7443–5, 7431–6, 7446–10, 862–4; h, after photo by L’Hernault).
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/774/img-7.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 296k
Légende Fig. XII. Bullock carts with radially spoked wheels in peninsular India (5th–8th c.): a, pillar of Mandor (4th–5th c.) (rep. from Banerjee 1978, fig. 9); b, bas-relief of Devagar (5th c.) (rep. from ibid., fig. 36); c, cave XVII of Ajanta (end of 5th–6th c.) (rep. from Yazdani 1930-55, part IV, pls. VI [a] and VII [a]); d, cave II of Badami (end of 6th c.) (rep. from Banerji 1928, pl. XII, c); e, Kasivisvanatha temple of Pattadakal (circa 600) (rep. from Banerji 1928, fig. 14).
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/774/img-8.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 249k
Légende Fig. XIII. Horse carriages with radially spoked wheels in peninsular India (5th–13th c.): a, cave XVII of Ajanta (end of 5th–6th c.); b, cave III of Badami (end of 6th c.); c, bas-relief of Pattadakal, in National Museum, New Delhi (8th c.); d, Papanatha temple at the same site (8th c.); e, f, g, Virupaksa temple at the same site (8th c.); h, Kesava temple of Belur (13th c.) (after photos by the author).
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/774/img-9.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 442k
Légende Fig. XIV. Carts represented in Jain paintings of western India (11th–15th c.): a, painted wooden panel of Jñāna Bhaṇḍār of Jaisalmer (end of 12th c.) (rep. from Sarabhai 1959, pl. I, fig. 9); b, painted wooden panel in the same site (middle of 12th c.) (rep. from Chandra Moti 1949, fig. 197); c, d, e, painted cloth (Pañcatīrthī) private collection (15th c.) (rep. from ibid., figs. 178, 181); f, g, painted wood, private collection (middle of 12th c.) (rep. from ibid., fig. 199).
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/774/img-10.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 403k
Légende Fig. XV. Carts represented in bas-reliefs of western India (8th–16th c): a, Surya temple at Osian (8th c.); b, Surya temple at Modhera (11th c.); c, chapel of Mahavira temple at Osian (11th–12th c.); d, Samiddhesvara temple at Chittaurgarh (12th–13th c.); e, Jain temple at Lodurva (16th c.?); f, Vadi Parsvanatha temple at Patan (16th c.) (in Metropolitan Museum of New York) (a, after photo by Meister; b, after photo by author; c, d, e, after photos by L’Hernault).
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/774/img-11.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 380k
Légende Fig. XVI. Carts represented in miniatures of the Mughal period (17th–18th c.): a, Mughal miniature (1620) (rep. from Lalit Kala, No. 8, pl. XII, fig. 25); b, Mughal miniature (1610) (rep. from Chandra 1960, Lalit Kala, No. 8, pl. XI, fig. 20); c, Mughal miniature (1630) (rep. from Falk & Archer 1981, 374, No. 62); d, miniature, school of Kangra (18th c.) (rep. from Randhawa 1960, fig. 3); e, Mewar painting (1649) (rep. from Kala series, portfolio, No. 9, pl. VI); f, miniature, school of Kangra (18th c.) (rep. from Randhawa 1960, pl. XVIII).
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/774/img-12.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 374k
Légende Fig. XVII. North Indian carriages represented in drawings of the end of the eighteenth century: a, bahlī from Gujarat (after Forbes 1813, vol. I, f.p. 84); b, ghoṛ bahal; c, rahṛū; d, ekkā; e, ratha; f, saggaṛ, carts from West Bengal (after Solvyns 1811, vol. III).
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/774/img-13.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 419k
Légende Fig. XVIII. Four-wheeled wagons represented in Hoysala bas-reliefs (12th–13th c): a, Kedaresvara temple, at Halebid; b, c, Kesava temple, at Somanathapura; d, e, f, g, i, Hoysalesvara temple, at Halebid; h, Amritesvara temple, at Amritapura (Karnataka) (after photos by IFP-EFEO, Nos. 7355–4, 7446–2, 7329–4, 7331-3, 7335–12, 7680-4, 7333–7).
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/774/img-14.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 406k
Légende Fig. XIX. Transport of a 50 tonne pillar in Firuz Shah’s time (after a manuscript preserved at the Oriental Public Library of Bankipur, Patna). Note the ropes tied to each wheel with the sticks for the coolies.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/774/img-15.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 290k
Légende Fig. XX. Four-wheeled vehicles with solid wheels used for heavy loads: a, transport of a 14 m long granite pillar (after a drawing carved on a wall of the Raychur fort (end of the 13th c.) (rep. From Annual report of the Arch. Depart. of the Nizam’s Dominions, 1929–30, pl. VII, a); b, transport of the famous Bharatpur cannon in 1826 (after an engraving by Creighton 1830, pl. 8, f.p. 145).
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/774/img-16.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 334k

© Institut Français de Pondichéry, 2014

Conditions d’utilisation : http://www.openedition.org/6540

Rechercher dans OpenEdition Search

Vous allez être redirigé vers OpenEdition Search