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Contribution to the History of the Wheeled Vehicle in India

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Jean Deloche

I. Present-Day Country Carts

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1The tropical climate is not favourable to the development of good horse breeds. They neither have the qualities nor the output of the Arab breeds, fruits of a long selection process and reasoned crossbreeding; moreover, in the past, for the requirements of the armies and rulers, more robust horses had to be imported from Central and Western Asia.

2In rural India, therefore, horses are not much used. Being a noble animal, it plays a minor role in the farming economy and, harnessed to light vehicles furnished with a single pole or two shafts, it is used for fast transport of passengers in towns or large villages.

  • 4 Bhatnagar 1963, p. 325. It has to be noted that the bullock cart, symbol of rural India, has reall (...)

3On the other hand, the ox (Bos indicus) is the draught animal par excellence of the Indian countryside. Its qualities, requirements and output vary according to the local breeds; it is, however, used everywhere for rural transport, and it has been calculated that in 1963 70% of the inland traffic was carried out by this animal.4

4The general use of these beasts, which can be easily yoked on either side of a single shaft, explains why most of the country carts are pole-drawn vehicles.

5Bullock carts, however, are not built according to uniform designs; they bear strong marks of originality, and for this reason deserve our attention.

  • 5 Carriages are rarely described in books dealing with Indian rural life. Until a recent period, the (...)

6In order to study them, we have documentation at our disposal, which varies in quality according to the regions, but it is sufficient to put forward an attempt at classification.5

Principles of Classification

  • 6 Gārī (H.), gāḍḍī (Panj.), gāṛi (Beng.), gāṛī (Or.), gāḍum (Guj. and Mar.), vaṇṭi (Tam. and Mal.), (...)

7Initially, we could think that it is enough to consider the terminology in order to define a type corresponding to a name. The equivalent of our word, carriage, a general term signifying means of conveyance or transport, wheeled vehicle, exists in the Indian languages (gāṛī, vaṇṭi),6 which are also rich in particular names to designate the various country carts. But, if in places, a name usually designates a well-defined type, on a larger scale, it corresponds to different types of vehicles.

  • 7 Gāṛā (H.), gāḍḍā (Panj.), gaṛā (Or.), gāḍā (Mar.), gāḍum (Guj.), gādo (Sind.).
  • 8 Gazetteer of the Province of Sind, p. 248; Bombay Gazetteer, vol. XXIV, Kolhapur, p. 159; C.I.S.G. (...)
  • 9 Grierson 1926, pp. 28–37.

8Thus, the most common term used to name the robust country cart in North India is gāṛā,7 which, in certain parts of Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh, represents a primitive vehicle with solid wheels, whereas, in Bihar or Panjab, it corresponds to a lighter vehicle.8 Conversely, the same type may bear different names in the same region, as can be seen in the example of Bihar, where the gāṛā described by Grierson9 is also locally called chakṛā and chaghus gāṛī.

9Many similar examples can be found: they show that a system of classification of the types of carriages based on terminology is not very significant.

10To categorise them according to the animal species used in pulling them: bullock carts – bail gāṛī (H.), māṭṭu vaṇṭi (Tam.), buffalo carts – bhaiṃsā gāṛī (H.), camel carts – ūṃt gāṛī (H.), horse carriages– ghoṛ bahal (H.), kutirai vaṇṭi (Tam.), does not appear to be more satisfactory.

  • 10 I.S.G., Western States (Malwa Gaz.), vol. V, A, pp. 443–444.

11To make a distinction between light and heavy vehicles, as in Malava,10 between kṛṣāṇī, bhārkāśī and savārī gāḍī, carts used on farms, for transporting goods, and for carrying passengers, is as artificial, since most of these vehicles are fit for these various uses by adding a few additional pieces.

Fig. I. Wheels of the country carts in India: Distribution map, A, according to their type, B, according to their dimensions (after Bose 1961, f.p. 56).

12What is important is the structure of the vehicle: wheel, axle, body. This is what we will consider.

1. The Wheel

  • 11 For India we make use of the survey published by Bose 1961. It is not complete; only one village p (...)

13The study of the wheel can be viewed in two ways, according to whether we consider its morphology or its dimensions.11

14According to the morphology, three types can be distinguished: the solid wheel, the radially spoked wheel and the wheel with paired cross-bars.

A. Types of Wheels12 (fig. I, A & B)

a) Solid or Semi-Solid Wheels (fig. II and photos 1–6, 32–35)

  • 13 According to Bose 1961, p. 53, it exists in the districts of Ranchi and Palamu in Bihar; of Sidhi, (...)

15Solid wheels are still found in vehicles used in several archaic zones scattered within the subcontinent, particularly in the eastern part of Madhya Pradesh, the centre of Maharashtra and Karnataka, the southern part of Bihar and in some pockets of Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan and Andhra Pradesh, to which should be added Sindh in Pakistan.13

Fig. II. Solid wheels: a, Raypur district (Madhya Pradesh); b, Santhal Pargana district (West Bengal); c, Bamsvara district (Rajasthan); d, Barmer district (Rajasthan); e, Pali district (Rajasthan); f, Ranchi district (Bihar). Note, in a and b, the use of bufaloes, in c, the carved wheel, a masterpiece of rural craft in a tribal zone (a, after C.P.D.G., f.p. 194; b, after Bradley-Birth 1905, f.p. 244; c, d, e, after Glimpses of Rural Rajasthan, pp. 64, 62; f, after Bose 1961, p. 53).

16They are made of wood or stone. Of wood: when they are small, as is the case in certain regions of North-West India (see fig. II, e), it is a simple slice cut in a trunk; when their diameter is bigger, it is made of butt-jointed beams (usually three in number) (fig. II, a, b, c), sometimes fixed by two wooden or metal strips perpendicular to the joints, sometimes by an iron band (fig. II, a, b, c and photos 2, 5, 32, 33).

17In Sindh and certain parts of Rajasthan, the wheel is hollowed out and the beams are lightened, the whole set being strengthened by transversal bands or by a circular iron band (fig. II, d; fig. V, h and photos 6, 34).

  • 14 In this context it is interesting to note that the hewing of gneiss wheels in several quarries of (...)
  • 15 These vehicles have generally disappeared. However, some of them are still seen in the Krishna and (...)

18In some places in Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh,14 carts are still found with stone wheels,15 cut in granite-gneissic rock, with a bulge in the centre with a hole set in it, large enough for the axle provided with a pin (photos 3, 4, 35).

  • 16 See, on South Indian ceremonial chariots and chariots in Kerala, the articles written by Pieper & (...)

19Today, the solid wheel is still used in the large processional chariots of the southern peninsula (Tamilnadu, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh)16 (see photos 69–80).

b) Radially Spoked Wheels (fig. III and photos 7–16, 36–49)

20If the form of the various components of the wheel with radial spokes varies according to the region, apparently the number of spokes does not change much: the wheel of the bullock carts is usually provided with 12 spokes (fig. III, g, h and photos 7–16, 36–44, 46–49); there are only 10 for the wheel of the light vehicles (fig. III, b, f and photos 47, 48); 14 for the light horse carriage (fig. XXVII and photo 45).

Fig. III. Radially spoked wheels: a, Jaisalmer district (Rajasthan); b and d, Chittaurgarh district (Rajasthan); c, Jodhpur district (Rajasthan); e, Junagadh (Gujarat); f, central Maharashtra; g, western Maharashtra; h, Palghat district (Kerala); i, Tiruchchirappalli district (Tamilnadu). Note that the size of the wheels varies according to the regions, that the wheels of the north-west have a very thick felloe, made of two rings and the same type of support as the wheels with paired cross-bars (a, b, d, e, h, i, after Bose 1961, pp. 53–55; c, after Glimpses of Rural Rajasthan; f, after C.P.D.G., f.p. 142; g, after Farmers of India, vol. IV, f.p. 296).

21The spokes are fastened to the hub and the felloe through a mortise and tenon joint. The felloe is made of several segments; two spokes are fixed to each segment, i. e. five segments for 10, six for 12 and seven for 14 spokes. It is provided with an iron outer ring (photos 36–42).

  • 17 Bose 1961, p. 54.
  • 18 In the districts of Howrah, Medinipur, 24-Parganas, Jalapaiguri in West Bengal; in the valley of t (...)

22This type of wheel is predominant in all the southern regions,17 in Kerala, Tamilnadu, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh; it is also seen in the northern plains, in the districts of Sahasram and Purniya in Bihar, of Ghazipur and Baliya in Uttar Pradesh, in Kashmir, in lower Bengal and Assam;18 in Gujarat; and in Orissa it coexists with a third type of wheel, the paired spoked wheel.

c) Wheels with Paired Cross-Bars (fig. IV and photos 17, 18, 25, 51–56, 62, 66, 67)

23This is a type of cross-bar wheel. It is made of three pairs of two parallel bars of varying thickness, which run completely through the hub from one segment of the felloe (they are six in number) to the opposite one; while crossing each other in the hub, the second pair runs through the first pair and the third pair through the second and first, as shown in fig. XXII, B, and photos 51–54, each bar terminating at each end in the felloe.

24When the wheels are of small diameter, as in Rajasthan and Gujarat, the felloe is made of only four segments to which only two pairs of cross-bars are fastened, as may be seen in fig. IV, b and photo 55.

  • 19 Bose 1961, p. 54; Baden Powell 1872, p. 247; Grierson 1926, pp. 28–31.

25This type of wheel is found across the entire northern plains from Panjab to Bengal and in certain parts of Gujarat and Orissa.19

d) Thickness of the Felloe

26In the last two types, we can focus on certain wheels according to the thickness of the felloe, irrespective of their structure (radially spoked or wheels with paired cross-bars).

27The wheels of North-West India are provided with a massive felloe and, in certain districts of Rajasthan, the felloes are made of wooden rings which are so thick that the length of the spokes does not exceed a few centimetres (fig. III, a-d; fig. IV, b, g and photos 57–61).

28On the other hand, in Eastern India, the wheels are thin and light (see photos 50, 56).

Fig. IV. Wheels with paired cross-bars: a, c, d and h, Jaypur district (Rajasthan); b, Jalor district (Rajasthan); e, Singhbhum district (Bihar); f, Bharatpur district (Rajasthan); g, Agra district (U.P.). Note the thickness of the felloe and the form of the various supports of the wheel (a, b, c, d, h, after Glimpses of Rural Rajasthan, pp. 61–33; e and f, after Bose 1961, p. 54; g, after a photo by the author).

B. Size of the Wheels

29Another way to appreciate the wheel is to consider its dimensions (fig. I, B).

  • 20 In the survey made by the Anthropological Survey of India, a diameter equal to or lower than 3 fee (...)

30Four kinds of wheel can be distinguished (small, medium, high, very high)20 which are distributed as follows.

31The small wheels are found in two regions: in Rajasthan and Kachch, as well as in the centre of the peninsula (fig. III, a-f; fig. IV, a, b and photos 17, 19, 20, 22, 23).

32The medium-sized wheels can be seen in a zone composed of the western part of Uttar Pradesh and Haryana, and various regions forming a kind of strip from Maharashtra to Assam (fig. III, g and photo 30).

33The high wheels are present in the south and east of the previous regions, Karnataka, Tamilnadu, Andhra Pradesh, Orissa and also in pockets inside Gujarat, Maharashtra and a large area of the eastern part of Uttar Pradesh and western Bihar (figs. XXII, XXIV and photos 11–14).

  • 21 Bose 1961, p. 55.

34The highest wheels are built in Kerala, in the southern part of Tamilnadu and the coastal districts of Andhra Pradesh, where they can exceed diameters of 1.80 m21 (fig. III, h, i; fig. XVI-XVII and photos 7–10, 15).

  • 22 Apparently according to the function of the vehicle. Thus, in the Tamil country we find the muḻu v (...)

35A deeper survey would show that the reality is more complex, since, inside each region, the diameter of the wheels varies,22 and it is certain that a more detailed distribution map would be different. Moreover, this classification based on size is, to a large extent, artificial: the small wheels of Rajasthan with their massive felloe have little in common with the light wheels of central Maharashtra (fig. III, a-d, f).

36To fully appreciate the diversity of the Indian carriage, besides the wheel, we have to consider the axle, its supports and the body.

2. Axles, Supports, Body

37Unfortunately, classification has not been made according to the frame and machinery on which the body is supported. It is of great importance, because, in India, there are two distinct types of arrangement of wooden pieces connecting the wheel units or axle to the chassis frame.

38A. The country carts of the whole peninsula south of the Vindhyas are simple in design. The body is a flat platform of wood, provided with an iron (or wood) axle tree which crosses all the way under the cart, at either end of which the wheel rotates (photos 9–10, 13).

39Though they may have platforms and panelled sides of various forms, the main distinction which can be made between these vehicles is the size of their (radially spoked) wheels, as shown above.

40A more detailed survey at the taluk level would allow us to find distinguishing features and refine our description of the different elements of the body.

41B. To the north of the Vindhyas, within a large (not clearly defined) triangle which includes the regions situated between Panjab, Gujarat and Bengal, many carriages are more complicated in their design.

42For several of them, each wheel has an axle of its own (photos 61–64) which, as it projects through the hub, is entirely supported by struts.

43It is either a V-shaped double strut (tulāvā) (fig. III, a, b, d, e; fig. IV, a, c and photos 19, 20, 48, 57) or a plain horizontal plank (fig. IV, g and photos 18, 25, 65–68) fastened to the body of the cart by chains or ropes.

  • 23 Henceforth these terms (tulāvā, paiñjanī [H.]) will be used to designate these wooden pieces. More (...)
  • 24 The V-shaped double struts or the horizontal planks are sometimes found in vehicles with an axle t (...)

44Sometimes a curved piece (paiñjanī) is added to this double-strut, which passes under the point of the axle where it projects from the double strut and thus further supports the axle; it is pulled tightly up against the axle by three ties (fig. III, b, d, e; fig. IV, a, c, h and photos 22–24, 47, 58, 59, 63).23 This device is not linked to a certain type or size of wheel:24 in the Gangetic plains it is connected to wheels with paired cross-bars, whereas in Rajasthan it is associated with radially spoked wheels.

45On some carts, however, there is only one axle, sometimes reinforced inside by a metal tube, which crosses all the way under the cart and both wheels run on it; the body rests directly on the axle, supported by blocks of wood. Outside each wheel there is a pair of V-shaped struts or a plain horizontal or curved plank fastened to the body.

46Regarding the body of the cart, the platform rests on the supports on either side of each wheel. In many farm carts in Uttar Pradesh, Panjab or Rajasthan, it is a flat wooden framework covered with planks (photos 17, 19–20, 27–29) with a convex or concave surface (photos 18, 21–26, 59, 63). In more elaborate carts such as the chakṛā of Bihar, described infra (figs. XXII-XXIII), the body is a long, strongly built triangle which is arched so that its convex side is uppermost.

47To simplify matters, let’s say broadly that, in the northern plains and in the northwest of India, there are types of carriages which are not found in the rest of the peninsula, and that, despite their regional differences (radially spoked wheels, wheels with paired cross-bars), there is, nonetheless, a family likeness between them.

48How can this distribution of vehicles be explained?

49Regarding the morphology of the wheel, what are the reasons for the survival of solid wheels in scattered pockets across the country? Why are radially spoked wheels found in Kashmir and in the valley of Brahmaputra when, in the large northern plains, wheels with paired cross-bars are widespread? Why are radially spoked wheels built all over the peninsula when physically the regions differ considerably? Concerning the body and axle of the carts, why are carriages provided with wheel supports found only in the north of the Vindhyas?

  • 25 See Deloche 1983, pp. 17–21.

50It is not easy to answer these questions. To search for an explanation in the local environment by considering the influence of the type of timber used in building the vehicles, the qualities of the various draught animals, or the conditions of transport (relief, climate, vegetation) does not yield any significant result.25

51The best approach to the problem, therefore, is to examine the past, by collecting archaeological data and literary documents, submit them for critical analysis and thus establish the relation between the various types of carriages from antiquity to the present day.

Notes

4 Bhatnagar 1963, p. 325. It has to be noted that the bullock cart, symbol of rural India, has really made the Congress Party popular.

5 Carriages are rarely described in books dealing with Indian rural life. Until a recent period, they never attracted the attention of geographers or ethnographers. In the numerous Gazetteers published on the various regions of India for more than a century, they are sometimes the subject of a summary description; the Gazetteer of the Bombay Presidency and Central Provinces District Gazetteers are the best informed in this respect. It is also possible to gather substantial information in the numerous monographs, illustrated with photographs and sketches, published in the 1961 Census (Census of India, 1961, Village Survey Monographs, Part VI). For Rajasthan, we have used a small book entitled Glimpses of Rural Rajasthan (1968), which gives a series of sketches of carts, pp. 61–64. The most systematic survey on Indian rural life has been made in 311 districts (the total number being 322); Bose has published the results of this survey in Peasant Life in India, a Study in Indian Unity and Diversity (1961): in a short chapter of four pages (pp. 53–56), with two maps, carts have been classified according to the structure and dimensions of the wheel. It is unfortunate that the information gathered by the surveyors has not been more deeply analysed. A detailed study of the various elements which make the cart and a presentation of the terminology are missing. This is found in some rare regional studies: the admirable Bihar Peasant Life (1885) by Grierson (ed. 1926, pp. 27–42) which remains a model; the ancient book by Baden Powell, Handbook of the Manufactures and Arts of the Punjab (1872, pp. 246–251), and also the more recent study by Fischer and Shah, Rural Craftsmen […] in Saurashtra (1970, pp. 14–18 and photos 12–20). The same type of work should be made in the other regions of India; detailed descriptions of the various vehicles in use should be available; technical terms corresponding to the different parts of the vehicles should be known; then a serious comparative study would be possible. All the same, only an outline can be made here. We should not wait too long before carrying out these regional surveys because, in several places, wooden wheels have been replaced by tyres.

6 Gārī (H.), gāḍḍī (Panj.), gāṛi (Beng.), gāṛī (Or.), gāḍum (Guj. and Mar.), vaṇṭi (Tam. and Mal.), bandi (Tel. and Kan.).

7 Gāṛā (H.), gāḍḍā (Panj.), gaṛā (Or.), gāḍā (Mar.), gāḍum (Guj.), gādo (Sind.).

8 Gazetteer of the Province of Sind, p. 248; Bombay Gazetteer, vol. XXIV, Kolhapur, p. 159; C.I.S.G., Western States (Malwa Gaz.) vol. V, A, p. 443; Grierson 1926, pp. 29–37; Baden Powell 1872, p. 246. Another example: the rakhalā (H.), reklā (Mar.), rekḷa (Tam.) is, in the North-West, a country cart, in Bombay, a kind of tāṅgā, and, in Madras, a small racing cart.

9 Grierson 1926, pp. 28–37.

10 I.S.G., Western States (Malwa Gaz.), vol. V, A, pp. 443–444.

11 For India we make use of the survey published by Bose 1961. It is not complete; only one village per district has been visited, and therefore only one type of cart has been noted down. We will try to complete this survey with other sources. Similar surveys do not exist for Pakistan and Bangladesh but, according to the information given in the Gazetteers of the British period, it appears that, without risk of error, it is possible, at least on the map of the types of wheel, to extend the limits of the different regions in the same directions. Thus, for Pakistan, the zone with horizontal lines would cover West Panjab and the ancient North-West Frontier Province, the zone with oblique lines would continue towards Sindh where a large patch of vertical lines should be added. Regarding Bangladesh, the zone with oblique lines would extend to the south and east, whereas the zone with horizontal lines would be between the Brahmaputra and West Bengal (see fig. I, B).

12 We have to lay stress upon the remarkable uniformity of the manufacturing processes at the regional level: the wheelwrights use the same technique to make the various vehicles at a given place. Around Madras, for instance, the wheels of the large bullock carts (māṭṭu vaṇṭi), the vehicles with pole or shafts (kaṭṭai vaṇṭi), hand carts (kai vaṇṭi), horse carriages (kutirai vaṇṭi or jhaṭkā) and even rickshaws, though of different sizes, are built with the same massive hubs, the same robust spokes and the same thin felloes. The same observations can be made elsewhere.

13 According to Bose 1961, p. 53, it exists in the districts of Ranchi and Palamu in Bihar; of Sidhi, Shahdol, Bilaspur, Raypur and Bastar in Madhya Pradesh; of Nizamabad in Andhra Pradesh; of Usmanabad, Nanded, Aurangabad, Buldana, Bir and Parbhani in Maharashtra; of Dharavar, Shivamogga, Mandya and Mysore in Karnataka; of Allahabad, Pratapgarh, Hardoi and Fatehpur in Uttar Pradesh. A more detailed survey would allow us to discover this type of wheel in other places. In 1963, we have seen some of them in Rajasthan, in the districts of Udaypur and Bamsvara; in Andhra Pradesh, in the districts of Karnul; in the districts of Bijapur, Gulbarga, Raychur and Tumukur in Karnataka.

14 In this context it is interesting to note that the hewing of gneiss wheels in several quarries of South India was still occurring at the end of the 19th century. Bruce Foote 1880, pp. 105–106 tells us how in the granite-gneissic hills of Podile and Kuchipidi, to the west of Ongole, Nelluru district, in Andhra Pradesh, the rock was hewn to make wheels. A stone-cutter needed two months to complete a pair of wheels. He started by cutting out gneiss strips, paying careful attention to keep the central portion three times thicker than the rest; then he took great care while boring the hole intended for the axle and at the end he would decorate the frame. These wheels with a diameter varying from 1.50 to 1.90 m could last a very long time and it was thought that their strength increased over the years. For example, only a load of one khaṇḍi (roughly 200 kg) was put on a new pair of wheels but, after some years, the weight could be doubled. In the quarries of Kuchipudi approximately one hundred pairs of wheels were made annually; in other villages of this region the same work was carried out by craftsmen.

15 These vehicles have generally disappeared. However, some of them are still seen in the Krishna and Kolar districts. In the Karnul and Mahabubnagar districts, a number of stone wheels abandoned in pairs are found near houses.

16 See, on South Indian ceremonial chariots and chariots in Kerala, the articles written by Pieper & Thomsen 1979, and by Bernier Ronald 1979, pp. 1–14.

17 Bose 1961, p. 54.

18 In the districts of Howrah, Medinipur, 24-Parganas, Jalapaiguri in West Bengal; in the valley of the Brahmaputra and the district of Manipur (ibid., p. 54).

19 Bose 1961, p. 54; Baden Powell 1872, p. 247; Grierson 1926, pp. 28–31.

20 In the survey made by the Anthropological Survey of India, a diameter equal to or lower than 3 feet (91 cm) is regarded as small; a diameter varying from 3 to 4 feet (91 cm to 1.20 m), as medium, a diameter varying from 4 to 5 feet (1.20 m to 1.50 m), as high; and a diameter above 1.50 m as very high.

21 Bose 1961, p. 55.

22 Apparently according to the function of the vehicle. Thus, in the Tamil country we find the muḻu vaṇṭi, ‘large cart’, used on farms, for transporting goods or rice and the arai vaṇṭi, ‘half cart’, with smaller wheels, used for carrying salt or sand.

23 Henceforth these terms (tulāvā, paiñjanī [H.]) will be used to designate these wooden pieces. Moreover, although we are not well informed about the local terminology, it seems, at least for the main pieces, that there is a certain consistency in the vocabulary in the north of the Vindhyas. When comparing the surveys made by Baden Powell 1872, pp. 246–251 and Grierson 1926, pp. 27–42, we find that the names used in Panjab are more or less the same as the ones used in Bihar and that they are not very different from those used in Gujarat (Fischer & Shah 1970, pp. 14–17).

24 The V-shaped double struts or the horizontal planks are sometimes found in vehicles with an axle tree (photos 65, 66).

25 See Deloche 1983, pp. 17–21.

Table des illustrations

Légende Fig. I. Wheels of the country carts in India: Distribution map, A, according to their type, B, according to their dimensions (after Bose 1961, f.p. 56).
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/771/img-1.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 516k
Légende Fig. II. Solid wheels: a, Raypur district (Madhya Pradesh); b, Santhal Pargana district (West Bengal); c, Bamsvara district (Rajasthan); d, Barmer district (Rajasthan); e, Pali district (Rajasthan); f, Ranchi district (Bihar). Note, in a and b, the use of bufaloes, in c, the carved wheel, a masterpiece of rural craft in a tribal zone (a, after C.P.D.G., f.p. 194; b, after Bradley-Birth 1905, f.p. 244; c, d, e, after Glimpses of Rural Rajasthan, pp. 64, 62; f, after Bose 1961, p. 53).
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/771/img-2.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 576k
Légende Fig. III. Radially spoked wheels: a, Jaisalmer district (Rajasthan); b and d, Chittaurgarh district (Rajasthan); c, Jodhpur district (Rajasthan); e, Junagadh (Gujarat); f, central Maharashtra; g, western Maharashtra; h, Palghat district (Kerala); i, Tiruchchirappalli district (Tamilnadu). Note that the size of the wheels varies according to the regions, that the wheels of the north-west have a very thick felloe, made of two rings and the same type of support as the wheels with paired cross-bars (a, b, d, e, h, i, after Bose 1961, pp. 53–55; c, after Glimpses of Rural Rajasthan; f, after C.P.D.G., f.p. 142; g, after Farmers of India, vol. IV, f.p. 296).
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/771/img-3.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 731k
Légende Fig. IV. Wheels with paired cross-bars: a, c, d and h, Jaypur district (Rajasthan); b, Jalor district (Rajasthan); e, Singhbhum district (Bihar); f, Bharatpur district (Rajasthan); g, Agra district (U.P.). Note the thickness of the felloe and the form of the various supports of the wheel (a, b, c, d, h, after Glimpses of Rural Rajasthan, pp. 61–33; e and f, after Bose 1961, p. 54; g, after a photo by the author).
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/771/img-4.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 644k

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