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The town... the house... their spirit

 | 
Robert Dulau

Illustrations

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EXPLORING PONDICHERRY AND ITS SITE THROUGH PHYSICAL AND HUMAN GEOGRAPHY

Map of southern India showing the location of Pondicherry.

02. Plan of Pondicherry and its suburbs.

03. The two annual monsoons: – A. North-East monsoon, – B. South-West monsoon. (From: François Durand-Dastès, Géographie de l’Inde. Que sais-je? No. 1184, Presses Universitaires de France, Paris 1965.)

04. The course of the rivers in the region of Pondicherry.

THE PLAN OF A TOWN

05. Pondicherry in 1789. The fort. (E.F.E.O. collection).

06. Pondicherry before the Independence. (E.F.E.O. collection)

07. Modern Pondicherry marked in black, the notable houses of the town. (E.F.E.O. collection).

08. Washington D.C., a radio-concentric plan. (From: Francis D. K. Ching, Architecture: Form, Space and Order, V.N.R. Company, New York 1979.)

09. Jaipur: an Indian grid plan. (From: Claude Batley, The Design Development of Indian Architecture, D.B. Taraporevala, Bombay 1965 reprint.)

10. Medina of Tunis; note the narrow lanes and multiple centres. (From: Max Derruau, Précis de géographie humaine, Librairie Armand Colin, Paris 1961.)

11. Madurai at about the beginning of this century. A town constructed around a temple; a combination of a radio-concentric-grid plan. (From: Madras District Gazetteers: Madurai, Vol. i. By W. Francis, Government Press, Madras 1906.)

12. Montpazier, a French town representing a typical grid plan layout. (From: Francis D. K. Ching, cf. above.)

13. Conakry, a city in French Guinea, West Africa. (From: P. Pollacchi, Atlas colonial français, L’Illustration, Paris 1929.)

14. Madras. A town which has grown by incorporating several previously independant settlements so that its overall appearance today is irregular.

EXPLORING THE LANDSCAPE OF A STREET

15. The main streets of Pondicherry: Avenue Goubert (1); North Boulevard (2); West Boulevard (3); South Boulevard (4); Lai Bahadur Shastri Street (5); Jawaharlal Nehru Street (6); Mission Street (7); Mahatma Gandhi Road (8); Bharathi Street (9).

16. Street in a village near Gingee (16) and a view of Jawaharlal Nehru Street in Pondicherry (17). Note, on these two photos, the ratio of the height of the houses to the breadth of the street and also the absence and presence of demarcations.

17. Street in a village near Gingee (16) and a view of Jawaharlal Nehru Street in Pondicherry (17). Note, on these two photos, the ratio of the height of the houses to the breadth of the street and also the absence and presence of demarcations.

18. An aerial view of Pondicherry’s "ville blanche", showing the thick growth of vegetation.

19. Rue Labourdonnais, a typical street in the "ville blanche" with its colonial houses.

20. Two more streets of the "ville blanche": Rue Bazar St. Laurent, in the background, the sea (20); Rue Suffren. The public space is transformed into a semi-private area on the occasion of a marriage(21).

21 Two more streets of the "ville blanche": Rue Bazar St. Laurent, in the background, the sea (20); Rue Suffren. The public space is transformed into a semi-private area on the occasion of a marriage(21).

22. An aerial view of Pondicherry’s "ville noire", with the Gopuram (gate-tower) of Kalahastisvaran temple, which has been covered with palm-leaf thatches during renovation work.

23. Rue Sainte Therèse, a street in the "ville noire", after the rains.

24. Kandappa Mudaliar Street in the "ville noire" with a variety of different types of houses.

25. Rue Montorsier, still in the "ville noire"; note the series of traditional Tamil houses with their tiṇṇais open to the street.

26. Rue Mulla, a street in the Muslim quarter.

27. A general view of Nidarajapaiyar Street in the "ville noire".

28. Small lanes in the different parts of Pondicherry: Rue Ponnaicoutty in the "ville noire" (28); Ruelle du Corps de Garde in the "ville blanche" (29); Sultan street in the Muslim quarter (30); Sankaran Kulam street in the "ville noire", made attractive by its vegetation (31). (29); Sultan street in the Muslim quarter (30); Sankaran Kulam street in the "ville noire", made attractive by its vegetation (31).

29 Small lanes in the different parts of Pondicherry: Rue Ponnaicoutty in the "ville noire" (28); Ruelle du Corps de Garde in the "ville blanche" (29); Sultan street in the Muslim quarter (30); Sankaran Kulam street in the "ville noire", made attractive by its vegetation (31). (29); Sultan street in the Muslim quarter (30); Sankaran Kulam street in the "ville noire", made attractive by its vegetation (31).

30 Small lanes in the different parts of Pondicherry: Rue Ponnaicoutty in the "ville noire" (28); Ruelle du Corps de Garde in the "ville blanche" (29); Sultan street in the Muslim quarter (30); Sankaran Kulam street in the "ville noire", made attractive by its vegetation (31). (29); Sultan street in the Muslim quarter (30); Sankaran Kulam street in the "ville noire", made attractive by its vegetation (31).

31 Small lanes in the different parts of Pondicherry: Rue Ponnaicoutty in the "ville noire" (28); Ruelle du Corps de Garde in the "ville blanche" (29); Sultan street in the Muslim quarter (30); Sankaran Kulam street in the "ville noire", made attractive by its vegetation (31). (29); Sultan street in the Muslim quarter (30); Sankaran Kulam street in the "ville noire", made attractive by its vegetation (31).

32. A traditional Tamil house: architecture in human scale.

33. Another traditional Tamil house but showing the influence of colonial architecture in its parapet-wall.

34. The influence of colonial-style architecture on the Tamil houses; appearance of the first floor structure, of the columns between the windows, of the parapet walls and their decorative vases.

35. A row of tāvārams opening onto the street and creating a semi-public space.

36. Kolam. The outline is formed by placing the points on the ground prepared in front of the house (36); the lines are drawn around the points (37, 38); a row of kolam (39).

37 Kolam. The outline is formed by placing the points on the ground prepared in front of the house (36); the lines are drawn around the points (37, 38); a row of kolam (39).

38 Kolam. The outline is formed by placing the points on the ground prepared in front of the house (36); the lines are drawn around the points (37, 38); a row of kolam (39).

39 Kolam. The outline is formed by placing the points on the ground prepared in front of the house (36); the lines are drawn around the points (37, 38); a row of kolam (39).

40. Various uses of the public space: Sunday market on Jawaharlal Nehru street (40); brass vessel shops in Bharathi street (41); tailors’ shops, opposite the Big Market (42); a potter s shop on Amballattadouyar Madam street (43, 44); a temporary shop displaying plaster-of-paris statues, on Mahatma Gandhi road (45); a family dwelling on the pavement between temporary clothing shops, on Jawaharlal Nehru street (46).

41 Various uses of the public space: Sunday market on Jawaharlal Nehru street (40); brass vessel shops in Bharathi street (41); tailors’ shops, opposite the Big Market (42); a potter s shop on Amballattadouyar Madam street (43, 44); a temporary shop displaying plaster-of-paris statues, on Mahatma Gandhi road (45); a family dwelling on the pavement between temporary clothing shops, on Jawaharlal Nehru street (46).

42 Various uses of the public space: Sunday market on Jawaharlal Nehru street (40); brass vessel shops in Bharathi street (41); tailors’ shops, opposite the Big Market (42); a potter s shop on Amballattadouyar Madam street (43, 44); a temporary shop displaying plaster-of-paris statues, on Mahatma Gandhi road (45); a family dwelling on the pavement between temporary clothing shops, on Jawaharlal Nehru street (46).

43 Various uses of the public space: Sunday market on Jawaharlal Nehru street (40); brass vessel shops in Bharathi street (41); tailors’ shops, opposite the Big Market (42); a potter s shop on Amballattadouyar Madam street (43, 44); a temporary shop displaying plaster-of-paris statues, on Mahatma Gandhi road (45); a family dwelling on the pavement between temporary clothing shops, on Jawaharlal Nehru street (46).

44 Various uses of the public space: Sunday market on Jawaharlal Nehru street (40); brass vessel shops in Bharathi street (41); tailors’ shops, opposite the Big Market (42); a potter s shop on Amballattadouyar Madam street (43, 44); a temporary shop displaying plaster-of-paris statues, on Mahatma Gandhi road (45); a family dwelling on the pavement between temporary clothing shops, on Jawaharlal Nehru street (46).

45 Various uses of the public space: Sunday market on Jawaharlal Nehru street (40); brass vessel shops in Bharathi street (41); tailors’ shops, opposite the Big Market (42); a potter s shop on Amballattadouyar Madam street (43, 44); a temporary shop displaying plaster-of-paris statues, on Mahatma Gandhi road (45); a family dwelling on the pavement between temporary clothing shops, on Jawaharlal Nehru street (46).

46 Various uses of the public space: Sunday market on Jawaharlal Nehru street (40); brass vessel shops in Bharathi street (41); tailors’ shops, opposite the Big Market (42); a potter s shop on Amballattadouyar Madam street (43, 44); a temporary shop displaying plaster-of-paris statues, on Mahatma Gandhi road (45); a family dwelling on the pavement between temporary clothing shops, on Jawaharlal Nehru street (46).

47. Fold-out showing the plan and elevation of one side of Isvaran Dharmaraja Koil street in the "ville noire".

THE HOUSE

48. The evolution of the Tamil house from a typical village hut to a mansion with colonial influence.

49 The evolution of the Tamil house from a typical village hut to a mansion with colonial influence.

50. A cement pipe meant for the water supply is converted into a dwelling (on Vadalore–Tanjore road).

51. Temporary dwellings of nomadic people near Pondicherry.

52 Temporary dwellings of nomadic people near Pondicherry.

53. Huts made of mud walls and with thatched roofs, on the South Boulevard of Pondicherry.

54. A traditional Tamil house; the roof is covered with "country tiles".

55. A traditional Tamil house with a thatched roof, next to a house showing colonial influence.

56. A Tamil house with colonial influence; note the ornamental crenellations on the parapet wall.

57. Situated on the corner of two streets a house with a ground floor of the traditional Tamil type, but shows colonial influence in upper floor.

58. A mansion with colonial influence in the Muslim quarter of the town.

59. Note the peculiar shape of the ornamental roof on the ground floor and the open balcony on the upper floor.

60. General view (60) and close up (61) of the main entrance door of a traditional Tamil house.

61 General view (60) and close up (61) of the main entrance door of a traditional Tamil house.

62. A glimpse of an inner courtyard through the main door.

63. A view through the main door: the axis of a traditional Tamil house.

64. A series of tāvārams in front of traditional Tamil houses.

65. Relaxation in the shade provided by the tāvāram; the bench attached to the outer wall of the house replaces the tiṇṇai.

66. An old woman standing near the tiṇṇai of her house.

67. A tailor’s shop: professional activities on the tiṇṇai.

68. Entering a Tamil house: view from the main entrance (68); the inner courtyard (69); the courtyard of a large house with colonial influence (70); the courtyard of a small traditional house (71); note the difference in scale and in light quality in the last two.

69 Entering a Tamil house: view from the main entrance (68); the inner courtyard (69); the courtyard of a large house with colonial influence (70); the courtyard of a small traditional house (71); note the difference in scale and in light quality in the last two.

70 Entering a Tamil house: view from the main entrance (68); the inner courtyard (69); the courtyard of a large house with colonial influence (70); the courtyard of a small traditional house (71); note the difference in scale and in light quality in the last two.

71 Entering a Tamil house: view from the main entrance (68); the inner courtyard (69); the courtyard of a large house with colonial influence (70); the courtyard of a small traditional house (71); note the difference in scale and in light quality in the last two.

72. Street in the "ville blanche": a traditional Tamil house between two modern buildings.

73. Destruction of Tamil houses: a case in the "ville noire" (73) and in the Muslim quarter, view from the main door (74) and from inside to outside (75).

74 Destruction of Tamil houses: a case in the "ville noire" (73) and in the Muslim quarter, view from the main door (74) and from inside to outside (75).

75 Destruction of Tamil houses: a case in the "ville noire" (73) and in the Muslim quarter, view from the main door (74) and from inside to outside (75).

76. Modern buildings.

77. Modern buildings.

78. Ground plan of a series of traditional Tamil houses forming a neighbourhood. Note the location of tiṇṇai, inner courtyard and backyard in each house. (From the drawings prepared by D.C. Patel School of Architecture, Vallabha Vidyanagar.)

79. Analysis of a schematic plan of a traditional Tamil house:
A. The basic division of the plot.
B. The nature of the spaces: 1. open, 2. covered, 3. half open.
C. The axis of the house, from the main entrance to the back door.
D. The different parts of the house: 1. tiṇṇai, 2. naṭai, 3. room, 4. mu
ṟṟam, 5. kitchen, 6. well, 7. backyard, 8. toilet and bath.

80. Schematic section of a traditional Tamil house:
A. The different parts of the house: 1. tā
vāram, 2. tiṇṇai, 3. natai, 4. tāvāram, 5. muṟṟam, 6. tāvāram, 7. naai, 8. tiṇṇai, 9. well, 10. backyard, 11. toilet and bath.
B. The nature of the spaces: 1. open, 2. covered, 3. half open.

81. Three-dimensional view of a traditional Tamil house.

82. Three-dimensional view of a colonial-style house.

LANDMARKS AND SIGNS IN OUR TOWN

83. Plan of Pondicherry showing the important landmarks: Statue of Dupleix (1); Court building (2); Statue of Jeanne d’Arc (3); "Notre-Dame des Anges" church in Dumas street (4); Hôtel de Ville (Town Hall) (5); Le Café (6); Old pier and statue of Gandhi (7); Old lighthouse (8) French war memorial (9); Pavillion in the centre of the park (10); Raj Nivas (11); Secretariat (12); Manakula Vinayakar temple (13); Sri Aurobindo Ashram (14); Legislative Assembly (15); General Hospital (16); Cathedral (17); Perumal temple (18); Bharathidasan memorial (19); Shiva temple (20); Clock tower of the Grand Bazar (21); House of Ananda Rangapillai (22); Clock tower of the Small Bazar (23); Main mosque in the Muslim quarter (24); Sacred Heart of Jesus church (25); Railway station (26); Water tank on Jawaharlal Nehru street-West Boulevard corner (27).

86. Park monument.

87. Notre-Dame des Anges.

89. Sacred Heart of Jesus church.

90. Minapally mosque.

91. Mosque near the prison.

92. Varasiddhi Vinayakar temple on Bharathi street.

93. Manakula Vinayakar temple.

94. Clock tower of the Small Bazar.

95. Clock tower of the Grand bazar.

96. Old light house.

97. Water tank on Jawaharlal Nehru street-West Boulevard corner.

98. Court building.

99. Indira Gandhi Stadium, Colas Nagar.

100. Commercial complex on the corner of Jawaharlal Nehru street and Mission street.

101. Balaji cinema.

102. Statue of Dupleix.

103. Statue of Gandhi.

104. Statue of Jeanne d’Arc

105. Statue of Ambedkar.

108. Typical signs in the town of Pondicherry. Kalatisvaran kovil street: the old name board in French and Tamil, the new board in Tamil and English, next to a small shrine on the pavement.

109. Film poster in front of a cinema theatre.

110. "Place de la République".

LIMITS AND THE IDEA OF PASSAGE IN THE TOWN WHERE WE LIVE

111. Plan of Pondicherry showing the important limits: The circular boulevard (1); The Grand Canal (2); The Small Canal (3); The seashore (4)

112. Ellai Mariyamman kovil between Pondicherry and Villiyanur.

113. East Boulevard and the Bay of Bengal.

114. The Grand Canal.

115. Covered part of the Grand Canal, which is now used for food stalls, kiosks and a taxi stand.

116. Another part of the Grand Canal, with a bridge forming a passage across the limit.

117. Bridge across the Small Canal, connecting two residential buildings.

118. Detail of a temple wall on Mahatma Gandhi road.

119. The temple of Ellai Amman, near the Muslim quarter. The sacred space is clearly marked by the colouring of the wall.

120. Gateway marking the entrance to Shri Vedapurisvarar Varadarajaperumal Nagar.

121. A prohibiting traffic sign at the gate of Indira Nagar.

122. Signboard near the new bus stand, indicating the limit of the delivery zone of the Pondicherry Head Post office.

123. Pondicherry railway station.

124. Board indicating the limit of the territory of Tamil Nadu.

125. Police checkpost near the limit of Pondicherry territory on the New Madras road.

126 Level crossings as limits: closed and open.

127 Level crossings as limits: closed and open.

128 Fragile limits in front of houses: Kolam.

129 Fragile limits in front of houses: Kolam.

Table des illustrations

URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/6438/img-1.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 135k
Légende Map of southern India showing the location of Pondicherry.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/6438/img-2.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 326k
Légende 02. Plan of Pondicherry and its suburbs.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/6438/img-3.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 640k
Légende 03. The two annual monsoons: – A. North-East monsoon, – B. South-West monsoon. (From: François Durand-Dastès, Géographie de l’Inde. Que sais-je? No. 1184, Presses Universitaires de France, Paris 1965.)
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/6438/img-4.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 483k
Légende 04. The course of the rivers in the region of Pondicherry.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/6438/img-5.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 493k
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/6438/img-6.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 151k
Légende 05. Pondicherry in 1789. The fort. (E.F.E.O. collection).
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/6438/img-7.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 1,1M
Légende 06. Pondicherry before the Independence. (E.F.E.O. collection)
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/6438/img-8.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 346k
Légende 07. Modern Pondicherry marked in black, the notable houses of the town. (E.F.E.O. collection).
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/6438/img-9.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 469k
Légende 08. Washington D.C., a radio-concentric plan. (From: Francis D. K. Ching, Architecture: Form, Space and Order, V.N.R. Company, New York 1979.)
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/6438/img-10.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 472k
Légende 09. Jaipur: an Indian grid plan. (From: Claude Batley, The Design Development of Indian Architecture, D.B. Taraporevala, Bombay 1965 reprint.)
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/6438/img-11.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 495k
Légende 10. Medina of Tunis; note the narrow lanes and multiple centres. (From: Max Derruau, Précis de géographie humaine, Librairie Armand Colin, Paris 1961.)
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/6438/img-12.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 357k
Légende 11. Madurai at about the beginning of this century. A town constructed around a temple; a combination of a radio-concentric-grid plan. (From: Madras District Gazetteers: Madurai, Vol. i. By W. Francis, Government Press, Madras 1906.)
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/6438/img-13.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 587k
Légende 12. Montpazier, a French town representing a typical grid plan layout. (From: Francis D. K. Ching, cf. above.)
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/6438/img-14.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 428k
Légende 13. Conakry, a city in French Guinea, West Africa. (From: P. Pollacchi, Atlas colonial français, L’Illustration, Paris 1929.)
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/6438/img-15.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 653k
Légende 14. Madras. A town which has grown by incorporating several previously independant settlements so that its overall appearance today is irregular.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/6438/img-16.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 1,0M
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/6438/img-17.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 155k
Légende 15. The main streets of Pondicherry: Avenue Goubert (1); North Boulevard (2); West Boulevard (3); South Boulevard (4); Lai Bahadur Shastri Street (5); Jawaharlal Nehru Street (6); Mission Street (7); Mahatma Gandhi Road (8); Bharathi Street (9).
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/6438/img-18.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 479k
Légende 16. Street in a village near Gingee (16) and a view of Jawaharlal Nehru Street in Pondicherry (17). Note, on these two photos, the ratio of the height of the houses to the breadth of the street and also the absence and presence of demarcations.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/6438/img-19.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 545k
Légende 17. Street in a village near Gingee (16) and a view of Jawaharlal Nehru Street in Pondicherry (17). Note, on these two photos, the ratio of the height of the houses to the breadth of the street and also the absence and presence of demarcations.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/6438/img-20.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 376k
Légende 18. An aerial view of Pondicherry’s "ville blanche", showing the thick growth of vegetation.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/6438/img-21.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 536k
Légende 19. Rue Labourdonnais, a typical street in the "ville blanche" with its colonial houses.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/6438/img-22.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 572k
Légende 20. Two more streets of the "ville blanche": Rue Bazar St. Laurent, in the background, the sea (20); Rue Suffren. The public space is transformed into a semi-private area on the occasion of a marriage(21).
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/6438/img-23.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 550k
Légende 21 Two more streets of the "ville blanche": Rue Bazar St. Laurent, in the background, the sea (20); Rue Suffren. The public space is transformed into a semi-private area on the occasion of a marriage(21).
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/6438/img-24.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 532k
Légende 22. An aerial view of Pondicherry’s "ville noire", with the Gopuram (gate-tower) of Kalahastisvaran temple, which has been covered with palm-leaf thatches during renovation work.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/6438/img-25.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 574k
Légende 23. Rue Sainte Therèse, a street in the "ville noire", after the rains.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/6438/img-26.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 320k
Légende 24. Kandappa Mudaliar Street in the "ville noire" with a variety of different types of houses.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/6438/img-27.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 564k
Légende 25. Rue Montorsier, still in the "ville noire"; note the series of traditional Tamil houses with their tiṇṇais open to the street.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/6438/img-28.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 564k
Légende 26. Rue Mulla, a street in the Muslim quarter.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/6438/img-29.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 309k
Légende 27. A general view of Nidarajapaiyar Street in the "ville noire".
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/6438/img-30.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 565k
Légende 28. Small lanes in the different parts of Pondicherry: Rue Ponnaicoutty in the "ville noire" (28); Ruelle du Corps de Garde in the "ville blanche" (29); Sultan street in the Muslim quarter (30); Sankaran Kulam street in the "ville noire", made attractive by its vegetation (31). (29); Sultan street in the Muslim quarter (30); Sankaran Kulam street in the "ville noire", made attractive by its vegetation (31).
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/6438/img-31.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 311k
Légende 29 Small lanes in the different parts of Pondicherry: Rue Ponnaicoutty in the "ville noire" (28); Ruelle du Corps de Garde in the "ville blanche" (29); Sultan street in the Muslim quarter (30); Sankaran Kulam street in the "ville noire", made attractive by its vegetation (31). (29); Sultan street in the Muslim quarter (30); Sankaran Kulam street in the "ville noire", made attractive by its vegetation (31).
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/6438/img-32.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 313k
Légende 30 Small lanes in the different parts of Pondicherry: Rue Ponnaicoutty in the "ville noire" (28); Ruelle du Corps de Garde in the "ville blanche" (29); Sultan street in the Muslim quarter (30); Sankaran Kulam street in the "ville noire", made attractive by its vegetation (31). (29); Sultan street in the Muslim quarter (30); Sankaran Kulam street in the "ville noire", made attractive by its vegetation (31).
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/6438/img-33.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 348k
Légende 31 Small lanes in the different parts of Pondicherry: Rue Ponnaicoutty in the "ville noire" (28); Ruelle du Corps de Garde in the "ville blanche" (29); Sultan street in the Muslim quarter (30); Sankaran Kulam street in the "ville noire", made attractive by its vegetation (31). (29); Sultan street in the Muslim quarter (30); Sankaran Kulam street in the "ville noire", made attractive by its vegetation (31).
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/6438/img-34.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 357k
Légende 32. A traditional Tamil house: architecture in human scale.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/6438/img-35.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 620k
Légende 33. Another traditional Tamil house but showing the influence of colonial architecture in its parapet-wall.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/6438/img-36.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 563k
Légende 34. The influence of colonial-style architecture on the Tamil houses; appearance of the first floor structure, of the columns between the windows, of the parapet walls and their decorative vases.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/6438/img-37.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 337k
Légende 35. A row of tāḻvārams opening onto the street and creating a semi-public space.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/6438/img-38.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 336k
Légende 36. Kolam. The outline is formed by placing the points on the ground prepared in front of the house (36); the lines are drawn around the points (37, 38); a row of kolam (39).
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/6438/img-39.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 562k
Légende 37 Kolam. The outline is formed by placing the points on the ground prepared in front of the house (36); the lines are drawn around the points (37, 38); a row of kolam (39).
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/6438/img-40.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 325k
Légende 38 Kolam. The outline is formed by placing the points on the ground prepared in front of the house (36); the lines are drawn around the points (37, 38); a row of kolam (39).
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/6438/img-41.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 608k
Légende 39 Kolam. The outline is formed by placing the points on the ground prepared in front of the house (36); the lines are drawn around the points (37, 38); a row of kolam (39).
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/6438/img-42.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 603k
Légende 40. Various uses of the public space: Sunday market on Jawaharlal Nehru street (40); brass vessel shops in Bharathi street (41); tailors’ shops, opposite the Big Market (42); a potter s shop on Amballattadouyar Madam street (43, 44); a temporary shop displaying plaster-of-paris statues, on Mahatma Gandhi road (45); a family dwelling on the pavement between temporary clothing shops, on Jawaharlal Nehru street (46).
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/6438/img-43.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 663k
Légende 41 Various uses of the public space: Sunday market on Jawaharlal Nehru street (40); brass vessel shops in Bharathi street (41); tailors’ shops, opposite the Big Market (42); a potter s shop on Amballattadouyar Madam street (43, 44); a temporary shop displaying plaster-of-paris statues, on Mahatma Gandhi road (45); a family dwelling on the pavement between temporary clothing shops, on Jawaharlal Nehru street (46).
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/6438/img-44.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 553k
Légende 42 Various uses of the public space: Sunday market on Jawaharlal Nehru street (40); brass vessel shops in Bharathi street (41); tailors’ shops, opposite the Big Market (42); a potter s shop on Amballattadouyar Madam street (43, 44); a temporary shop displaying plaster-of-paris statues, on Mahatma Gandhi road (45); a family dwelling on the pavement between temporary clothing shops, on Jawaharlal Nehru street (46).
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/6438/img-45.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 551k
Légende 43 Various uses of the public space: Sunday market on Jawaharlal Nehru street (40); brass vessel shops in Bharathi street (41); tailors’ shops, opposite the Big Market (42); a potter s shop on Amballattadouyar Madam street (43, 44); a temporary shop displaying plaster-of-paris statues, on Mahatma Gandhi road (45); a family dwelling on the pavement between temporary clothing shops, on Jawaharlal Nehru street (46).
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/6438/img-46.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 505k
Légende 44 Various uses of the public space: Sunday market on Jawaharlal Nehru street (40); brass vessel shops in Bharathi street (41); tailors’ shops, opposite the Big Market (42); a potter s shop on Amballattadouyar Madam street (43, 44); a temporary shop displaying plaster-of-paris statues, on Mahatma Gandhi road (45); a family dwelling on the pavement between temporary clothing shops, on Jawaharlal Nehru street (46).
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/6438/img-47.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 524k
Légende 45 Various uses of the public space: Sunday market on Jawaharlal Nehru street (40); brass vessel shops in Bharathi street (41); tailors’ shops, opposite the Big Market (42); a potter s shop on Amballattadouyar Madam street (43, 44); a temporary shop displaying plaster-of-paris statues, on Mahatma Gandhi road (45); a family dwelling on the pavement between temporary clothing shops, on Jawaharlal Nehru street (46).
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/6438/img-48.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 614k
Légende 46 Various uses of the public space: Sunday market on Jawaharlal Nehru street (40); brass vessel shops in Bharathi street (41); tailors’ shops, opposite the Big Market (42); a potter s shop on Amballattadouyar Madam street (43, 44); a temporary shop displaying plaster-of-paris statues, on Mahatma Gandhi road (45); a family dwelling on the pavement between temporary clothing shops, on Jawaharlal Nehru street (46).
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/6438/img-49.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 604k
Légende 47. Fold-out showing the plan and elevation of one side of Isvaran Dharmaraja Koil street in the "ville noire".
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/6438/img-50.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 804k
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/6438/img-51.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 140k
Légende 48. The evolution of the Tamil house from a typical village hut to a mansion with colonial influence.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/6438/img-52.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 503k
Légende 49 The evolution of the Tamil house from a typical village hut to a mansion with colonial influence.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/6438/img-53.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 829k
Légende 50. A cement pipe meant for the water supply is converted into a dwelling (on Vadalore–Tanjore road).
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/6438/img-54.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 578k
Légende 51. Temporary dwellings of nomadic people near Pondicherry.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/6438/img-55.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 559k
Légende 52 Temporary dwellings of nomadic people near Pondicherry.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/6438/img-56.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 323k
Légende 53. Huts made of mud walls and with thatched roofs, on the South Boulevard of Pondicherry.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/6438/img-57.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 552k
Légende 54. A traditional Tamil house; the roof is covered with "country tiles".
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/6438/img-58.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 546k
Légende 55. A traditional Tamil house with a thatched roof, next to a house showing colonial influence.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/6438/img-59.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 560k
Légende 56. A Tamil house with colonial influence; note the ornamental crenellations on the parapet wall.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/6438/img-60.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 517k
Légende 57. Situated on the corner of two streets a house with a ground floor of the traditional Tamil type, but shows colonial influence in upper floor.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/6438/img-61.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 291k
Légende 58. A mansion with colonial influence in the Muslim quarter of the town.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/6438/img-62.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 576k
Légende 59. Note the peculiar shape of the ornamental roof on the ground floor and the open balcony on the upper floor.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/6438/img-63.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 316k
Légende 60. General view (60) and close up (61) of the main entrance door of a traditional Tamil house.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/6438/img-64.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 366k
Légende 61 General view (60) and close up (61) of the main entrance door of a traditional Tamil house.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/6438/img-65.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 609k
Légende 62. A glimpse of an inner courtyard through the main door.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/6438/img-66.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 354k
Légende 63. A view through the main door: the axis of a traditional Tamil house.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/6438/img-67.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 328k
Légende 64. A series of tāḻvārams in front of traditional Tamil houses.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/6438/img-68.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 312k
Légende 65. Relaxation in the shade provided by the tāḻvāram; the bench attached to the outer wall of the house replaces the tiṇṇai.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/6438/img-69.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 298k
Légende 66. An old woman standing near the tiṇṇai of her house.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/6438/img-70.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 327k
Légende 67. A tailor’s shop: professional activities on the tiṇṇai.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/6438/img-71.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 568k
Légende 68. Entering a Tamil house: view from the main entrance (68); the inner courtyard (69); the courtyard of a large house with colonial influence (70); the courtyard of a small traditional house (71); note the difference in scale and in light quality in the last two.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/6438/img-72.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 295k
Légende 69 Entering a Tamil house: view from the main entrance (68); the inner courtyard (69); the courtyard of a large house with colonial influence (70); the courtyard of a small traditional house (71); note the difference in scale and in light quality in the last two.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/6438/img-73.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 523k
Légende 70 Entering a Tamil house: view from the main entrance (68); the inner courtyard (69); the courtyard of a large house with colonial influence (70); the courtyard of a small traditional house (71); note the difference in scale and in light quality in the last two.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/6438/img-74.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 555k
Légende 71 Entering a Tamil house: view from the main entrance (68); the inner courtyard (69); the courtyard of a large house with colonial influence (70); the courtyard of a small traditional house (71); note the difference in scale and in light quality in the last two.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/6438/img-75.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 345k
Légende 72. Street in the "ville blanche": a traditional Tamil house between two modern buildings.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/6438/img-76.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 452k
Légende 73. Destruction of Tamil houses: a case in the "ville noire" (73) and in the Muslim quarter, view from the main door (74) and from inside to outside (75).
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/6438/img-77.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 492k
Légende 74 Destruction of Tamil houses: a case in the "ville noire" (73) and in the Muslim quarter, view from the main door (74) and from inside to outside (75).
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/6438/img-78.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 342k
Légende 75 Destruction of Tamil houses: a case in the "ville noire" (73) and in the Muslim quarter, view from the main door (74) and from inside to outside (75).
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/6438/img-79.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 379k
Légende 76. Modern buildings.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/6438/img-80.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 465k
Légende 77. Modern buildings.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/6438/img-81.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 506k
Légende 78. Ground plan of a series of traditional Tamil houses forming a neighbourhood. Note the location of tiṇṇai, inner courtyard and backyard in each house. (From the drawings prepared by D.C. Patel School of Architecture, Vallabha Vidyanagar.)
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/6438/img-82.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 827k
Légende 79. Analysis of a schematic plan of a traditional Tamil house:A. The basic division of the plot.B. The nature of the spaces: 1. open, 2. covered, 3. half open.C. The axis of the house, from the main entrance to the back door.D. The different parts of the house: 1. tiṇṇai, 2. naṭai, 3. room, 4. muṟṟam, 5. kitchen, 6. well, 7. backyard, 8. toilet and bath.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/6438/img-83.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 253k
Légende 80. Schematic section of a traditional Tamil house:A. The different parts of the house: 1. tāḻvāram, 2. tiṇṇai, 3. natai, 4. tāḻvāram, 5. muṟṟam, 6. tāḻvāram, 7. naṭai, 8. tiṇṇai, 9. well, 10. backyard, 11. toilet and bath.B. The nature of the spaces: 1. open, 2. covered, 3. half open.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/6438/img-84.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 282k
Légende 81. Three-dimensional view of a traditional Tamil house.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/6438/img-85.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 317k
Légende 82. Three-dimensional view of a colonial-style house.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/6438/img-86.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 360k
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/6438/img-87.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 111k
Légende 83. Plan of Pondicherry showing the important landmarks: Statue of Dupleix (1); Court building (2); Statue of Jeanne d’Arc (3); "Notre-Dame des Anges" church in Dumas street (4); Hôtel de Ville (Town Hall) (5); Le Café (6); Old pier and statue of Gandhi (7); Old lighthouse (8) French war memorial (9); Pavillion in the centre of the park (10); Raj Nivas (11); Secretariat (12); Manakula Vinayakar temple (13); Sri Aurobindo Ashram (14); Legislative Assembly (15); General Hospital (16); Cathedral (17); Perumal temple (18); Bharathidasan memorial (19); Shiva temple (20); Clock tower of the Grand Bazar (21); House of Ananda Rangapillai (22); Clock tower of the Small Bazar (23); Main mosque in the Muslim quarter (24); Sacred Heart of Jesus church (25); Railway station (26); Water tank on Jawaharlal Nehru street-West Boulevard corner (27).
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/6438/img-88.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 1,1M
Légende 84. Old pier.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/6438/img-89.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 292k
Légende 85. New pier.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/6438/img-90.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 510k
Légende 86. Park monument.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/6438/img-91.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 322k
Légende 87. Notre-Dame des Anges.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/6438/img-92.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 333k
Légende 88. Cathedral.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/6438/img-93.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 534k
Légende 89. Sacred Heart of Jesus church.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/6438/img-94.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 347k
Légende 90. Minapally mosque.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/6438/img-95.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 593k
Légende 91. Mosque near the prison.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/6438/img-96.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 327k
Légende 92. Varasiddhi Vinayakar temple on Bharathi street.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/6438/img-97.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 334k
Légende 93. Manakula Vinayakar temple.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/6438/img-98.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 316k
Légende 94. Clock tower of the Small Bazar.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/6438/img-99.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 320k
Légende 95. Clock tower of the Grand bazar.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/6438/img-100.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 382k
Légende 96. Old light house.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/6438/img-101.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 296k
Légende 97. Water tank on Jawaharlal Nehru street-West Boulevard corner.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/6438/img-102.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 307k
Légende 98. Court building.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/6438/img-103.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 588k
Légende 99. Indira Gandhi Stadium, Colas Nagar.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/6438/img-104.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 541k
Légende 100. Commercial complex on the corner of Jawaharlal Nehru street and Mission street.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/6438/img-105.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 522k
Légende 101. Balaji cinema.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/6438/img-106.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 572k
Légende 102. Statue of Dupleix.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/6438/img-107.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 328k
Légende 103. Statue of Gandhi.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/6438/img-108.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 520k
Légende 104. Statue of Jeanne d’Arc
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/6438/img-109.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 505k
Légende 105. Statue of Ambedkar.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/6438/img-110.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 354k
Légende 106 Sign boards.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/6438/img-111.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 291k
Légende 107 Sign boards.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/6438/img-112.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 519k
Légende 108. Typical signs in the town of Pondicherry. Kalatisvaran kovil street: the old name board in French and Tamil, the new board in Tamil and English, next to a small shrine on the pavement.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/6438/img-113.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 309k
Légende 109. Film poster in front of a cinema theatre.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/6438/img-114.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 359k
Légende 110. "Place de la République".
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/6438/img-115.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 582k
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/6438/img-116.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 132k
Légende 111. Plan of Pondicherry showing the important limits: The circular boulevard (1); The Grand Canal (2); The Small Canal (3); The seashore (4)
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/6438/img-117.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 436k
Légende 112. Ellai Mariyamman kovil between Pondicherry and Villiyanur.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/6438/img-118.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 598k
Légende 113. East Boulevard and the Bay of Bengal.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/6438/img-119.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 529k
Légende 114. The Grand Canal.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/6438/img-120.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 598k
Légende 115. Covered part of the Grand Canal, which is now used for food stalls, kiosks and a taxi stand.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/6438/img-121.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 600k
Légende 116. Another part of the Grand Canal, with a bridge forming a passage across the limit.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/6438/img-122.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 572k
Légende 117. Bridge across the Small Canal, connecting two residential buildings.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/6438/img-123.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 537k
Légende 118. Detail of a temple wall on Mahatma Gandhi road.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/6438/img-124.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 606k
Légende 119. The temple of Ellai Amman, near the Muslim quarter. The sacred space is clearly marked by the colouring of the wall.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/6438/img-125.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 582k
Légende 120. Gateway marking the entrance to Shri Vedapurisvarar Varadarajaperumal Nagar.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/6438/img-126.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 314k
Légende 121. A prohibiting traffic sign at the gate of Indira Nagar.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/6438/img-127.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 591k
Légende 122. Signboard near the new bus stand, indicating the limit of the delivery zone of the Pondicherry Head Post office.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/6438/img-128.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 341k
Légende 123. Pondicherry railway station.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/6438/img-129.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 626k
Légende 124. Board indicating the limit of the territory of Tamil Nadu.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/6438/img-130.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 599k
Légende 125. Police checkpost near the limit of Pondicherry territory on the New Madras road.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/6438/img-131.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 559k
Légende 126 Level crossings as limits: closed and open.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/6438/img-132.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 612k
Légende 127 Level crossings as limits: closed and open.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/6438/img-133.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 648k
Légende 128 Fragile limits in front of houses: Kolam.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/6438/img-134.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 356k
Légende 129 Fragile limits in front of houses: Kolam.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/6438/img-135.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 346k
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/6438/img-136.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 631k

© Institut Français de Pondichéry, 1993

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