Version classiqueVersion mobile

Calcutta 1981

 | 
Jean Racine

Session III. A. Tackling the Crisis

10. Planning for Action

The CMDA's Involvement

S.K. Roy et Kalyan Roy

Texte intégral

  • a This paper was written at a time when the CMDA was in the midst of its second phase of urban develo (...)

1The purpose of the paper is to present an overview of the planning and implementation programme of the Calcutta Metropolitan Development Authority (CMDA) to deal with the urban crisis of this metropolisa.

  • b According to 1981 Census, the number of Indian cities and urban agglomerations of more than 1,00,00 (...)

2Amongst the 148 cities and urban agglomerations, each with a population 1,00,000 and above in 1971, the Calcutta Urban Agglomeration (CUA) is at the top with a population of 7,031,382, followed by Greater Bombay Municipal Corporation (5,970,575), Delhi Urban Agglomeration (3,647,023), Madras Urban Agglomeration (3,169,930), according to 1971 Censusb.

3The Calcutta Metropolitan District (CMD) is spread over nearly 80 km along both sides of River Hooghly. It had been given the status of a single planning region under the Calcutta Metropolitan Planning Area (Use and Development of Land) Control Act, 1965. It is not under single administrative jurisdiction and according to the 1971 Census consists of as many as 34 urban local self-government units. There are three corporations and 31 municipalities. Besides this, the CMDA has 62 non-municipal urban units (including notified areas like Salt Lake, Kalyani, etc.) and 477 rural mouzas administered by Anchal Panchayats.

  • c For a definition of these units refer to next page (J.R.).

4All these together account for about 1,425 km2 of area and a population of about 8.33 million, according to the 1971 census. While the Overall density of CMD is 5,846 persons per km2 the city of Calcutta has the model value of 30,275 persons per km2 and some rural mouzas have a density of as low as 81 persons per km2 eachc.

  • d For more details on bustees, see Addendum H (J.R.).

5Out of a total population of 8.33 million nearly 2.5 million live in slums (bustees) characterized by low rise high density housing with extremely insanitary environment and inadequate provision of basic utilities. Calcutta city alone accounts for about 1.25 million bustee populationd.

  • e Although sectoral break-down employment figures for all areas of CMD are not available as yet in 19 (...)

6According to the 1971 census, out of a total working population of 2.6 million in CMD, the tertiary sector accounted for nearly 54 per cent, while secondary and primary sectors shared about 40.5 per cent and 5.6 per cent of the total employment respectivelye.

7CMD has been playing a significant role in urban eastern India and particularly in the urban four-state region comprising Bihar, Assam, Orissa and West Bengal. While the CMD shared about 38 per cent and 67 per cent of the total urban population of this four-state region and West Bengal respectively, it also accounted for about 45 per cent and 79 per cent of the total urban working population of the four-state region and West Bengal, respectively.

  • f See Reference Map 1 for the localization of those different units in the general frame of the Calcu (...)

Administrative units involved in the Calcutta Metropolitan District: A few definitions
District:
The key administrative unit in the state of West Bengal, as well as in all the States of India, is the district. The state is divided in 16 districts, of which Calcutta city is one. One must not confuse these districts with the Calcutta Metropolitan District, which is not an administrative unit, but a special area of planning for Calcutta Urban Agglomeration and surroundings. This Metropolitan District is made of Calcutta District as a whole, and fragments of 24 Parganas, Howrah, Hooghly and Nadia districts.
Corporation:
The head of Calcutta Corporation is normally its elected chairman, the Mayor of Calcutta. Scheduled for every five years, the municipal elections in Calcutta, however, have not been held for fifteen years. The top men of the Corporation were thus for long the Commissioner and the Administrator, both of them appointed by the government. Only big cities are usually classified as Corporations, except Chandemagore (only 1,01,000 inhabitants in 1981) which enjoys this status because of its French past. Howrah is the third Corporation.
Municipality:
It is an urban area, town or city, run by an elected body with a Chairman.
Non-Municipal Area:
It is an area with urban characteristics but no local self-government. The demographic growth tends to convert these urbanizing areas into municipalities.
Notified Area:
Except Barrackpore N.A., notified because of its large military cantonment, the Notified Areas in the Calcutta Metropolitan District cover the new towns such as Kalyani and Salt Lake. They are run by a government-nominated body.
Mouza:
This is the smallest administrative unit of West Bengal, with a local self-government, the Gram Panchayat of the village.
Anchal Panchayat:
Ten or fifteen mouzas make an anchal. Each mouza sends his representative, the pradhan, to the anchal panchayat, or anchal assemblyf.

METROPOLITAN PLANNING EFFORTS

  • g "Basic Development Plan Calcutta Metropolitan District 1966-1986" prepared by the Calcutta Planning (...)

8The first planning efforts towards urban development in the state of West Bengal started with the creation of Calcutta Metropolitan Planning Organization (CMPO) in 1960. This Organization was responsible for preparing development plans for this metropolis. As a result of combined efforts of engineers, architects, economists, sociologists and geographers a pioneering document, the Basic Development Plan, 1966-86, was published in 1966g. This document contained all the basic characteristics of the CMD which existed in the early 1960s. It also presented a perspective plan and a strategy for development. This was followed by two master plans, namely, Comprehensive Transportation Plan and Master Plan for Water Supply, Sewerage and Drainage.

9The basic objectives of the Basic Development Plan were:

  1. To promote a more dynamic growth of the metropolitan economy with increased production and income, with sufficient employment opportunities, in close integration with the economic development of the region for which Calcutta provides vital economic functions.

  2. To develop an urban environment which would be socially satisfactory and capable of sustaining a population of about 12.3 million in CMD in 1986 with appropriate services and facilities.

  3. To create the machinery for sustained development planning and for effective plan implementation within the growth framework for the state and the CMD.

  4. To strengthen local self-government and citizen participation in the development of the Metropolitan District through more effective mobilization of local fiscal resources, civic leadership and voluntary citizen effort.

10The Basic Development Plan recommended an overall action programme to arrest the further deterioration of public utilities within the CMD. It advocated a binodal strategy for the development of CMD by focussing governmental action at two centres, namely, Calcutta-Howrah and Kalyani-Bansbaria, where Kalyani-Bansbaria centre was to act as a counter magnet to the city of Calcutta.

  • h From 1951-52 to 1965-66, the Government of India implemented three successive Five Year Plans. Two (...)

11Most of the plans and actions programmes contained in the BDP remained unimplemented for dearth of adequate funds. As a result the crisis in the metropolis of Calcutta and specially in the city of Calcutta deepened. Although the BDP had indicated a five-year action programme which was to commence from 1966 as part of the national Fourth Five-Year Plan programme, unfortunately due to the economic crisis that prevailed all over the country during 1966-67, the Fourth Five-Year Plan was finally launched in 1969h. The Fourth Plan provision in the state outlay for the development of the metropolis of Calcutta was put at Rs. 43 crore. Such provision was found to be extremely inadequate compared to the needs of the CMD. As such in 1970 it was felt that to make any significant dent on the problems of urban crisis, the CMD needed a much larger provision than Rs. 43 crore.

Fig. 10.1. The urban development strategy of the C.M.D.A.: from binodal to multinodal

Table 10.1: Administrative units in the Calcutta Metropolitan District 1971-1981

Units

1971

1981

Corporations
Municipalities
Non-municipal areas and notified areas
Mouzas

3
31
62
477

3
33
74
not yet ascertained

Calcutta Metropolitan District
Population

8,3 M

10,2 M

12At this stage, it was decided to set up a statutory body for centralized administration of the investment programme. Accordingly, the Calcutta Metropolitan Development Authority (CMDA) came into existence in the first week of September, 1970. A fund of about Rs. 150 crore was allocated for the CMDA Five Year Programme.

13The investment plans were subsequently modified to match the targets. A Directorate of Planning was set up in the CMDA in the middle of 1974.

14In 1976 the Directorate of Planning published the Development Perspective Plan. This document dealt with the questions of urban expansion, economic activity and employment infrastructure. It discarded the bipolar proposal of the BDP and recommended instead a. polycentric strategy. It proposed a balanced distribution of population and employment and greater diversity in employment opportunities to support the initiatives aiming to stimulate the economy of this region. It emphasized on the inclusion of such activities in CMDA's programme that would facilitate the transmission of benefits to the poor sections of the community. It was appreciated by all that preparing investment plan on annual basis was unsatisfactory for organizing an effective development programme. So the Development Perspective Plan while keeping in view a planning horizon of four years, i.e., from 1976 to 1980, came up with a Five-Year Investment Plancovering the period from 1977 to 1982. Il has been subsequently revised to a Five-Year Investment Plan, 1978-1983, for a total amount of about Rs. 278 crore.

THE SUCCESSIVE PROGRAMMES OF THE CALCUTTA METROPOLITAN DEVELOPMENT AUTHORITY

15The CMDA's developmental programme can be conveniently divided into three parts, viz.

  1. Past Programme (1970-71 to 1977-78).

  2. Present Programme (1978-79 to 1982-83).

  3. Future programme (1983-84 to 1987-88).

Past Programme

16After the CMDA came into being in late 1970, it adopted a Rs. 150 crore programme for development, covering about 100 schemes in fields of water supply, sewerage and drainage, traffic and transportation, garbage disposal, bustee improvement, re-development of housing and other schemes. In 1973, the International Development Association (IDA), a soft-loan associate of the World Bank, had agreed to provide financial assistance against 44 out of 100 on-going schemes. This credit package amounting to US $ 35 million (Rs 26 crore at the exchange rate), hereafter called IDA-I credit, became effective from September 1973 and was to be utilized by June 1977. But subsequently due to non-completion of the schemes within the target date, the terminal date of IDA-I credit was extended upto December 1979. It is worth mentioning here that IDA-I marked the beginning of a series of such credits for the development of Calcutta.

Present Programme

  • i On the role of the World Bank, see Addendum M: In Defence of the CMDA by S.C. Basu (J.R.).

17In the initial years, CMDA's development programme emphasized mainly upon the development of infrastructural facilities like roads, water supply, sewerage and drainage, etc. This was primarily aimed at wiping out the huge accumulated deficits in the basic civic facilities. With the publication of the Development Perspective Plan in 1976, which realized that infrastructure development programme should be duly matched by the programme for providing basic settlement facilities, employment infrastructure and basic community facilities to already deprived citizens of this metropolis and also for its future growth, the dimension of the CMDA's investment programme broadened. The Five-Year Investment Plan as finally accepted is shown in Annexure-II. This investment plan proposes an investment of Rs. 277.74 crore which includes World Bank assistance of US $ 87 million for a package of projects, hereafter referred to as IDA-II Projectsi. The salient features of this plan have been the assigning of priority to such schemes as would facilitate transmission of benefits to the economically weaker section and extension of the same to the people in the rural areas within the metropolis with a view to bring in a more desirable balance between the investment in the core areas and the peripheral areas. This plan has also especially emphasized on providing a more desirable dispersal of activities and population within the metropolis with special provision for creating physical infrastructure and environment for generating more employment particularly for the low-income group people.

Future Programme

  • j On this future programme, whose elaboration was completed in 1982, see annexure 1 (J.R.).

18Not all the schemes covered under the present programme could be completed in full within the time horizon of 1982-83 and as such the same would spill beyond 1982-83. While many areas within the CMD would be left to be provided with basic civic facilities, few would require augmentation of the same in view of these areas being provided with intermediate requirements of public utilities. While the Development Perspective Plan identified a total of 22 locations within CMD having potential for future growth, only four such locations could be covered upto the present programme. A five year future programme is under preparationj, and the World Bank's proposal for extending a third credit package (IDA-ΠΙ) towards this programme has also received the approval of the Central Government.

19The future programme would be preceeded by a review of the Development Perspective Plan and by a revision of strategies for investment, if called for. The future pattern of investment is likely to reduce the load on the Infrastructure Primary Systems Plan (IPSP) which includes trunk Systems for water supply, roads and streets and drainage and sanitation and increase the weightage to the Integrated Area Upgrading Plan (IAUP) and to the New Area Development Plan (NADP). While the IAUP includes components like improvement of bastees, municipal centres and anchal areas; urban renewal of potential peripheral areas; attention to economic activities (small-scale entrepreneurs programme) and attention to social infrastructure (primary schools, health centres, etc.), the NADP cover elements like provision of developmental inputs both to areas having potential for growth of economic activity and to action areas selected in the urban pockets and in the periphery.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF CMDA PROGRAMMES

Water supply

20The water supply programme for the CMD is primarily based on the Master Plan published in 1966. The Master Plan divided the CMD in five service districts, viz., Calcutta covering the city proper, Garden Reach covering the southern portion of the CMD, Howrah covering the south-western part of the CMD, Palta (Baranagar Kamarhati) covering the north-eastern part of the CMD and Serampore covering the north-western part of the CMD. As Calcutta was already having its water supply through Talah-Palta System, four other water works with distribution network in the form of primary grid and secondary grid were recommended in phases. Further, the Master Plan recommended groundwater source for areas north of Garulia and Bhadreswar and surface water source for areas in the south.

21After the CMDA came into being in 1970, it reviewed the recommendations contained in the Master Plan and found the same to be very much optimistic from the views of both availability of funds and time frame. As such the CMDA tried to rationalize the work programme within the broad framework of the Master Plan. Taking into consideration the constraint of finance, the CMDA took over the schemes already under implementation in line with the recommendations of the Master Plan. The CMDA aimed to provide 20 gallons of water per capita per day to almost all the municipal and non-municipal urban areas and 40 gallons to some selected areas, keeping in view the differential requirements. However, gradual increase in such supply was envisaged. The CMDA considered the area with sewerage facilities to have higher requirement of water. Apart from Calcutta and Howrah, some of the adjoining municipalities like South Suburban, Baranagar, Dum Dum and North Dum Dum, where density had been increasing very rapidly, were to have 40 gallons supply. This strategy would help provide water to a much larger area and a larger population than otherwise. In the interim phase, as described above, the CMDA mostly depended on groundwater sources. Construction of two giant water works one each at Garden Reach and Howrah, covering their respective service district, using surface water source, have already been taken up. Primary and secondary grids related to both the waterworks have been included in the current investment plan. The completion and commissioning of both the waterworks expected within 1982-83, would make adequate water available for both domestic and industrial consumers in the areas. While improvement programme for augmentation of the capacity of this Tallah-Palta System has been taken up simultaneously, two boosting stations with large reservoirs, one at Auckland Square and the other at Subbodh Mullick Square, are nearing completion in all respects, aiming to facilitate uniform distribution within the city. Most of the sub-projects under the municipal area water supply augmentation scheme, fringe area water supply scheme and emergency water supply scheme are completed and commissioned.

22The CMDA has till 1977-78, spent about Rs. 59.44 crore against water supply schemes. Considering the completed schemes only, it is found that about 61 lakh of people, including those who received only incremental benefits, have been benefited by the CMDA's water supply programme. It is again the constraint of funds that prevented the CMDA from extending its coverage to whole of the CMD, as it will be seen that few municipalities, quite a number of non-municipal urban areas and almost the whole of the rural areas could not be brought under the current programme of water supply.

Water supply position in 1982: increased supply, and a need for a more even distributionk

  • k The subtitles of the 1982 addenda are by the editor (J.R.).

23It is seen that till 1982-83, the CMDA will have spent about Rs. 99 crore on water supply schemes. With this investment, the CMDA has installed a large number of deep tube-wells and covered a larger population through secondary grid network in both municipal and non-municipal areas. The trial run of the giant waterworks at Garden Reach has already been made. The construction of Howrah waterworks is completed and is about to be commissioned shortly. The total supply of water in the CMD through public distribution system has increased from 144.4 mgd. in 1966 to 208.8 mgd. in 1976 and will increase to 313.6 mgd. in 1983. The average per capita supply in the CMD registers an increase from 19.2 gpcd in 1966 to 22.3 gaped in 1976 and will increase to 30 gpcd in 1983. Further, the inequality in the total water supply that existed in between the municipalities of CMD gets substantially narrowed because of the CMDA's water supply programme. However, the inequality in terms of per capita supply is not reduced because of erratic population growth in different municipalities and what is required now is a more even distribution.

24The declining trend in the incidence of water-borne diseases in CMD is partly due to the programme of water supply. Another notable secondary impact of the programme is that the direct construction expenditure during the 13-year construction period had resulted in about 8,900 jobs in the CMD.

Sewerage and drainage

25The extremely flat topography of the CMD, with its maximum elevation of about thirty feet above mean sea level, increases the difficulties of providing satisfactory sewerage and drainage, even where "high" land is available. The numerous minor rivers and streams throughout the CMD are at an advanced stage of deterioration through heavy deposition of silt.

26Within the CMD, only the city of Calcutta has been having combined sewerage and drainage System for a long time. At a much later date, a few other areas like Dum Dum, Manicktala, Titagarh, Bhatpara and Serampore had some skeleton sewerage Systems. Salt Lake and Kalyani, the two new townships, have an extensive sewerage System.

27The situation, so far as drainage is concerned, grows more and more acute as haphazard urban expansion under mounting population pressure blocks the outfall channels and prevents natural drainage. The close relationship between drainage and public health becomes apparent as frequent flooding increases the incidence of diseases and pollution.

28The absence of sewerage System makes people depend on the dug conservancy

29System for the disposal of night soil, i.e., on the service privies which represent a constant health hazard, especially during the monsoon floods. Slums are the worst affected.

30The Master Plan proposed separate Systems for sewerage and drainage for areas not covered under the combined System, especially for unsewered areas within the Calcutta city. The same proposal was made for Howrah basin also. It also assigned priorities to the following drainage zones,. viz., Bagjola, Konnagar, Khardah and Manikhali. These proposals were mainly at trunk level. Besides, the Master Plan proposed certain improvements to the important outfalls to facilitate better disposal of storm water. Further the Master Plan had the provision of sewerage facilities for the more thickly populated and highly developed areas in the first stage, and for areas where urban growth is warranted in the near future, in the second stage.

31The CMDA's current investment plan for the sewerage and drainage sector comprises broadly five categories of schemes, as follows:

  1. Removal of water-logging in the city of Calcutta;

  2. Sewering the unsewered pockets in the city of Calcutta;

  3. Provision of new sewerage and improvement of existing sewerage System;

  4. Renovation of sewerage treatment plants; and

  5. Drainage: (a) Laying of drainage conduits; (b) Augmentation of pumping capacity of pumping stations; (c) Control measures like construction of sluices, lining of banks of river and khals outfall structures with flap shutters.

Sewerage and drainage: the unsatisfactory position in 1982

32The experience of the CMDA in sewerage and drainage sector is not satisfactory. A change in the strategy towards low cost sanitation instead of sewerage is now envisaged. The underground sewerage project, especially the one taken up in Howrah, could not come up with the expectation because of the fact that house connection could not be effected. For the city of Calcutta, the underground drainage schemes are yet to make their impact fully felt pending complete integration; although in certain areas the duration of waterlogging has declined to some extent. The declining trend in the incidence of various environmental diseases in the CMD is partly accounted for by this sector programme.

33The expenditure incurred by CMDA in this sector till 1982-83 would be around Rs. 88 crore. The notable secondary impact of this huge amount of investment in terms of generating income and employment has been quite reckonable. It is estimated that during the 13-year construction period about 9,500 jobs have been created.

Garbage disposal and solid waste management

34The current population of about ten million in CMD are estimated to generate between 4,000 and 6,000 metric tons of solid waste per day, of which the city of Calcutta alone is estimated to share about 2500-3000 m.t. per day. Presently, all wastes are thrown into the Street, picked up, transported to vats by hand carts, loaded in lorries and off-loaded (mainly by hand) at the tipping sites. Inefficient disposal resulting from open dumping pollute the surrounding areas and reduce the value of the land. The existing mode of managing the whole System of solid waste collection and disposal, with lack of physical infrastructure and shortage of vehicles and equipments, has been found to be inadequate to safeguard the health and environment of the population. The order to redress the above, the current investment plan of the CMDA proposes a project with the following sub-components:

  1. eighty ward depots will be constructed, with provisions for parking of handcarts, office and quarters for the overseers and transfer arrangement of collected wastes; 400 new enclosed vats and 10 trailer sites are also proposed to be built.

  2. 8,000 handcarts are proposed to be manufactured, of which 5,000 will have single fixed containers and 3,000 will have multiple portable containers. Further, tipping trucks, tractors and traders are proposed to be purchased for use at transfer points and at large waste sources such as markets.

  3. purchase of two cesspool emptiers, 26 tanker lorries, renovation of existing night soil disposal areas (or pail depots) and construction of additional discharge points;

  4. improvement of existing vehicle maintenance facilities including purchase of vehicles and equipment. While existing garages will be renovated, a new central automotive workshop will be constructed;

  5. construction of access roads to disposal sites, purchase of bulldozers and other plans to introduce sanitary land filling methods at the major disposal sites;

  6. provision of training, studies and pilot projects to test alternative methods of Storage, collection and disposal of solid wastes.

35A pilot project to explore the methodology for collection of household wastes is already under operation in a small area in north Calcutta.

36While the disposal of wastes is thought in terms of sanitary land filling, other more economic modes of disposal, such as mechanical composting, will be explored at a later stage. The current project would help drawing up a Master Plan for solid waste management for the entire CMD.

Solid waste management in 1982: delayed projects

37The performance of CMDA and other participating agencies in this field has not been found to be according to schedule. Although some equipments and vehicles have been procured by different agencies, the envisaged services are yet to be fully commissioned. This is mainly because of inadequate project management and coordination. Steps have now been taken to expedite the projects in this field. Some improvement in the clearance of roadside garbage has already been noticed in the city of Calcutta. The CMDA has instituted two pilot projects in two municipalities, viz., South Suburban and Rajpur as experimental technology for the disposal of solid waste.

Environmental hygiene

38It was estimated that there were about 150,000 service privies in the CMD. These service privies are always health hazards besides being unsightly. With the sole objective of improving sanitation, the CMDA attempted to work on the following two components, viz.,

    • l Service privies are latrines of the most rudimentary type, cleaned daily. Sanitary privies are latr (...)

    Replacement of service privies by sanitary ones and the construction of public conveniences at suitable places in Calcutta and Howrahl.

  1. Study of the extern of water and air pollution within the CMD. Air pollution studies are confined mainly to Calcutta and Howrah.

39Under the CMDA's programme, nearly 18,000 service privies within CMD have been converted into sanitary privies so far. This programme is still being continued. The cumulative expenditure till March 1978 had been about Rs. 2.47 crore. This scheme offers a large subsidy since it realizes only 25 per cent of the total cost of conversion from the beneficiarles and 75 per cent is given to them as subsidy. For this purpose the CMDA introduced designs of prefabricated latrines for both sewered and unsewered areas. This project will also facilitate introduction of sewerage System at a later stage because service privies cannot be connected to such a System. As service privies are more common amongst the economically weaker sections, this project deserves priority on social considerations.

40As regards the other sub-component, viz., construction of public conveniences, two schemes were initially taken up for providing public urinals at conspicuous places of Calcutta and Howrah. The scheme did not meet with success for want of proper upkeep and maintenance and also indiscriminate use of the same. The present thinking is to revive the scheme by hiring some persons for proper upkeep of the urinals by charging 18/20 paise for every use.

Environmental hygiene. The position in 1982: some progress

41Under this sector the CMDA has converted a large number of service privies into sanitary latrines in the non-bustee areas of the CMD. The total number of such conversions has been found to be 28,541 till March 1982. This programme is found to have considerable impact on residential environment.

42In the field of public convenience the CMDA has revived its participation with the construction of three sets of public toilets on experimental basis at certain locations in Calcutta. These public toilets have both latrines and bathing space and there is nominal users' charge of 10 paise per use.

Traffic and transportation

43The Master Plan for Traffic and Transportation presented a development programme for a 10-year period from 1966-76 in terms of specific projects. It also outlined the transportation requirements for the next 10-year period, i.e., from 1976 to 1986. The recommendations included the following main items:

  1. Major streets and highways System.

  2. Mass transportation.

  3. Traffic engineering and area improvement plans.

  4. Central area parking.

  5. Major terminal facilities.

44The CMDA's Five-Year Investment Plan (1977-82) emphasizes the following four componente:

  1. New highways.

  2. Redevelopment of existing arterials.

  3. Traffic operation improvement projects.

  4. Station area and terminal projects.

45The new highways will help establish linkages with regional and national highways. Apart from facilitating goods transportation, it will help bolstering the proposed metropolitan structure envisaging dispersal of population and economic activities. The Barrackpore-Kalyani expressway, the Eastern-Metropolitan bypass, the Diamond Harbour Road bypass and the Kona expressway are examples of such new linkages.

46The rest of three components are restricted to the cities of Calcutta and Howrah only. We have already seen that this twin city centre is the hub of economic activities within the CMD. Calcutta with the highest density of population has only six per cent of its total area in use as roads which is one of the lowest in the world. The city witnesses widespread traffic jams, overloaded, fast-moving public modes of transport like trams, buses, etc. The city receives more than one million of suburban commuters every day from the two railway terminals at Sealdah and Howrah. Most of these commuters are found moving towards the Central Business District (CBD) of the city. Inadequacy of the mass transit facilities compel a large percentage of these commuters to walk through the roads. Indiscriminate encroachment on the pavements by hawkers and traders have forced the pedestrians on the roads, blocking the passage of vehicles. Indiscriminate parking also results in traffic jams. Further, the existence of primitive techniques of traffic regulation and management causes such traffic congestion which, in tum, results in loss of man-hours, high vehicular operating costs, etc. The above critical situation urgently called remedial measures in the forms of the latter three components as above with augmentation and improvement of mass transit System, which has been taken up outside CMDA's Programm, but in association with CMDA.

Fig. 10.2. The major transportation axis in the Metropolitan District

47The redevelopment of existing arterial roads includes the reconstruction of bridges and overbridges, widening of major arterial roads and improvement of major roads. Το name a few important schemes under this component we have the widening of Diamond Harbour Road, Prince Anwar Shah Road, Manicktala Main Road, Arterial Road in Howrah and G.T. Road bypass. While Auckland Bridge is at an advanced state of completion, the other bridges like Ballygunge-Kasba overbridge and two other bridges, viz., Chelta Bridge and Kalighat Bridge on Tolly's Nallah have already been completed.

48The railway stations and the terminal points discharge heavy load of goods and commuters. Inadequate terminal facilities often result in traffic congestion, indiscriminate use of the areas in neighbourhood. The CMDA's programme includes provision of parking facilities, regulated circulation of traffic and pedestrians at the two major rail stations, viz., Howrah and Sealdah. While the Howrah station scheme is already completed, the Sealdah station scheme is in progress. The construction of a fly-over in Sealdah has been found to be imperative in view of this railway station's handling about 7,50,000 passengers per day, most of whom cross the Acharya Profulla Chandra Roy Road, the ring road for the city of Calcutta, leading to hold-up of traffic thereon. Terminal facilities at other points like Shyambazar, Garia and Dakshineswar have also been proposed. Another important scheme proposed under this component is the establishment of truck terminal facilities at Kona in Howrah, to be connected by a good road network, in order to relieve the existing pressure on Burrabazar in the CBD.

49Traffic operation and management improvement programme includes Street lighting programme, traffic engineering and management improvement schemes like lane markings, traffic signals/signs, realigning and re-surfacing of roads and footpaths, etc. The CMDA's current investment plan places emphasis on this component as this will greatly facilitate the efficient operation of the surface transit System.

50It would be very pertinent to mention here that the inadequacy of mass transit System in Calcutta is being tackled by two projects, viz., the metro railway and the public transport project, outside the CMDA's programme but in association with CMDA. While the former aims at constructing a 16.7 km long (north-south) Dum Dum to Tollygunge underground railway, the latter envisages augmentation of surface transit capacities.

Traffic and transportation in 1982: good progress and many projects for the future

51The progress of the CMDA project in this sector is good. Some of the notable schemes that have been completed are the Stretch of Eastern Metropolitan bypass, the Barrackpore-Kalyani expressway, the Diamond Harbour Road, the Buckland bridge, the Sealdah fly-over, the Prince Anwar Shah Road widening, the Braboume Road flyover, etc. The opening of the new expressway outside the metro-core would reasonably help disperse settlement of population and economic activities outside the metro-core. The CMDA has also undertaken a project for the improvement of traffic circulation within the metro-core through improved traffic engineering and management services. This project has just been started and the impact can be assessed only after a few years. Besides, CMDA formulated plans for improvement of the public transport services in Calcutta on the basis of which a new project known as Calcutta Urban Transport Project has been undertaken by the Transport Department of the state government. This project aims at improving the tram and bus services within the metro-core. The infrastructure development programme of the CMDA and the transit improvement programme of the urban transport project have been duly integrated.

Plate 16: A CHANGING CITY: THE AGE OF THE MULTI-STOREY BUILDINGS

Plate 16: A CHANGING CITY: THE AGE OF THE MULTI-STOREY BUILDINGS

1. In the very heart of the Central Business District, the new offices, service and administrative buildings: on the left the Indian Bank Building, in the background, the new secretariat of the West Bengal Government, on the right, Telephone Bhavan.

2. On Southeren Chowringhee, the first real skyscrapers of Calcutta are office buildings (Tata Centre, Everest House, Chatterjee International Centre). In the foreground the last posh bungalows of the old British area are surrounded multistorey residentiel buildings built for the well-off.

52The CMDA will have spent about Rs. 95 crore in this sector till 1982-83 with the creation of about 7,080 jobs in the CMD during the 13-year construction period on account of direct construction investment.

New townships and area development

53The Development Perspective Plan of the CMDA, while rejecting the binodal strategy for development as outlined in the Basic Development Plan, recommended the polycentric strategy which could be more suitable to the long term needs of the metropolis. It also emphasized the east-west spatial growth to be provided with road connections as well as river connections at several points.

54The major area development projects include: (i) East Calcutta, (ii) Baishabghata-Patuli, and (iii) West Howrah. Some other minor area development projects, worth mentioning, are (i) Redevelopment of Howrah Fish and Pan Market, (ii) Sealdah Court-cum-commercial complex and (iii) Lake Gardens Area Development.

55The notable features of the East Calcutta and Baishnabghata-Patuli Projects are the provision of residential lots with requisite services for a large population from the economically weaker sections. East Calcutta is likely to accommodate 70 per cent of the target population of 45,000 belonging to families with an average monthly income of less than Rs. 400. The lowest income groups, which constitutes 10 per cent of the total, are to be provided with dormitory rental accommodation. Further, these projects envisage using the borrow-pits for the purpose of pisciculture. Also integrated work-cum-living centres for some service categories like milkmen and washermen are proposed. It is also proposed to use all types of wastes in the most economical ways: East Calcutta project, with a cattle resettlement sub-scheme, would try to utilize cattle waste through bio-gas generators. The schemes included in the project are designed to be self-financing and incorporate differential prices for different land uses and plot sizes.

56As a matter of strategy the CMDA would try to attract private investment towards projects aiming at the development of a commercial complex or redevelopment of market areas. The CMDA has already explored the possibility of obtaining financial assistance from the Housing and Urban Development Corporation (HUDCO), Government of India, for provision of housing under Area Development Programme. The HUDCO has already sanctioned to CMDA a loan of Rs. 3 crore for the housing subcomponent under the Baishnabghata Area Development Project.

New townships and area development in 1982: delayed schemes because of land acquisition problems

57In this sector the CMDA could not make adequate progress as compared to its expectation. Problems elating to land acquisition caused some delay in implementation of the schemes. Baishnabghata Patuli Project is at a very advanced stage of completion, with lottery for the distribution of nearly 4500 plots being already held and the beneficiaries selected. The East Calcutta Township Project will take a couple of years before it is completed.

Bustee (slum) improvement programme

58It has already been indicated in the earlier section that large scale migration in the CMD resulted in severe shortage of housing stock compared to the needs. Some middlemen known as thika tenants availed of the opportunity and took plots of land of various sizes on lease from feudal lords and constructed low-rise, high-density housing with the cheapest available material and let the same out to such migrants. This process had led to a three-tier ownership System, i.e., (1) landowner (2) hut owner (thika tenant) and (3) tenant of huts. Most of these Settlements were without any public services and facilities. So the environmental conditions had been extremely poor, involving poor ventilation, inadequate sewerage and potable water supply, irregular, manual collection and disposal of human wastes and garbage, dark lanes, and extremely poor drainage. Many settlements are located in lowlying areas with the result that during the monsoon they become flooded and the open drains and ponds become polluted by floating of waste materials. The bustees also suffered from the presence of unlicensed khatals. This problem is particularly acute in Howrah.

59It is estimated that in 1976, the CMD has a total bustee population of three millions with the following break-up:

- Calcutta City

1.25 million

- Howrah-Bally Area

0.40 million

- East Bank (outside Calcutta City)

0.60 million

- West Bank (outside Howrah-Bally Municipal Area)

0.25 million

- Refugee colonies

0.50 million

3.00 million

60The CMDA's Bustee Improvement Programme seeks to preserve and develop the bustees as socio-economic entities while improving their environmental conditions.

61Under Phase-I Bustee Improvement Programme, which started in 1970 and was virtually completed in five years, a total of 11,44,000 persons could be benefited at a total cost of Rs. 13.6 crore or Rs. 118.0 per capita. Under Phase-II of the programme it is estimated to cover 6,44,000 persons at an estimated cost of Rs. 11.50 crore. The second phase extends from 1975-76 to 1981-82. The Five-Year Investment Plan (1977-78 to 1981-82) provides a sum of Rs. 21.05 crore for the Bustee Improvement Programme while the revised Five-Year Investment Plan (1978-79 to 1982-83) provides a sum of Rs. 24.19 crore, of which the IDA-II package accounts for Rs. 19.13 crore.

Fig. 10.3. A new town adjacent to Calcutta: Salt Lake

Plate 17: NEW HOUSING ESTATES IN AND AROUND CALCUTTA

Plate 17: NEW HOUSING ESTATES IN AND AROUND CALCUTTA

Three advertisements released in the Calcutta press for the middle class or the upper middle class: a small house, 10 km off Calcutta (Akra) was valued at Rs.51,000 in 1980 for just 43m2. The cost of a flat of the same area, in the new town of Salt Lake was Rs.64,000, while a flat of good standard, twice as big, advertised by a private Cooperative Society in South Calcutta, required more than Rs.100,000. All required much more money than the bulk of Calcutta's residents may borrow.

Plate 18: A CHANGING CITY: SOME LARGE PROGRAMMES

Plate 18: A CHANGING CITY: SOME LARGE PROGRAMMES

1. To eradicate traffic congestion. The new flyover constructed in front of Sealdah Station.

2. The Metro Project. The major working site in the city itself, ripping through Calcutta from South to North. Here, Shyam Prasad Mukherjee Road, as it was in 1982.

62The Bustee Improvement Programme includes the following actions:

  1. Provision of community water points (aiming to provide 20 gpcd) and bathing facilities — one tap point and one bathing facility for each hutment of upto 100 persons, where a hutment is a collection of 5-10 huts;

  2. Improvement of sewers and storm drainage Systems;

  3. Conversion of service privies into sanitary latrines (one latrine for every 25 persons);

  4. Paving of roads, streets and pathways;

  5. Installation of security lighting on roads and pathways, and provision of miscellaneous facilities, such as dust bins, garbage vats, etc.

63The most notable feature of the current bustee improvement programme is the involvement of local people. The CMDA interacts with the zonal advisory committees consisting of representative of bustee dwellers, while finalising its plans and programmes.

Bustee improvement in 1982: the programme almost completed

64The impact of the Bustee Improvement Programme (BIP) of CMDA has been quite notable in terms of providing improved infrastructural facilities to a large number of bustee dwellers, especially in the cities of Calcutta and Howrah. Upto 1979-80, 44,886 latrines, 12.60 0000m2 of roads, 5.60 000m2 of drains, 6.42 0000 metres of watermain, 19,250 water points, 60 deep tube-wells and 340 Km of sewers have been provided in the bustees at a total cost of Rs. 25 crore. The total bustee population said to have been served with the BIP works out to nearly 1.4 million. With the completion of the BIP in 1982-83, almost the entire bustee population in the cities of Calcutta and Howrah will have been covered by improved facilities.

65An aspect of this programme now engaging attention is the operation and maintenance of assets created in the bustees during these years. While it is true that the environmental improvement resulting from this programme is not measurable in quantitative terms, one can visualize a lot of improvement in the bustees in terms of paved roads and drains, Street lights, sanitary latrines and lesser water scarcity. The most distinguishing aspect of this programme has been the involvement of bustee dwellers in the process of project planning. The advisory committees the CMDA which give clearance to project plans are represented by dwellers of bustees.

66This process has generated a lot of awareness amongst bustee dwellers about the need for not only having the BIP but also proper upkeep and maintenance of the assets so created. The physical infrastructural programme under the BIP is supplemented by a very limited CMDA programme of employment, health and nutrition, especially designed for the bustee dwellers.

67The CMDA will have spent about Rs. 43 crore till 1982-83, the secondary impact of which, in terms of creating about 5,300 construction jobs during the 13year construction period, is quite considerable.

Municipal and anchal development

  • m Since the local elections of 1980, the lowest unit is now the mouzas, where gram panchayats have be (...)

68The CMD contained in 1971, 34 municipal areas, 62 non-municipal urban units and 477 rural mouzas. The non-municipal urban units and the rural mouzas are grouped together into a number of anchals for the purpose of local government. Anchals are the lowest unit in the hierarchy of local self-governmentm and their respective jurisdiction comprise 10 to 15 villages in each anchal. These are locally governed by elected bodies called panchayats, headed by a pradhan.

69This project envisages to provide accessibility needs of these outlying areas, establishing infrastructural linkages with the already developed areas, especially in the form of providing missing links. The Five-Year Investment Plan (1977-82) provided about Rs. 6 crore for the project. In view of state government's emphasis on this component, the revised Investment Plan (1978-83) provides a larger sum of about Rs. 10 crore.

Municipal and anchal development in 1982: progressing disenclosement

  • n Tempos are utility automobile three-wheelers (J.R.).

70Under this sector the CMDA would have spent about Rs. 20 crore by March 1983. The investment under this sector had been mainly confined to outlying municipal areas and rural areas. The records show that up to 1977-78 a total of 1706 km of roads in the municipal areas and about 774 km of roads in anchal areas have been constructed. Here also the concern is with the operation and maintenance of the roads constructed. The investment in this sector might have been very small but the impact has been relatively striking because of the fact that such road have improved accessibility of the outlying areas to a great extent. In many such areas nowadays one can see cycle-rickshaws and temposn plying and reaching the interior of villages. This has greatly boosted business activities in such areas, which are primarily inhabited by poor people. Hence, the benefits of this investment primarily accrue to them.

Small-scale enterprises programme

71The Development Perspective Plan in 1976 strongly recommended the reorientation of the CMDA's investment programme. It proposed that CMDA's traditional function of providing physical infrastructure should be complemented by efforts to support the economic activities of the slum population in a bid to raise their income and employment opportunities directly. It was a time when promotion of small-scale enterprises against medium-scale or large-scale enterprises was being seriously thought of at all levels.

  • o Our note on Manicktala bustee, (addendum H), is based on one of those CMDA surveys (J.R.).

72In order to prepare a programme of action, the CMDA had undertaken sample surveys in bustees which contain a large varieties of small trading and manufacturing activities pursued by the bustee dwellers themselves. The surveys were confined to (i) ten bustee clusters within Calcutta and Howrah and coverage was given to manufacturing units and services such as shops and rickshaw-pullers and (ii) five selected industrial sub-sectors, viz., engineering workshops in and around the Bellilious Road in Howrah, plywood and timber units in Ultadanga and Beliaghata areas in north-east Calcutta, clay modellers in Kumartuli in north-west Calcutta, tailors in Metiabruj in south-west Calcutta and tanners in east Calcuttao.

73The surveys revealed that the units were small with low capital base. Labour-capital ratio were found to be relatively high. Though the annual sales turnover were found to be small, the profit rates were found to be reasonable. Most of the units indicated "lack of finance" as a severe constraint, beside the "constraint of space", which stood in their way of expansion.

74It was decided that the target group would be limited to the very small entrepreneurs who do not have adequate access to technical and financial assistance currently provided by government institutions and commercial banks. The maximum capital employed per eligible small-scale enterprise would be limited to Rs. 10,000. The maximum loan size would be limited to Rs. 30,000 per unit with Rs. 20,000 in the form of working capital and Rs. 10,000 in the form of fixed capital.

75A pilot project worth of Rs. 3 crore is being executed at present in bustees of Calcutta and Howrah in association with five nationalized commercial banks, viz., United Bank of India, United Commercial Bank, Allahabad Bank, Central Bank of India, State Bank of India, and extension service unit of the Directorate of Cottage and Small-Scale Industries, Government of West Bengal. Five working teams have been formed in the CMDA, consisting of representatives of the CMDA, commercial banks and Cottage and Small-Scale Industries Department. These working teams, under the overall guidance of the CMDA, are going to their respective areas of operation and trying to identify both existing and new entrepreneurs in the very small and informal sector, in need of financial assistance. The project, started towards the end of 1978, has overcome the initial inertia and is gathering momentum.

76The project would result in increased income and employment of the target group through the reduction of seasonal slacks in the use of their productive assets, expansion of individual, efficient small-scale enterprises and the establishment of new efficient enterprises.

Small-scale enterprises programme in 1982: much to be clone

77With having overcome some of the initial hurdles, CMDA has made some progress in the field in terms of extending financial assistance to a large number of small entrepreneurs. The CMDA has disbursed about Rs. 43.5 lakh to about 1617 small entrepreneurs, till May 1982. The income and employment implications of this programme are really important in the context of our economy, with a high incidence of unemployment, although it only touches the tip of an iceberg.

Special projects: schools, health centres, cattle and parks

Primary schools

78The objective of this activity is to augment the enrolment capacity in the primary schools and as well to provide a better physical environment. The CMDA has a proposal for construction of 40 new schools and reconstruction renovation of 400 primary schools. The CMDA's Five-Year Investment Plan (1977-82) provided a sum of Rs. 2.17 crore while the revised Five-Year Investment Plan (1978-83) provides a sum of Rs. 2.46 crore only.

Health facilities

79The objectives of the health components are to provide, through a pilot programme, comprehensive health care to a target population of 1,75,000 predominantly bustee inhabitants.

80The pilot programme includes two primary health centres (PHC) and ten subhealth centres (SHC), amongst other facilities like augmentation of hospital beds, establishment of polyclinics and provision of mobile dispensaries.

81The project is to be executed in collaboration with the Health Department, Government of West Bengal. All recurring expenditures of the pilot scheme amounting to Rs. 0.50 crore would be borne by them. The CMDA in its Five-Year Investment Plan (1977-82) provided a sum of Rs. 0.20 crore towards the cost of the scheme. This remains unaltered in the CMDA's revised Five-Year Investment Plan (1978-83). The estimate capital cost of providing the package of services is Rs. 12.60 per capita which is comparable to the Government of West Bengal’s current per capita expenditure on health.

Cattle resettlement scheme

82This scheme envisages resettlement of cattle in different locations to be provided wiLh planned physical facilities and environmental protection, veterinary services, milk processing and marketing facilities and good road network. This scheme also encompasses the development of township for cattle-rearers.

Parks and playgrounds

83Under this project, the CMDA proposes to improve the existing ones as well as develop new parks and playgrounds, which are now inadequate for the city. The expenditure incurred till 1977-78 had been Rs. 1.20 crore. The provision in the present Plan (1978-83) is for Rs. 1.50 crore.

CONCLUDING REMARKS, 1979

84The CMDA's programme for development, involving multifarious activities, had claimed an investment of about Rs. 248 crore up till 1977-78. This investment largely went for making good the huge deficiencies in public utilities and physical infrastructure, which had accumulated over the last 30-40 years in the CMD. The investment has indisputably arrested the process of deterioration, of the urban environment. The magnitude of investment would not have to be so large, had the corrective and positive actions been taken at the appropriate time, à la mode "a stitch in time save nine”. The inflationary situation of the 70's has shot up the costs of the schemes considerably.

85However, the programme of development has to go a long way in creating a desirable urban environment for not only the present inhabitants of the CMD but also the future population. It calls for maintaining the CMDA's programme at levels commensurate with the needs of the situation for decades to come.

Concluding Remarks 1982: new intervention modalities

86The CMDA programme has considerably arrested the deterioration in environment and level of public utilities. This situation would undoubtedly be worse without the programme. In a number of projects, however, physical progress could not come up to the expectation because of the problems of scarcity of raw materials like cement and pipes, delay in land acquisition due to litigations, etc., which are extraneous to the CMDA. Inflationary situation has caused considerable cost overruns. The increasing rentals and prices of land —considered a secondary and unintended impact of the programme— need to be tapped through municipal tax reforms. This would also enable the local bodies to shoulder the concerned operations and maintenance liabilities of the programme.

87The future programme of the CMDA is expected to achieve not only a more even distribution of investment over space within the CMD but also would ensure decentralization of design and implementation responsibility to various local bodies within the CMD.

88The major thrust of the programme, however, still continues to be on improvement of physical infrastructure but an increased attention has been given towards the social and economic sub-projects like health and employment generation.

89Apart from the investment to be made in the third programme of the CMDA, the development activity in the metropolis is expected to obtain a new direction through a positive development control action by the CMDA in terms of the new planning legislation, the West Bengal Town and Country (Planning and Development) Act, 1979, which has been given effect from 16 January, 1982. In terms of this Act the CMDA will provide future development guidelines and use directives for planned development by other public agencies as well as by private individuals and groups.

90It is expected that the infrastructure inputs of the CMDA's investment programme coupled with the planning guidelines will stimulate in the near future the development activities in terms of new urban renewal projects, particularly around the metro-railway stations and other prime locations in the city, new land development in the potential parts of the metropolis and other commercially viable projects. This will help not only in restructuring the metropolis and creating additional residential and commercial spaces but also would significantly contribute to employment generation in the tertiary sector.

91Hopefully, the total efforts in the next five years will set the path for gradual transformation of this metropolis to a better and more prosperous one for majority of its people.

Annexes

ANNEXURE 1

The CMDA third Five-Year Programme (1983-88): an increased budget, more responsibility for the municipalities, and more attention paid to the suburbs

The next Five-Year Programme of CMDA from 1983-84 to 1987-88 has been finalized in 1982. The finalization of this programme has been preceeded by a review of the Development Perspective Plan (1976) and the finalization of the urban development for the state as a whole. Initially the CMDA came up with three different packages of investment. In course of interaction between the CMDA officials and the state government's planning officials, the CMDA has finally come up with a programme of about Rs. 322 crore over the next five-year, i.e., from 1983-84 to 1987-88. One of the most interesting features of this proposed programme is the delegation of responsibility of planning and execution of municipal proposals to the municipalities. In tune with the findings of the evaluative exercises, the suggested proportion investment for the cities of Calcutta and Howrah has been substantially reduced and that of the municipalities considerably increased, compared with the past and present programmes.

A perspective of shelter development in the CMD has also been drawn up. The shelter perspective not only estimates the need for total new housing stock in the CMD but also identifies an action programme for land development (or, sites and services) during the next five-year period by different government agencies concerned. The CMDA's proposals on new township and area development sector in the next five-year programme constitutes a part of the total action programme. Efforts are being made to promote action through other public bodies to cover the remaining part with funds from financing institutions.

ANNEXURE II

Table 2: CMDA Five-year investment programme 1978-79 to 1982-83 (rupees in crores)

Table 2: CMDA Five-year investment programme 1978-79 to 1982-83 (rupees in crores)

ANNEXURE II (Contd.)

Table 10.2: CMDA Five-year investment programme 1978-79 to 1982-83 (rupees in crores)

Table 10.2: CMDA Five-year investment programme 1978-79 to 1982-83 (rupees in crores)

Annexure III

Table 10.3: CMDA year-wise expenditure on each sector 1969-70 to 1981-82 (rupees in lakhs)

Table 10.3: CMDA year-wise expenditure on each sector 1969-70 to 1981-82 (rupees in lakhs)

Annexure III (Contd.)

Table 10.3: CMDA year-wise expenditure on each sector 1969-70 to 1981-82 (rupees in lakhs)

Table 10.3: CMDA year-wise expenditure on each sector 1969-70 to 1981-82 (rupees in lakhs)

Notes de fin

a This paper was written at a time when the CMDA was in the midst of its second phase of urban development. In the following years, during which the present book was prepared, the CMDA made a lot of progress in terms of implementation of its various sectoral programmes. It, therefore, became imperative to add a note to the original paper to understand what has been achieved during these intervening years and also how the CMDA planned to go about its next phase of urban development programme scheduled to commence from 1983-84.
I am very thankful to the CMDA authorities for having agreed to prepare the additional matter required. For the sake of topicality, I felt it was convenient to cut the six-page addendum S.K. Roy and Kalyan Roy wrote in August 1982 in a series of smaller notes, each paragraph, i.e., each note, bringing up-to-date the 1979 coverage of the corresponding topic (J.R.).

b According to 1981 Census, the number of Indian cities and urban agglomerations of more than 1,00,000 is now 216. Let us give again the 1981 figures for the four biggest Indian agglomerations: Calcutta 9,165, 650; Greater Bombay 8,227,332; Delhi 5,713,581; Madras 4,276,635 (J.R.).

c For a definition of these units refer to next page (J.R.).

d For more details on bustees, see Addendum H (J.R.).

e Although sectoral break-down employment figures for all areas of CMD are not available as yet in 1981 census, it is however believed that the sectoral pattern of employment remains more or less the same in CMD in 1981 (S.K.R. and K.R.).

f See Reference Map 1 for the localization of those different units in the general frame of the Calcutta Metropolitan District (J.R.).

g "Basic Development Plan Calcutta Metropolitan District 1966-1986" prepared by the Calcutta Planning Metropolitan Organization, Government of West Bengal, 1966 (J.R.).

h From 1951-52 to 1965-66, the Government of India implemented three successive Five Year Plans. Two successive years of severe drought, the devaluation of the rupee, the Indo-Pakistan conflict and financial constraints compelled to postpone the finalization of the Fourth Plan. Instead, between 1966 and 1969, three annual plans were formulated (J.R.).

i On the role of the World Bank, see Addendum M: In Defence of the CMDA by S.C. Basu (J.R.).

j On this future programme, whose elaboration was completed in 1982, see annexure 1 (J.R.).

k The subtitles of the 1982 addenda are by the editor (J.R.).

l Service privies are latrines of the most rudimentary type, cleaned daily. Sanitary privies are latrines with pits cleaned once in a while (but not septic tanks) (J.R.).

m Since the local elections of 1980, the lowest unit is now the mouzas, where gram panchayats have been elected (J.R.).

n Tempos are utility automobile three-wheelers (J.R.).

o Our note on Manicktala bustee, (addendum H), is based on one of those CMDA surveys (J.R.).

Table des illustrations

Légende Fig. 10.1. The urban development strategy of the C.M.D.A.: from binodal to multinodal
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/5329/img-1.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 364k
Légende Fig. 10.2. The major transportation axis in the Metropolitan District
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/5329/img-2.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 308k
Titre Plate 16: A CHANGING CITY: THE AGE OF THE MULTI-STOREY BUILDINGS
Légende 1. In the very heart of the Central Business District, the new offices, service and administrative buildings: on the left the Indian Bank Building, in the background, the new secretariat of the West Bengal Government, on the right, Telephone Bhavan.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/5329/img-3.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 164k
Légende 2. On Southeren Chowringhee, the first real skyscrapers of Calcutta are office buildings (Tata Centre, Everest House, Chatterjee International Centre). In the foreground the last posh bungalows of the old British area are surrounded multistorey residentiel buildings built for the well-off.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/5329/img-4.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 196k
Légende Fig. 10.3. A new town adjacent to Calcutta: Salt Lake
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/5329/img-5.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 452k
Titre Plate 17: NEW HOUSING ESTATES IN AND AROUND CALCUTTA
Légende Three advertisements released in the Calcutta press for the middle class or the upper middle class: a small house, 10 km off Calcutta (Akra) was valued at Rs.51,000 in 1980 for just 43m2. The cost of a flat of the same area, in the new town of Salt Lake was Rs.64,000, while a flat of good standard, twice as big, advertised by a private Cooperative Society in South Calcutta, required more than Rs.100,000. All required much more money than the bulk of Calcutta's residents may borrow.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/5329/img-6.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 448k
Titre Plate 18: A CHANGING CITY: SOME LARGE PROGRAMMES
Légende 1. To eradicate traffic congestion. The new flyover constructed in front of Sealdah Station.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/5329/img-7.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 220k
Légende 2. The Metro Project. The major working site in the city itself, ripping through Calcutta from South to North. Here, Shyam Prasad Mukherjee Road, as it was in 1982.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/5329/img-8.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 236k
Titre Table 2: CMDA Five-year investment programme 1978-79 to 1982-83 (rupees in crores)
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/5329/img-9.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 388k
Titre Table 10.2: CMDA Five-year investment programme 1978-79 to 1982-83 (rupees in crores)
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/5329/img-10.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 364k
Titre Table 10.3: CMDA year-wise expenditure on each sector 1969-70 to 1981-82 (rupees in lakhs)
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/5329/img-11.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 268k
Titre Table 10.3: CMDA year-wise expenditure on each sector 1969-70 to 1981-82 (rupees in lakhs)
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/5329/img-12.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 330k

© Institut Français de Pondichéry, 1990

Conditions d’utilisation : http://www.openedition.org/6540

Cette publication numérique est issue d’un traitement automatique par reconnaissance optique de caractères.
Rechercher dans OpenEdition Search

Vous allez être redirigé vers OpenEdition Search