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Gender discriminations among young children in Asia

Isabelle Attané
Jacques Véron

Part II - Gender discriminations among young children in China

8. Does Gender Make a Difference? Understanding Chinese Current Equality in Compulsory Education

Lin Tan et Yueping Song


La Chine a instauré, selon un principe d’égalité, neuf années d’éducation obligatoire pour tous les enfants. Mais pour remplir cet objectif, le droit des filles à l’éducation doit être garanti. L’égalité des sexes dans l’accès à l’instruction de base signifie d’une part que les filles doivent bénéficier d’un accès à l’école égal à celui des garçons, mais aussi que la société et les familles leur offrent les mêmes chances d’y accéder.
Les données statistiques montrent une réduction du fossé filles/garçons dans l’accès à l’école ces dernières années, en particulier en ce qui concerne les taux de scolarisation et les taux d’abandon. Mais ces statistiques négligent parfois certains problèmes qui font obstacle au bon déroulement de la scolarité des filles, surtout en zones rurales. Cette étude montre par exemple que la plupart des enfants qui ne suivent pas le cursus scolaire de neuf années sont des filles. Dans les régions rurales les plus pauvres, notamment dans l’ouest de la Chine, les filles ont un moindre accès à l’école et connaissent de plus fortes probabilité d’abandon scolaire que les garçons. Les filles dont les parents ont migré connaissent en outre des conditions d’éducation plus mauvaises encore que celles des garçons. La préférence pour les fils est toujours perceptible dans l’attitude des parents vis à vis de l’éducation, ce qui donne lieu à des discriminations scolaires des filles.

Texte intégral


1Education has long been considered as the key to social and individual development—it increases access to employment, improves productivity, promotes health consciousness and facilitates public political participation. As an undeniable human right, it is the foundation of survival and personal development in modern society, which endows equal development opportunities to people of both genders from different areas and belonging to different strata, offering the poor a chance to accumulate their own human capital and overcome their poverty, a notion widely accepted by most governments. Some educators, including John Dewey, have pointed out that education has at least three vital functions: socialization to integrate the youth in society and their adult roles, development promoting personal mentality and morality and last, but important, education can provide an opportunity for fair competition in an unequal economic and social context to help the underprivileged overcome the limitations of their community of birth. Education can therefore improve the quality of life and reduce social inequality. From this point of view, education acts as a “filter” in social migration and differentiation as well as an anchor and balancer ensuring fairness (Shan Zhonghui 2002). As a nice dream for the future society, the equality of education embodies the basic value of modern education, promoting a relatively fair society. And the recognition of educational equity as the basic rule of a nation’s educational policy and legislation also involves the commitment to eliminate gender discrimination in the field of education.

2China has long been implementing “Nine-Year Compulsory Education” as the basic school education, of which the principle of equality stands first. To achieve this goal, the gender issues, especially the girl’s right to basic schooling should be ensured. Gender equality in basic education not only means that girls have the same school opportunities as boys, but that both society and family should provide every girl and boy the chance to attend school and ensure the completion of primary school, despite the limitations of age, race, social status and economic conditions. In the course of education, both sexes can enjoy the same treatment, having the same access to the same educational facilities, which requires the same unbiased attitude towards girls and boys. Every child should be able to develop according to his/her actual ability, notwithstanding gender difference, and have a fair opening to the future. This means at present that girls, just as boys, can continue to study after graduation from elementary and junior secondary school and that the labour market also accepts girls fairly after junior schooling in China.

3Although statistical data can indeed say something, the seemingly narrowing gap between boys and girls as regards enrolment and dropout rates sometimes neglects the actual problems that may have impeded, or are impeding, girls to develop in the course of primary education. What we are pursuing is actual equality in every respect for the girls and boys in the period of basic education, creating an environment that supports fair chances and possibilities of success in primary education, irrespective of gender. Fortunately, China is improving in this respect.

The legislative protection of gender equality in primary education

4Due to the huge population, the Chinese government has the responsibility to provide early education to more than three hundred million children, of which about 48.56% are girls. To enable this 48.56% to have the same chance to attend school as the boys, the government has carried out many procedures to establish a firm foundation for girls to enrol in school. Generally speaking, all the laws and policies have protected the right to schooling in different times and from many different aspects, in which an inalienable part centres on the gender issue. There are special clauses aimed at protecting girls’ rights in the Constitution, Civil Code, Marriage Law, Law of Succession, Law of Adoption, Law of Compulsory Education, Maternal and Infant Health Care Law and the latest Criminal Law, the content of which covers the whole growing process of a girl. What is more, in 1992, the State Council set up the first Guidelines for Work in the field of children after the establishment of the P.R.C, the “Outline for Children’s Development in China in the 90s”, and in 1995, the “Outline for Women’s Development in China” was put into practice. The implementation of both has built up a new pattern of safeguarding women's right in the society and especially brought forward the issue of education for girls. In the “National Commission on the Ninth Five-Year Plan for Education and the Guideline for Development before 2010” in 1996, the former National Education Committee made it very clear that there was to be a reduction in the difference in enrolment rates of school-age children between girls and boys, the urban and rural areas, the poor and developed regions, the areas in which minorities reside and other regions. (see Table 1)

Table 1: Some law clauses relevant to gender equality in primary education

Name and clause


The details

1<Constitution of P.R.C> Art. 46 (1)


The citizen of the P.R.C has the right and obligation to education.

2<Law of compulsory education>
Art. 5


Children beyond 6 should attend school to receive the compulsory education of a prescribed number of years, regardless of gender, nation or race.

3<Law of protection of underaged children>
Art. 9


Parents and other custodians should respect the right to education of under-aged children,… should not discontinue the schooling of under-aged children in the compulsory education period.

4<Law ensuring women’s rights and interests>
Art. 3 (


Ensure women’s right of education, of which Art. 3 (17) prescribes that parents and other custodians should ensure that the female child of the right age receives compulsory education.

5<Law of education in P.R.C>
Art. 2 (9)


Regardless of nation, race, gender, career, property or faith, citizens have the same rights according to law.

5Due to all these efforts, the past few decades also witnessed a great improvement in gender equality in primary education. Based on some related statistics, before the establishment of the country, only 20% of the girls received education, and in 2000, about 99.07% entered school, only 0.07% less than boys, which establishes a firm base of human resources for the future development of the whole society.

Current situation of gender equality in compulsory education

6The goal and principle in the implementation of compulsory education is to allow all girls and boys to receive elementary and junior secondary school education, acquiring the same threshold to development throughout life. After more than 50 years’ effort and popularization, elementary school and junior secondary school education has developed greatly in China. The enriching resources protect the female children by and large receiving an education, which gave girls the same chance to attend school as boys. (see Table 2)

Table 2: Number and percentage of female students in elementary school and junior secondary school from 1951 to 1990

Table 2: Number and percentage of female students in elementary school and junior secondary school from 1951 to 1990

From: Gender Statistics In China, compiled by the Research Institute of All China Women’s Federation and Department of Social, Science & Technology Statistics in State Statistical Bureau, China Statistical Publishing House, 1990.

7According to the second round survey of women’s social status in 2000, thanks to the continuing development in primary education and persistent efforts to protect women’s educational rights and opportunities since the establishment of the People’s Republic of China, all males and females under 50 have an education for more than 9 years. But in the rural areas, the average education is still less than 9 years. Even the youngest group under 30 has only received 8.14 and 7.32 years of education on average (see Table 3). As Table 5 shows, in the rural area, many females receive less than 9 years’ education; the percentage of those who do not is as high as 82.5%, and is 12.8% more than that of the rural males. Even in the urban areas, the percentage is 41.4%, 10.3% more than the urban males (see Table 4). 58.8% of the rural women have only an elementary school education, while only 36% rural males stopped education after elementary school. And the female percentage that finished junior middle school is 10% less than the males. The proportion of female illiteracy is 13.6%, 9.6% more than the males. It is clear that there is still a long way to go to guarantee both males and females the same educational opportunity in China.

Table 3: Years of education by age, area and gender, Unit: year

Table 3: Years of education by age, area and gender, Unit: year

Table 4: Distribution of average years of schooling (E)%

E (year)

Urban males

Urban females

Rural males

Rural females

E <=5





6 <=E <=8





9 <=E <=22





From: ACWF (All-China Women’s Federation) & China Statistics Bureau, (2001) Report on Main Data of the 2nd Round Survey on Women’s Social Status in China, 2001, 9.

8Meanwhile, in the last 10 years, due to legislation and government efforts, more and more girls procured the same opportunity as boys and were treated fairly in a much broader sense in education.

9The data of the 1st and 2nd Round Survey of Women’s Social Status in China shows that the educational level of Chinese women has improved much compared with that of 1990 and the gender difference has been reduced remarkably. The net girl enrolment rate of right age rose from 96.3% in 1990 to 99.1% in 2000, which is 0.07% lower than that of boys, falling from 2.91% in 1990. According to the data provided by the Education Department, about 94.48% of female pupils persist in finishing at least 5 years’ education in the first stage of schooling, (71.4% in 1990, 82.2% in 1995 and 88.5% in 1997). Remarkably, it was noted by the survey in 1999 that only 0.4% of the female pupils give up during the first 5 years of education compared to the male counterparts.

Table 5: Number and percentage of female students in elementary school and junior secondary school from 1991 to 2000

Table 5: Number and percentage of female students in elementary school and junior secondary school from 1991 to 2000

From: China Statistics Yearbook 1991—2000, China Statistical Publishing House, 1991—2000.

10Owing to the decreasing population base after the establishment of the family planning policy, the absolute number of girl pupils has decreased over the past ten years, while the ratio of girls to boys increased steadily, which is close to the national sex ratio of that age group, coming to a reasonable equilibrium. As for the junior secondary school, not only the ratio but the absolute number keeps increasing, more and more girls have acquired a chance for further study, especially as fewer older girls dropped out at a higher grade in the primary education process.

Obstacles and challenges that still call for action

11According to the above analysis, the gap in gender inequity is becoming narrower. However, because of the unbalanced development of primary education, there are still some problems between different regions, and between rural and urban areas. With the social and economic development, some new problems are arising in realizing the gender equity of primary education. We should keep in mind that the gender equity of primary education is a historical and objective concept, that it has different contents according to different eras, different regions and different economic conditions. With the goal of popularizing compulsory education, gender equity means providing more educational opportunities for girl students to minimize the opportunity difference. But in the regions where compulsory education is largely popularized, it means that girls should receive as good an education as boys. When the equity in the enrolment is largely realized, gender equality will pay more attention to the minimization of gender differences in the courses and content taught and to whether girls complete schooling or not. Thus in the impoverished areas where compulsory education is not popularized, the aim of gender equality is still to guarantee that girls have access to education. However, in the cities and other areas, we should lay emphasis on the equity in quality of education.

12In China today, girls still encounter problems relative to primary education in the sense of the above three levels of equality. The main obstacles are as below:

131. There are still a certain number of children of right age who do not have the opportunity to receive compulsory education, most of whom are girls.

14Although the net enrolment rate in primary school rose from 96.3% in 1990 to 99.1% in 2000, due to the huge population, the 0.9% loss rate and 5.52% dropout rate of primary school education still means a large number of children do not have access to school. What is more, the actual behaviour of dropping out and discontinuing schooling will be more serious than what has been shown by written data if the possible false and concealed data in the statistics are taken into consideration.

152. In the impoverished rural areas, especially in western China, boys and girls do not have same educational opportunity. The girls have less access to school and a higher probability of dropping out.

16Until 2000, 9 years of compulsory education had been popularized in 85% of China. This means that children in 15% of the country still cannot receive compulsory education. Among them, 60% to 70% are girls. In some areas of north-western and south-western China, less than 50% of the girls have access to school. In impoverished mountain areas, rural areas and minority areas, this percentage is higher. We can estimate the huge sum through the “Spring Buds Programme”, in which 1,150,000 girl dropouts were assisted to return to school. Moreover, the girls have a higher risk of dropping out in the course of compulsory schooling. In 1987, female children accounted for 83% of all the dropouts in rural areas. In 1995, the percentage was 66.4% and in 2000, still 58.52%. The data show that in some regions of western China, the higher the grade, the lower the proportion of girls in a class. As the grade increases, the amount of girl students decreases remarkably. In some counties, only about 10% of the girls stays through the elementary school. (Bai Yun 2000) Access to school is still the dream of a great many girls.

17As for the older girls (as accepted generally, children older than 14 are the older ones), things remain even worse. In some impoverished areas, the older girls become the labour force of the family at a quite early age. They are denied the chance of formal schooling for the rest of their lives. And some older girls are burdened by the problem of early marriage and early birth; some are even burdened with the pressure of earning money for the family. They therefore cannot have the same opportunity for development as boys. According to our analysis of the fifth census in China in 2000, among the girls, between 15% and 19,4.12% discontinue schooling and do housework at home, among boys, the percentage is only 1.02%. This means that there are about 1 million older girls who suspend study due to the family. These girls will become the major part of the female illiterates of China in this century.

Pic 1: The primary education of girls in 5 provinces in western China

Pic 1: The primary education of girls in 5 provinces in western China

From: Census Office in State Council, Census Department in China Statistical Bureau, The Data of Census in 1990 in China, 1993, and The Data of Census in 2000 in China, 2002.8, China Statistical Publishing House.

183. The girls in the floating population encounter an even worse condition in education.

19In the past decade, an estimated 100 million rural residents have migrated into cities to work and to seek jobs, but because of their rural hukou, they had been denied equal access to decent jobs, welfare and legal protection, even to formal compulsory education. Children migrating with floating families also deviate outside the school because only formal urbanites have the right to local compulsory educational institutes, and the wretched economic condition of most families does not allow of the stupendously high extra donations required by some local schools. Most of them quit education or receive informal education in private institutes. According to the data of fifth census, 4.0% of the 8.8 million floating children (8.782.333) of school age have never received any kind of education, and 0.8% have quit school. In China, about 420 thousand floating children have no chance to go to school as the law prescribes, among whom, girls encounters an even worse plight. When the family resources are limited, girls are not sent to school or boys are given an education before the girls.

20The sex ratio of 126 (fifth census in China, 2000) for the children migrating across provinces indicates that the floating parents prefer to bring boys to cities and leave the daughters in the poor hometowns. In agricultural regions, this neglected part has even less chance to go to school and receives barely any care from the parents. These children have a paucity of educational resources, notwithstanding compulsory education.

214. The family's (especially the parents’) attitude toward different genders still influences whether the girls can have a basic education, because certain gender preferences still exists in the parents’ attitude and give rise to actual inequality, even if the girl has the chance to attend school.

22Parents’ attitudes toward education are an important factor affecting school opportunity and accomplishment. In the primary education stage, the government pays for a major part of the cost, only leaving a small amount of fees such as the cost of books and incidental expenses to the family, and the cost of education is therefore not a major factor in decision making. On the other hand, in impoverished areas and some agricultural regions, economic status undoubtedly plays a key role in restricting the educational investment in children. In both of the above conditions, gender preference and the attitude of parents influence not only the decision on the investment, but determine the opportunity of boys and girls to attend school.

23According to the data from second round survey of women’s social status, there is a correlation between the importance parents attach to gender and the quality and chance of education the daughter gets. For instance, in the “could not continue school” group, 61% of the females selected the reason “parents did not allow”, 21.9% higher than that of males. And as for the reason why parents did not allow them to attend school, 60.6% of the females attributed it to “the bad family circumstances”, 21.3% higher than males; 57.8% of the females selected “family needed you to work”, also 15.7% higher than the male counterpart. What is remarkable is that 72.9% of the females were not allowed to attend school because the parents considered education to be unnecessary for them, 45.8% higher than the case of males. More boys are encouraged to continue with studies until they cannot pass the selective examinations.

245. The distribution of resources in the field of primary education is unequal and systematically polarized between urban and rural areas. In the rural and impoverished regions, the indigent and insufficient resources cannot cope with the need of primary education, in that many girls are denied the right and access to school.

25In all the cities of China, the local government will meet the major part of the compulsory education expenses for children residents of the right age; while in rural areas, the villages and towns meet the educational costs by raising a special education fund from the peasants for primary education, which means that the peasants should be responsible for the primary educational expenses indirectly as the government requires as well as for the direct costs such as the extra expenses the school requires. As a survey conducted in 26 counties in 7 provinces in 1998 by the National Education Development Research Institute shows, 78.2% of the gross compulsory educational costs were disbursed by local villages and towns. Considering the high costs involved in schooling, the parents will not select female children to attend school.

26Colclough (1993) suggests that reduction in the average walking distance to school sharply reduces the private costs and, in the case of girls, the risks involved with attendance. However, because of the lag in economic development, the self-dependent primary education in areas of western China and in some agricultural regions has not acquired sufficient resources. Support and assistance therefore have to merge or remove the small village elementary schools and teaching courses near the residence of peasants. In 2000, there were 553.6 thousand elementary schools in China; 28.7 thousand disappeared in one year, and also 500 junior high schools were removed, most of which were in rural areas. Although this accords with sinking fertility rates and rapid industrialization, in fact, fewer schools leads to longer distances to be covered by the children. Especially in the mountainous areas, the family will be worried because of security concerns when the girl must cover a long distance to reach the school. In addition, most rural schools lack women teachers, and consequently they lack suitable teaching measures and an environment for the lodging of girls. The decreasing possibility of educational resources results in more and more girls facing adverse situations and quitting education against their own wishes.

Pic 2: The proportion of women teachers in primary education in 9 western provinces in China

Pic 2: The proportion of women teachers in primary education in 9 western provinces in China

From: Development and Planning Department in China Education Bureau, Chinese Education Statistical Yearbook, 2000, People’s Education Publishing House.

276. Gender discrimination still exists in the application of the education policy in some areas, which deprives the girl of the right and access to primary education.

28Theoretically, the aim of compulsory education and the principle of gender equality is congruous, while in practice, there will be some deviation from gender equality. For instance, in some poor areas, for the achievement of the popularization of nine-year education, there is local policy advertising enrolment which prescribed that a family with 3 sons must send at least 2 to school, while if there are 3 daughters, just 1 is required to receive an education (Li Huiying 2000). The right to education of girls was negatively affected through the popularization of education. What is more, all the clauses relevant to gender equality in current education laws are too theoretical to be practised, lacking the corresponding detailed procedures for application, which has not protected the female children’s right to education.

29For the 85% of the country where children can receive 9 years of education, what emerges respective of gender issues is often concealed behind the statistical data, such as the discrimination through teaching courses and content. Conventional gender bias is still replicated in the system and is an impediment to actual equality.

Social bias in teaching

30The traditional gender culture infiltrates through the teaching process, in that some social and cultural biases and attitudes towards girls prevent a just evaluation of girls. Among quite a number of teachers, especially in rural areas among the Minban teachers, the persistence of conventional ideas always assigns an inferior role to girls. A study by Shi Jinghuan shows that, even in the same environment, the teacher will allow the boys a relatively bigger space to develop, while the girls will be restricted by strict criteria. The traditional social attitudes have been successfully stereotyped and passed on through education to the young generation, even to the girls themselves, who will in the future observe unequal precepts, such as “male honourable, female inferior”, which prescribe the subordinate role for women in the labour market, in family life in and public participation. As a result, compulsory education will lose the intention of inculcating gender equality.

Stereotyping traditional gender conceptions in the curriculum

31In the curriculum and teaching materials, the traditional gender role has been stereotyped, and repeats the concept of female inferiority. A research done by professor Zheng Xinrong (2000) shows that there are quite limited female roles designed in the current Chinese teaching materials in primary school; female roles appear 61 times, only accounting for 19%, while the number is 267 for males, accounting for 81%. Moreover, most female roles portray women traditionally as “wife, mother, teacher and nurse” etc., while the male roles in the books mostly represent instrumental roles such as leaders, creators of material property and explorers of knowledge. The information transferred by the contents of education is deeply embedded with strong gender differentiation, which exerts a subtle influence on the gender value judgement of the students. The traditional social structure that portrays “the man as the breadwinner working outside home and women as housewives and mothers working within the home” still exists and continues to obstruct the cultivation and development of the girl’s own individuality and social status in the primary education stage.

32The ultimate aim of compulsory education is not only to provide all children with primary education, but also to provide them with an equal opportunity for development. The potential of the children should be realized in society regardless of their gender. And gender equity should also be reflected by the same chance for achievement in the future. As we saw earlier, girls have less opportunity of development than boys because of the teaching skills. The society and the family usually have low expectations as to the extent of education of girls and this hinders the girls from pursuing higher education. So girls are at a disadvantage from the start of life. In 2000, the percentage of the girls in senior high school was only 41.9%, and in junior high school the percentage was 47%. Many girls suspend their study not because of personal ability but due to external interference. When a girl excels, many people worry about it. It is an abnormal phenomenon. When the percentage of girls in the school becomes higher, some restrictions will be made for fear that the gender ratio of the school is not balanced. For instance, in some key senior secondary schools in urban areas, girls must have a higher score to enter the school. And a senior school even declared that it would matriculate students of the female gender no higher than 60% of total.

Conclusions, some practices and strategies

33The value of girls’ education has come to be recognized and witnessed. Improving the access of girls to educational services is a significant investment for the sustainable development of country. While it has been shown above that sex discrimination still prevails in primary education, the problems exist not only in the educational policy but also in the actual practice. In order to realize the aim of gender equity in primary education, some new policies and strategies should be found to perfect the existing system and to cope with the new problems caused by the new changes in society.

  1. The primary education policy should refer to gender equality as the norm, which means laying more emphasis on the problem of gender equity in the decisions of the educational policy. To make the educational mechanism more perfect, the clauses of education law and relevant regulations should be examined and amended where potential gender discrimination is found to exist. The Compulsory Education Law of China was issued in 1986, of which the contents on gender equity did a lot in guaranteeing girls the privilege of education in the environment of a planned economy. However, with the reform and opening to the outside world in the last two decades, some new trends have emerged and some related policies have also been changed, which need suitable modification and regulation. The right of girls to education is neglected in some degree for some portions of the people. For example, the girls of floating families usually face many problems when going to school and there are no special laws or regulations for their protection. Females are still less influential in seeking gender equity of education. On the way to eliminating the inclination toward gender preference, the policies of primary education should be revised in the light of gender equality according to new issues. Some special services must be drawn to give aid to the girls; especially in the impoverished area, parents can be given more incentives to enrol their daughters in school.

  2. The government should pay much more attention to the accomplishment of nine-year education in the rural area, especially for rural girls. It is important to enhance the family’s capacity in rural and mountainous areas to protect and provide for all children equally. Besides that, advocacy of gender equality in various ways will help to change the biased attitude toward investment in female education in the families of those regions. Some new customs such as marriage at a mature age and the matrilocal marriage will protect the value of girls to the family, in which the daughter can also provide for the aged. Another way is to establish a social security system covering the rural population. What is most important is to provide the female with equal rights and opportunities in socio-economic activities. To model a new recognition of the returns from girls’ education will advance the investment in girls’ education.

  3. The access to educational resources plays a key role in securing the educational opportunity for girls and boys. Therefore, to redistribute and adjust the existing educational services, assigning more financial support, more teachers and other educational resources to the village and town schools in underdeveloped and minority areas is necessary to assist the educational institute in acquiring indispensable facilities and faculties. Especially for those minority girls who live in poor mountainous areas, some special fund may be established to assist them to return to school and acquire the necessary education and skills for their survival in life.

  4. Be aware that a candid attitude toward the situation of girls will help them to avoid self-distrust and to continue with their educational life, to promote the consciousness of gender equity among the teachers and administrators at all levels of institutions in various aspects, such as their attitude toward the students, teaching methods and the evaluation standard. In order to cultivate the quality of the teachers, training courses should be held and a system of rewards and penalties should be worked out that is targeted at greater care of girls in teaching courses, which would significantly reduce the dropout rate due to unequal treatment.

  5. One more woman teacher in a remote poor area or a minority area means ten more girl students in primary school. If the local government in those areas were to pay more attention to reinforcing and attracting academic female resources and training the local women teachers, and employing more women principals and women teachers in elementary schools and junior secondary schools, the participation rate of girls in compulsory education would accordingly rise remarkably. Equip those persons with the necessary skills and abilities by special training courses such as practical technology, informal education and “bilingual teaching”, etc. One more thing: the local government should make a greater effort to pay the wages without delay, particularly to the Minban teachers in impoverished regions, to retain them in teaching.

  6. The threshold to further schooling and employment in the labour market should be placed equally high for both boys and girls, in that the entrance scores and job requirements should not reflect any gender discrimination in any potential aspect. If girls have the same possibility as boys to go to higher senior schools or get decent jobs after primary education, not only the girls but the family and the society also get the respective returns of investment in education: the personal value, economic support to the family and the development of whole human resources-that is the genuine goal of nine-year compulsory education.



ACWF (All-China Women’s Federation) & China Statistics Bureau (2001), Report on Main Data of the 2nd Round Survey on Women’s Social Status in China, 2001, 9.

Census Office in State Council, Census Department in China Statistical Bureau (1990), The Data of Census in 1990 in China, 1993, China Statistical Publishing House.

Census Office in State Council, Census Department in China Statistical Bureau (2000), The Data of Census in 2000 in China, 2002, 8, China Statistical Publishing House.

Colclough, C. (1993), ‘Primary Schooling in Developing Countries: the unfinished business’, in Allsop T. & Brock C. (eds.), 1993.

Development and planning Department in China Education Bureau (2000), Chinese Education Statistical Yearbook, 2000, People’s Education Publishing house.

Li Huiying (2002), Social Gender and Public Policy, 2002, Dangdai: China Publishing House.

Qi Mei (1995), On Education Equality, Digest of Liaoning Normal School, 1996, 2.

Shan Zhonghui (2002), Exploitation to Modern Education---Mr. Dewey and practical Education Idea, 2002, 7, People’s Education Publishing House.

Zheng Xinrong (1999), ‘Investigation on Gender Difference in Study and Development of primary school students’, Modern Primary Education, 2000, 5.

Zhu Yongxin & Xu Qingyu (2002), On the Balanced Development of Primary Education, China Education Publication, 2002, 6.

Table des illustrations

Titre Table 2: Number and percentage of female students in elementary school and junior secondary school from 1951 to 1990
Légende From: Gender Statistics In China, compiled by the Research Institute of All China Women’s Federation and Department of Social, Science & Technology Statistics in State Statistical Bureau, China Statistical Publishing House, 1990.
Fichier image/jpeg, 120k
Titre Table 3: Years of education by age, area and gender, Unit: year
Fichier image/jpeg, 64k
Titre Table 5: Number and percentage of female students in elementary school and junior secondary school from 1991 to 2000
Légende From: China Statistics Yearbook 1991—2000, China Statistical Publishing House, 1991—2000.
Fichier image/jpeg, 132k
Titre Pic 1: The primary education of girls in 5 provinces in western China
Légende From: Census Office in State Council, Census Department in China Statistical Bureau, The Data of Census in 1990 in China, 1993, and The Data of Census in 2000 in China, 2002.8, China Statistical Publishing House.
Fichier image/jpeg, 108k
Titre Pic 2: The proportion of women teachers in primary education in 9 western provinces in China
Légende From: Development and Planning Department in China Education Bureau, Chinese Education Statistical Yearbook, 2000, People’s Education Publishing House.
Fichier image/jpeg, 100k


Women’s Studies Institute of China
All China Women Federation
Beijing, CHINA

Population and Development Research Institute
Nankai University, Tianjin 300071, P.R. China

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