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Studies on fortification in India

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Jean Deloche

Index

Texte intégral

Agastya tīrha, 53

Ahicchatra, 12, 17, 39

Ahmadnagar, 124, 130, 141

Aihole, 51-52

Akbar, 246

Alamparai, 181

Alampur, 51, 53, 57

Aleppo, 139

Ali Adil Shah I, 107, 140, 155, 243

Ali Barid, gun, 238, 239, 242, 243

Ali Burj, 101

Allahpur Darwazah, 11, 113

Allan A., 189 n. 1, 223-228

Amaravati, 30, 32, 36, 51

Anchettidurgam, 190-192, 199, 218, 223

Annigeri, 72

Aqa Rumi, 141.

Arab military architecture, 138-139

archaeological excavations, 3, 20, 37, 49, 139, 187

architectural revolution in the beginning of the 16th century, 140-141

Arcot, 181

Arthaśāstra, 11, 89, 191

artillery, see gunpowder artillery.

Atish Bar, gun, 240

Aurangabad, 120, 123

Aurangzeb, 242, 246

Azhdaha Paikar, gun (Golkonda), 141, 240

Azhdaha Paikar, gun (Parenda), 239

Babur, 236

Bada Burj, 240

Badami, 51, 53-56, gateways, 53-58

Bahmani Darwazah, 111

Bahmanis, 140, 155

Bala Hisar (Golkonda), 94, 110, 112

Bala Hisar (Gulbarga), 107, 124, 243

Balasubramaniam R., 240-241

Banavali, 6

Banavasi, 12, 21, 39, 51

Bangarh, 39

Banjari Darwazah, 111, 112

Baramahals, 219

Basava Kalyana or Kalyani, 75, 77, 81, 85, 89, 90, 94, 95, 101, 104, 105, 109, 115, 119, 124, 130-132, 140, 143, 236, 242, 244, 245, 247, gateways, 115, 116, 119, machicolations, 131, 132

Bāvanabaṇḍe-kōṭe, 53

Besnagar, 12, 13, 40

Bhongir, 131

Bidar, 75, 77, 80, 81, 87-89, 94-98, 100, 101, 103, 104, 106, 108, 109, 111, 113, 117, 118, 120, 123-126, 131, 132, 139, 143, 236, 238, 240, 242, 246, ditches, 86-89, doors, 120, 123, gateways, 11, 113-115, 117, machicolations, 131, 132

Bijapur, 75, 77, 85, 94, 100, 103, 104, 107-109, 111, 120, 124-126, 131, 136-138, 140, 143, 155, 236, 237, 240, 242, 243, 246, doors, 120, gateways, 111, 112, 113, machicolations, 131, 136, 137, posterns, 120

Bodhgaya, 30, 31

Bommi Reddi, 156

Bouchet, Father, 180

bound-hedges, 218, 218

box machicolations, 86, 130-139, 173, 174, shapes, 131-136, stone hoods, 136-138, origins of machicolation, 138-139

brattices, 36-37

British drawings, 189 n.1

British Museum, 34

Buddhist iconography, 11, 30-37

building materials in India, 1 n.1, 183 n. 25

buildings in Mysore hill forts, 209, 211-213

Byzantine military architecture, 138, 139

Cairo, 139

Campa, 40

cannon balls, 242

cannons, preserved in fortifications, 236, design features, 236-241, mode of mounting, 242, 243, circular gun platforms, 243-246, effectiveness, 246-247, technical studies needed, 247-249

cavaliers, 86, 104-107, on towers, 104, on curtain walls & within the ramparts, 104, 105

Carnatic Darwazah, 94, 104, 115, 118, 131

Central Asia system of fortification, 37

Chalukya temples, 51

Chanderi, 89

Chandragiri, 156, 158, 162, 174, 221

Chaubara, 109

chemins-de-ronde, 86, 205

Chendrayadurgam, 191, 199, 223

Chengalpattu, 181, 182

Chitradurga, 181 n.15

Constantinople, 140

Cousens H., 75, 139, 236, 240, 242, 243

crenellations, at Warangal, 68, 69, 71, 72, in the Deccan forts, 124-130

chronology, problems of, 77, 85

Crusaders, 138

cuṉai, 214

Cunningham A., 3

curtain walls, in early historical India, 21, 36, in the Deccan forts, 90

Damascus, 139

Daniell T & W., 189 n. 1, 219

Daulatabad, 75, 77, 82, 85, 88-90, 92, 94-96, 98, 99, 101, 103-106, 109, 110, 117, 127, 129, 130, 131, 133, 136-138, 245, ditches, 88-89, gateways, 110, 111, 117, machicolations, 131 133, 136, 137, posterns, 120, 122

defence principles, in the Harappan period, 7-10, in early historic India, 20-30, from the 3rd to the 11th century, 58-59, from the 11th to the 15th century, 70-72, from the 15th to the 18th century, in the Deccan kingdoms, 85-86, in the Mysore hill forts, 199-209, 220-222

Delhi Darwazah, 101, 114

Desalpur, 6

Dharanikota, 51

Dhulikatta, 51

ditches, 86-89

doṇe, 214

doors, two-leaved, 120, 123

Dulhan Darwazah, 94, 117

durga-daṇṇaik, 221

early historic India fortifications, 10-46

earthworks, successive, 59-63

epigraphy, 85, 143, 144

Eran, 12, 15, 21, 40

Fateh Darwazah (Bidar), 113, 114, 117

Fateh Darwazah (Bijapur), 111, 113

Fateh Darwazah (Golkonda), 104, 110, 111, 112, 120, 123

Fath Laskar, gun, 104, 106, 239

Fath Raïbar, gun, 240

fausses-brayes, 86, 90-91

fieldwork, 139-140, 250

Firangi Burj, 101, 243

floods, defence against, 7, 10, 38

fortified villages, in the Mysore country, 219-220

Gaganagiridurgam, 187, 199, 223

Gandhara, iconography, 34-37

Gandikota, 75, 84, 85, 87, 89, 90, 93, 94, 97, 127, 135, 136, machicolations, 135, 136

gateways, in the Harappan period, 6-7, in early historic India, 26-30, 36, in Hindu forts (6th-14th century), 53, 55, 62, 66, 69, in Hindu forts (15th-18th century), 155, 156, 163, 164, 170, 171, 175, 176, in the Deccan kingdoms, 86, 109-120, in the Mysore hill forts, 205-209

giridurga or parvatadurga, hill fort, 11, 191

Golkonda, 75, 77, 79, 90, 94-97, 100, 101, 104, 105, 107, 108-110, 117, 124, 131, 132, 136, 141, 143, 236, 240, doors, 120, 123, gateways, 110, 111, 117

Gulbarga, 75, 77, 78, 85, 87, 89, 90, 92, 99, 100, 102, 104-107, 119, 121, 124, 131, 134, 136-138, 140, 143, 243, 244, 247, machicolations, 131, 134, posterns, 120, 121

Gumbad Darwazah, 114, 117, 120, 123

gunpowder artillery, in Europe, 235, in South India, 233-249, effectiveness, 246-247

guns, see cannons.

Haidar Ali, 154, 155, 162, 187, 221

Haidar Burj, 109

Haig T.W., 143

Halebid, 63-64, 67

Hangal, 59-60

Hanumanti kottaḷa, 156,

Harappa, 6-9

Harappan fortifications, 4-10

Hasan Rumi, 141

high command, principle of the, 86, 141-142

hill forts, types of, 190-198

Hindu system of fortification in South India (3rd-14th century A.D.), 48-72, (14th-18th century), 153-183

Home R., 219, 223-228

Hudedurgam, 190, 191, 199, 218, 224

Huliyurdurga, 190-192, 196, 198, 199, 200, 205, 218, 220, 225

Hutridurga, 190, 191, 196, 199, 206, 214, 215, 218, 220, 226

Indo-Greeks and Indo-Parthians, 36, 37

inselbergs, types of, 189-198

irattamāṉiyam, 220

Jagadevidurgam, 190, 191, 194, 195, 199, 202-205, 214, 215, 224

Joshi S.K., 51, 53, 77, 115

Kabbaladurga, 199, 203, 205, 226

Kabul Museum, 34

Kala Burj, 106, 107

Kalavaradurga, 190, 191, 195, 199, 227

Kalibangan, 4, 6-9

Kalakkurichchi, 181

Kalmadgi Darwazah, 114, 118

Kalyani Burj, 101, 115

Kalyani Darwazah, 118

Kamalapura, 158

Karunguli, 181-182

Kati and Fateh Darwazahs, 155-156

Katragarh, 21, 40

Kausambi, 3, 10, 12, 13, 21, 26, 38, 40

Kaveri river, 175

Khan I.A., 235, 242, 243, 247

Khwaja Μ. A., 240

Kisaragutta, 51

Kishwar Khan, 140

Kolkata Museum, 35

Kot Diji, 6

Kotilingala, 51

Krishnagiridurgam, 190, 191, 193, 196, 199, 202-205, 210, 212, 214, 216, 218, 219, 224

Kudura, 51

Kushans, 37, 38

Lahore Museum, 34, 35

Lake E., 106, 107

Lal Burj, 106, 197

Lambcharri, gun, 109, 237, 243

Landa Qassab, 101, gun, 237, 240

Lendulura, 51

Lothal, 6-8

machicolations, in India, 130-138, 173-174, in the Middle East, 139

Madurai, 178, 179, 180

Mahmud Gawan, 140

Makka Darwazah, 111, 113, 120, 123, 242, 243

Malik-i-Maidan, gun, 141, 237, 240

Malkhed, 64-65

Mamluks, 138

Mānasāra, 11

Mānasollāsa, 11

Mandu Darwazah, 113, 114

Mangalpet Darwazah, 94, 120, 123, 131

Manusmṛti, 11

Maratha artillery, 249

Mathura, 12, 14, 21, 30, 33, 36, 37, 41

Mathura, iconography, 33,

Mayamata, 11, 191

merlons, stone, in Warangal fort, 68, 69, 71, 72, in Siddhavattam fort, 154, 172

methodology, problems of, 75-77

Michell G., 52

Middle East, 138-141

Mir Jumlah, 250 n.2

Mohenjo Daro, 4, 7

Moti Darwazah, 110

Mudugal, 75, 77, 83, 85, 90, 93, 101, 103, 106, 120, 122, 124, 126, 128, 130, 131, 135, 136, 140, 141, 144, 155, 156, doors, 156, gateways, 155, 156, machicolations, 135-136, posterns, 120, 122

Muhammad Ali Arab, 141, 240

Muhammad Husain Arab, 240

Musa Burj, 101, 240

Muslim system of fortification, in the Deccan kingdoms (15th-18th century), 75-151

Mysore hill forts, 187-229

Nagarjunakonda, 12, 15, 21, 26, 30, 32, 41, 51

Naldurga, 75, 77, 78, 85, 87, 89, 90, 94-97, 100, 107, 108, 124, 131, 132, 140, 144, machicolations, 131-132, tower, 107, 108, 243

Nandidurga, 187, 190, 91, 193, 199, 201, 203, 205, 208, 209, 210, 213, 217, 218, 227, 243

Nau Burj, 100

Nausahra gate, 27, 29

Nazim M., 143

Naya Qil’ah, 97, 100

Nayakas, 174-180

Nilagiridurgam, 187, 191, 199, 225

Orme R., 175, 177, 178, 182

Ottoman Turks, technology, 140, 141, 236

Palaiyamkottai, 178, 179, 180

Parapets, in the Hindu forts, 62-72, 172, in the Deccan kingdoms, 86, 124-130, in the Mysore hill forts, 204, 205

Parenda, 75, 77, 78, 90, 92, 94, 96, 100-102, 104, 115, 119, 120, 124, 126, 133, 144, 236, 239, 244, gates, 115, 119, machicolations, 131, 133

Pataliputra, 25, 26, 41, 42

Patel C.S., 77

paths and flights of stairs, in the Mysore hill forts, 209-210

Penukonda, 160-162, 221

Petla Burj, 101, 104, 240

pettahs, in the Mysore hill forts, 218

Pietro della Valle, 246

Piggott S., 77

Portuguese engineer, 101

posterns, in the Deccan kingdoms, 120-122

prākā-parikhā, 20

Purāna Qil’ah, 104, 114

Purāṇa, 11

Qandhar, 141

Raichur, 64, 65, 67, 155

Rajgir, Rajagriha, 18, 18, 21, 24, 26, 42

Rāmaburuju, 161

Ramachandra Murthy, 77

Ramagiridurga, 90, 191, 194, 199, 202, 206, 214, 215, 218, 220, 228

Ramangarh, 190, 191, 199, 228

Raṇamaṇḍalakōṭe, 53

raonī or fausses-brayes, 86, 90, 91

Ratnagiri, 218

Rayakottai, 190-192, 196, 199, 202, 205, 208, 209-211, 217, 218, 220, 225

researches to be carried out, 139-140, 247-248, 250

Roman military architecture, 138-139

Rötzer K., 89

Sanchi, 30, 31, 36

Sanghol, 42

Sankisa, 43

Sannati, 12, 43, 51

Satanikota, 12, 21, 26, 43, 51

Savandurga, 190, 191, 194, 199, 200, 205, 213-215, 219, 229

Senji (Gingee), 141, 174, 221, 236

Settupattu, 181-182

Sevappa Nayaka, 176

Shahpur Darwazah, 111, 120

Sharma G.R., 3

Sharza Darwazah, 114

Sherza Burj, 101, 243

Siddhavattam, 154-155

Śilpaśāstra, 11-12

Sirkap, 12, 19-21, 22, 26, 29, 37, 43, 44

Sirsukh, 12, 21, 23, 26, 37, 44

Sisupalgarh, 12, 16, 21, 26, 28, 29, 44

Sivangiridurga, 190, 191, 195, 199, 218, 229

Solapur, 75, 77, 78, 89, 92, 94, 95, 97-100, 102, 104, 105, 107, 108, 120, 121, 123, 129-131, 134, 136, doors, 120-121, machicolations, 134, 136, posterns, 120-121

Sravasti, 12, 14, 26, 27, 44, 45

Srirangapattana, 180 n. 15

stone hoods, 136-138

stupas, iconography, 30-37

superstructures, in early historic India forts, 30-37

Surkotada, 6, 7, 8, 9

survival of the Hindu system of fortification in South India, 153-183

Tanjavur, 59, 176

Tattakkaldurgam, 191, 199, 204, 207, 209, 214, 217, 225

Thalghat Darwazah, 94, 113, 114, 131

Tipu Sultan, 154, 187, 219

Tiruchchirappalli, 174-176, 179

towers, in the Harappan period, 4-10, in early historic India, 21-26, 38, in the Deccan kingdoms, 94-109, plans: rectangular, 94, 97, semicircular, 94, 96, polygonal, 94-95, polylobed, 97, 100, dimensions, 98, 100-103, salient, 99, height, 100-103

Toy S., 77, 124

treaties on architecture and urbanism, 11-12

Tungabhadra river, 158, 161

Tyagadurgam, 181

typology of the sites and layouts, in early historic India, 11-19, in the Mysore hill forts, 191-198

Ujjain, 12, 16, 20, 21, 38, 45

umpiḷikkai, 220

Vaisali, 12, 16, 45-46

Valudavur, 181

Vandavashi, 181

Vellore, 156-158

Vengatappa Nayaka, 156

Vengi, 51

Vijayan Raghava Nayaka, 176

Vijayanagara, 59, 154, 155, 156, 158-161, 220, 221

Virabhadradurgam, 190, 191, 193, 199, 225

Visvanatha Nayaka, 180

Warangal, 61-63, 66-72, 89, 124, 153, 155, enclosures, Bhūmikōṭa, 61-63, 67, Kalukōṭa, 68-72, gates, 62-66, 69, 70, Hindu batttlements, 68, 71, 72

water supply, in the Mysore hill forts, 209, 214-218

Welsh J., 180

Wilks M., 219

Yazdani. G., 75, 89, 139, 141, 236, 240

Yusuf Khan, 180

© Institut Français de Pondichéry, 2007

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