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Studies on fortification in India

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Jean Deloche

V. Mysore Hill Forts (15th-18th century)*

Texte intégral

Introduction

  • * Revised version of my article, ‘Etudes sur les fortifications de l’Inde. II. Les monts fortifiés d (...)

1The zone under study comprises the southern part of the Mysore plateau, an undulating table-land, much broken by ranges of rocky hills and scored by deep ravines, and the Mysore Ghat which descends in a series of steps toward the Tamil plain to the south-east, in a maze of forest-clad peaks and cones, i.e. a zone which forms a triangle with Nandidurga to the north, Srirangapattana to the west and Chengam to the east.

2An interesting feature of this country and one of great historical importance is the large number of isolated granitic rocks which are found in all parts and which often rear their heads as stupendous monoliths to the height of 1500 m which were in former days used as hill fortresses and have been the scene of many a hard-fought battle.

3The distribution map of fortified sites (fig. 1) shows the position of the main strongholds of this zone, namely, on the Tamil side, Anchettidurgam, Chendrayadurgam, Gaganagiridurgam, Hudedurgam, Jagadevidurgam, Krishnagiridurgam, Nilagiridurgam, Rayakottai, Tattakkaldurgam, Virabhadradurgam; and, on the Kannada side, Huliyurdurga, Hutridurga, Kabbaladurga, Kalavaradurga, Nandidurga, Ramagiridurga, Ramangarh, Savandurga and Sivangiridurga (see appendix).

4Locally, these fortified hills which command a superb view of the surrounding country are known as Tīpū Sultāṉ kōṭṭai, since, in villages, it is still commonly believed that they were built by the Mysore ruler, while, in fact, they are much older.

Sources

5The available sources to study their past are scanty.

6- Because of the lack of inscriptions or literary sources, the early history of these strongholds is lost in obscurity. Little is known about their development until the second half of the 18th century, when Haidar Ali and Tipu Sultan tried to modernize their defenses in order to fight British imperialism.

7- Archaeological vestiges can be investigated, but, as a lot of changes have taken place in these fortified hills since their capture by the troops of the East India Company, many of them having been dismantled and successive lines of walls and towers having disappeared, it is not possible to observe all the various works of the strongholds and ascertain their development. It must be said that, except for Nandidurga approachable by a motor road, all the other hills are difficult of access and even dangerous as their scarps are mostly composed of sheer precipices.

Fig. 1. Distribution of the fortified sites.

  • 1 The Mysore wars fought between 1767 and 1799 aroused great interest in England and pictures of Mys (...)

8- For the last period, however, a great deal of data can he gathered from the various reports written on the military operations during the Mysore wars. Moreover, there is an exceptional source of information, supplementing the observation of monuments: the British drawings made by a pleiad of artists and engineers1 before the fortified places were destroyed.

9For most of the sites, these representations are the only means we have for reconstructing the former appearance of the fortresses. They are precise and their clear incisive outlines provide even a more definite impression than do later photographs. The faithful care with which each detail of fortification was investigated is remarkable and, thus, as factual records of ancient constructions, they make a rich contribution to the history of South Indian military architecture.

10From the old drawings and the observation of the remains of military works on the rock outcrops, it is possible to define the main characteristics of these forts and understand why they played a significant role almost until the beginning of the 19th century.

11In the first place, we find that the inselbergs used for defensive works are natural fortresses almost inaccessible.

12Secondly, we see that their system of defence was adapted to these natural features.

Natural Fortresses

13These granitic hills called inselbergs by the geographers are of three basic types: steep-sided, bald, domical hills, or steep-sided, angular and blocky, or conical hills consisting of a chaotic mass of large boulders. Some are single-unit forms standing in isolation above the plains; others are complexes or multiple-unit forms.

14Whether rounded, domed or castellated, boulder strewn residuals, they are difficult of approach, rising into rocky eminences with almost sheer sides. In some cases, the lower slopes of many domed inselbergs are steepened to such an extent as to be over hanging.

Fig. 2. Fortified inselberg profiles.

15Moreover, they are usually surrounded by great impassable screes of boulders, bare of any sort of soil or vegetation. These minor relief forms are often spectacular or even bizarre; they include isolated or piled up boulders, perched or poised, split or rounded, rectangular blocks, barrel-shaped. Some are Titanic masses in the oddest positions, lying in fantastic attitudes.

Typology of the Sites

16All of them, however, have not been fortified and only certain types of hills were considered fit for defensive works. When we examine them, we find that three main inselberg profiles have attracted military engineers (see fig. 2).

  1. The tall, steep-sided domes, called sugar loaves, have been used in certain places: in Huliyurdurga and Kalavaradurga it is the regular type, having a circular plan, but, in other sites engineers preferred dissymmetrical sugar loaves with a long sloping surface on one side, where a permanent station for the support of military activities could be installed, as it is found in Rayakottai, Ramangarh and Anchettidurgam (photos 1-3).
  2. Flat-topped inselbergs, roughly conical, or domed forms of very large radius called whalebacks offer bigger surfaces, oval in plan, for the construction of buildings and defensive works. Such are the famous strongholds of Nandidurga, Krishnagiridurgam, and also minor hills, such as Sivangiridurga, Hudedurgam, Chendrayadurgam and Tattakaldurgam (photos 4-6).
  3. Inselbergs in groups or clusters are also prominent features of the landscape which have been fortified. Nilagiridurgam and Virabhadradurgam have very uneven summits with protuberant rock outcrops. Ramagiridurga consists of a chaotic mass of large blocks and boulders, protected on the north-east by walls. In Jagadevidurgam and Hutridurga, two peaks have been provided with defensive works. Lastly, Savandurga, an enormous mass of granite, is divided by a vast chasm into two hills, each of which having its own defence and citadels. This huge fortress, completely surrounded by walls and defended by cross walls and barriers, was deemed inaccessible (photos 7-9).
  • 2 E. Lake, Journals of the Sieges of the Madras Army in the Years 1817, 1818 and 1819, p. 205.

17These formidable Hill Forts were thus "fortresses formed by nature, as if in proof of her superiority over the most laboured works of science" and, if properly defended could be considered absolutely impregnable, as "those vast precipices of lofty granite may equally bid defiance to the battering gun and to the mine".2

  • 3 In sanscrit, durga, fort, means also: difficult of access or approach, impassable.

18We now understand why, in the ancient sanskrit treatises of architecture, like Arthaśāstra, (II, 3, 1, 21), Mayamata (X, 36-38), giridurga or parvatadurga,3 hill fort, is regarded as one of the best suited fortified places to dominate over the adjacent flat country and is recommended as the most efficient system of defence.

Pl. I. Sites (A): Sugar-loave inselbergs

Pl. I. Sites (A): Sugar-loave inselbergs

1. Huliyurdurga, from the north.

2. Anchettidurgam, from the south.

3. Rayakottai, from the south-east.

Pl. II. Sites (B): Flat-topped inselbergs

Pl. II. Sites (B): Flat-topped inselbergs

4. Krishnagiridurgam, from the south-east.

5. Nandidurga, from the north-east.

6. Virabhadradurgam, from the west.

Pl. III. Sites (C): Inselbergs in clusters

Pl. III. Sites (C): Inselbergs in clusters

7. Ramagiridurga, from the west.

8. Jagadevidurgam, from the north-east.

9. Savandurga, from the south.

Pl. IV. Types of fort (A): with walls on the top

Pl. IV. Types of fort (A): with walls on the top

10. Kalavaradurga, from the south (A. Allan, Views).

11. Sivangiridurgam, from the south-east (A. Allan, Views).

12. Jagadevidurgam, from the west (A. Allan, Views).

Pl. V. Types offort (B): with several lines of walls at different levels

Pl. V. Types offort (B): with several lines of walls at different levels

13. Huliyurdurga, from the north (A. Allan, Views).

14. Hutridurga, from the south (R. Home, Select Views).

15. Rayakottai, from the south-east (T. Daniell, Oriental Scenery).

Fig. 3. Plan of Krishnagiridurgam (after Tamilnadu Archives, No. 208)

Fig. 4. Plan of Hutridurga (1794) (after R. Home, Select Views).

Defence Systems

19These hill forts are military works of great extent with their walls forming long circuits round. Two types of forts are to be distinguished:

  • forts with a single or several enclosures built on the top;
  • forts with several lines of walls, built at different levels.

20Since many of them have been dismantled, we use the old British drawings to show their former appearance.

  1. In eight of the sites selected here (Chendrayandurgam, Gaganagiridurgam, Krihnagiridurgam (fig. 3), Tattakadurgam, Ramgarh, Kalavaradurga, Sivangiridurga and Jagadevidurgam (photos 10-12), the builders probably considered that the sheer precipices surrounding them constituted in themselves sufficient defence, and that it was enough to erect around their flattish top, covered with rock debris, bumps and terraces, an extensive wall following the contours of the hills, at the edge of the precipitous sides. In such defences, the most strongly fortified walls and entrance gates are usually found on the only line of approach.
  2. In the eleven remaining sites (Anchettidurgam, Hudedurgam, Nilagiridurgam, Rayakottai (photo 15), Virabhadradurgam, Huliyurdurga (photo 13), Hutridurga (fig. 4 and photo 14), Kabbaladurga, Nandidurga, Ramagiridurga and Savandurga, there are several lines of walls built at different levels and one within the other, the uppermost enclosing the citadel at the top.

21At Hutridurga, direct access to the summit from within the outer walls was barred by eight enclosures in succession, all having narrow gateways (fig. 4 and photo 14); at Virabhadradurgam there were seven lines of such walls; at Huliyurdurga, six (photo 13); at Ramagiridurga, Anchetidurgam, Nilagiridurgam, Kabbaladurga, three; and two at Hudedurgam, Nandidurga and Rayakottai (photo 15).

22It is difficult to classify the different types of works into a chronological sequence, all the more so because they have been periodically repaired or reshaped, especially at the parapet level.

Curtain Walls and Towers

23The form of the different structures however is significant. Two types of walls and towers are found in the different strongholds, which correspond to two building traditions and also two periods of military architecture.

  1. The first one, which is seen in all the ancient south Indian fortifications,4 based on quadrangular works, agrees with a period when gunpowder and firearms were not in use. This type of curtain walls made of segments forming salient angles flanked by square or rectangular towers is found in almost all the sites in the Kannada plateau. They are shown in the old drawings (photos 13 & 14). The best examples today can be observed at Savandurga, particularly at its lower fort called Basavandurga, which has not been modified as the upper portions of the hill, and also at Huliyurdurga and Hutridurga (photos 16-20). This is what we consider the Hindu system of fortification.
  2. The second which is based on circular or semicircular works corresponds to profound changes in the art of defence, a consequence of the introduction of gunpowder and firearms into warfare and the development of a powerful artillery.

Pl. VI. Curtain walls and rectangular towers

Pl. VI. Curtain walls and rectangular towers

16. Savandurga (Basavandurga).

17. Savandurga (Karigudda).

18. Huliyurdurga.

19. Savandurga (Karigudda).

20. Savandurga (Basavandurga).

Pl. VII. Curtain walls and semicircular towers (A)

Pl. VII. Curtain walls and semicircular towers (A)

21. Nandidurga, 1st enclosure.

22. Nandidurga, 2nd enclosure.

23. Nandidurga, 2nd enclosure.

Pl. VIII. Curtain walls and semicircular towers (B)

Pl. VIII. Curtain walls and semicircular towers (B)

24. Krishnagiridurgam.

25. Krishnagiridurgam.

27. Jagadevidurgam.

28. Krishnagiridurgam, cavalier.

Pl. IX. Masonry

Pl. IX. Masonry

29. Nandidurga, 2nd enclosure.

30. Nandidurga, 1st enclosure.

31. Krishnagiridurgam.

32. Jagadevidurgam.

33. Ramagiridurga.

34. Kabbaladurga.

Pl. X. Chemins-de-ronde and parapets

Pl. X. Chemins-de-ronde and parapets

35. Tattakkaldurgam.

36. Krishnagiridurgam.

37. Jagadevidurgam.

24These circular or semicircular works which, by establishing a flanking fire, remedied the defects of the former works, prevail at places which were renovated to accommodate a powerful artillery of European type, with huge towers provided with strong parapets pierced by large embrasures such as Savandurga and Nandidurga in Karnataka (photos 21-23), Krishnagiridurgam, Rayakottai and Jagadevidurgam (photos 24-27), on the Tamil side. There is even an enormous cavalier at the top of Krishnagiridurgam (photo 28) and one at Jagadevidurgam provided with a circular stone in the centre of which is a circular socket to hold the pivot of the gun (photo 37).

Masonry Work

25The basic feature of these stone walls is a massive masonry construction, made of wedgeshaped stone blocks separated by earth and rubble filling (photos 19 & 29). The stones are laid without any mortar not only in old quadrangular works (photos 19 & 20) but also in most of the recent ones (photos 29, 31 & 32), except in the parapets of stone or brick (photo 30).

26There is however a range of jointing system. At Nandidurga and Krishnagiridurgam, regular rectangular blocks and well finished joints may be observed (photos 29 & 31); at Jagadevidurgam, Hutridurga, in the first enclosure of Rayakottai, the blocks are squarish, vary in shape and size and are laid with an irregular pattern (photo 32); at Ramagiridurga and Kabbaladurga, small and irregular blocks, hardly dressed, are laid without any overall jointing pattern (photos 33 & 34).

27These variations testify to many different phases of construction or renovation which we cannot identify. It appears, however, that walls of inferior construction may be later than those with well-finished joints.

Chemins-de-Ronde and Parapets

28In all the sites at the top of enclosures, chemins-de-ronde with parapets are found. Chemins-de-ronde are continuous gangways, from 1 to 5 m wide, with an inner facing of large stones. providing a means of communication behind the parapets.

29Parapets are generally brick, sometimes stoneworks, and form low retaining walls at the edge of the enclosures. They are about 1 m in height and from 1 to 1.50 m in thickness, pierced by loopholes for muskets and also large embrasures for cannons (photos 35-37). Old battlements (i.e. parapets having a regular alternation of merlons and crenels) are not seen anywhere since they have been replaced by plain loop-holed parapets after the spread of firearms and particularly the use of artillery.

Gateways

30At the foot of the hills there were defensive outposts, as shown in the plan of Hutridurga (see fig. 4 and photo 14) where three barbicans can be seen, but, access into the different enclosures was provided only by small openings in the wall. The gateways usually consist of two rectangular platforms defined by stone basements, separated by a central passageway (photos 38 & 39). Sometimes they are positioned between two boulders (fig. 40), or two projecting towers (the original doors presumably in timber have all vanished). The best examples are seen at Ramagiridurga and Hutridurga.

Pl. XI. Gateways (A): simple rectangular openings

Pl. XI. Gateways (A): simple rectangular openings

38. Ramagiridurga, 3rd gate.

39. Hutridurga, 5th gate.

40. Hutridurga, 3rd gate.

Pl. XII. Gateways (B):Tattakkaldurgam

Pl. XII. Gateways (B):Tattakkaldurgam

41. 2nd gate, from without, rectangular in shape.

42. 2nd gate, from within, rectangular in shape.

43. 1st gate, vault.

44. Last gate, vault.

Pl. XIII. Gateways (C): later modifications

Pl. XIII. Gateways (C): later modifications

45. Nandidurga, 1st gate, to the north-west.

46. Rayakottai, 1st gate, to the north-east.

47. Nandidurga, 1st gate, to the west.

48. Rayakottai, north-east gate.

31More elaborate gates of this type and gates covered by an arch are not generally found, except at Tattakkaldurgam (photos 41-44), Rayakottai and Nandidurga (photos 45-48) where they appear to be later additions

32Thus, in most of the sites, gateways connecting one enclosure with another appear to conform to a standard scheme: they are simple, consisting of plain lintel blocks on pillars.

Paths with a Paved Surface and Flights of Stairs

33Now, how were the soldiers going from one level to the other in these masses of rudely-heaped rock fragments? On the top, the easiest way must have been the chemin-de-ronde, always well laid-out and easy of access. But on the steepened slopes it was necessary to make an artificial way to reach the upper levels.

34In most of the sites, we don't find traces of any path or track, but at Krishnagiridurgam, a Right of steps made of squarish blocks can still be used (photos 49 & 50). At Rayakottai, are seen a series of stairs made of irregular blocks hardly dressed and, on fiat surface, paved narrow roads (photos 51 & 52). The most remarkable work in this respect is on the north-western side of Nandidurga (photo 53) where there are 1775 steps, made of long well dressed stones (built, however, for religious reasons).

Buildings within the enclosures

35Regarding constructions inside the forts, the greatest part of the military works were demolished when the walls were dismantled. In most of the sites, except for caves and temples which are still visited, only ruined structures are found today. At Rayakottai (photos, 54-56) and Krishnagiridurgam (photos 57-59), however, several brick buildings can be seen, including granaries, and, at Nandidurga, are interesting edifices, like Tipu's lodge and two powder magazines, dating probably from the 18th century (photos 60 & 61).

36Anyhow, at all the places, barracks were needed for the garrisons which could be important, as we know that, at Rayakottai in 1791, there were 880 men inside the stronghold.

Water Supply

37These steep-sided residual hills could not have been used by men unless there was enough water supply. How could a garrison of several hundred men live at the top of these rock outcrops? How could they withstand the operation of strict blockade which could last for months, without sufficient supply of drinking water?

38This question should be investigated.

Pl. XIV. Pathways and steps

Pl. XIV. Pathways and steps

49. Krishnagiridurgam.

50. Krishnagiridurgam.

Pl. XV. Buildings (A): Rayakottai

Pl. XV. Buildings (A): Rayakottai

54. Granaries.

56. Granary and barracks.

Pl. XVI. Buildings (B): Krishnagiridurgam

Pl. XVI. Buildings (B): Krishnagiridurgam

57. Granary.

58. Kacheri of the qil'ahdar.

59. Saiyid Padshah's mosque.

Pl. XVII. Buildings (C)

Pl. XVII. Buildings (C)

60. Nandidurga, powder magazine.

61. Nandidurga, Nellikai Basavana.

62. Savandurga (Karigudda), mandapa.

39We know that, for water supply, we depend on surface water collected from rivers, natural or artificial depressions, and ground water consisting largely of surface water that has seeped down.

40In this zone of hill forts rather precarious climatically, both were used and, from the top of the hills to the plateau, we find that people had highly developed reservoir construction skills. They built surface and underground storage reservoirs near points of use. During the dry season, however, only ground water (in springs and wells) is available. Then, what was the water source to be found on these dry and rocky inselbergs?

41When you climb their slopes you are surprised to find springs, in all seasons and at different places, even at the top. How is it possible, when, in the plain, in summer, all the ponds and reservoirs are dry, to find pure water beneath heaps of burning boulders?

42The reason is that water is stored in the weathered and shattered granitic mass and reappears as springs. Granitic outcrops are so fissured and fractured that there are innumerable avenues along which water can percolate during the rainy season. Rainwater passes through the joints or cracks in the granite, widening them, decomposing the adjacent rock. The granite therefore displays several types of texture and varies in the degree of disintegration and alteration, but it acts as a kind of sponge which absorbs water and filters it, permitting an important accumulation of ground water which comes out through joint blocks internally fissured and other fractures.

43This explains why we find springs flowing throughout the year, along the hill slopes, and certain reservoirs, at the foot of the inselbergs, having clear water even in the hottest part of the year.

44Moreover, water which collects in the initial small crevices and holes can percolate through the weathered granite enlarging them into weather pits. These depressions are approximately elliptical or circular in plan or rhomboidal; others resulting from the coalescence of several individual pits are irregular.

45They are profusely developed and preserved on granitic rock. They occur on the upper surface of inselbergs with gentle inclination, or in cavernous forms below the boulders In these natural reservoirs, called cuṉai in Tamil and doṇe in Kannada, water collects. Their capacity may be increased by the addition of a brick wall or by further excavation. All depressions, relatively shallow, wide and flat, cavities, anfractuosities, deep fissures, fractures, where water can be stored, have been used.

46At Savandurga several types of pits are found, from small hollows to larger ones, elliptical or circular in plan (photo 66); at the summit of Ramagiridurga and Hutridurga there are rhomboidal depressions (photos 63 & 64), and on the eastern slope of this last site, three doṇe, one above the other, are interconnected by spilling over. At Jagadevidurgam, water is stored in huge fractures and crevices (photo 65).

47Naturally, it is on flat-topped hills that are seen the best water reservoirs. At Krishnagiridurgam, on the northern side of the hill, are four big reservoirs which consist of pits edged with brick walls and provided with staircases (photos 67-69). At Tattakkaldurgam, inside the parapet of the enclosure, six works of this type have been built in natural depressions (photo 70).

Pl. XVIII. Water storage (A)

Pl. XVIII. Water storage (A)

63. Ramagiridurga, elliptical weather pit.

64. Hutridurga, rectangular weather pit.

65. Jagadevidurgam, crevice.

66. Savandurga (Karigudda), circular weather pit.

Pl.. XIX. Water storage (B): Krishnagiridurgam

Pl.. XIX. Water storage (B): Krishnagiridurgam

67. Depression edged with a wall, hemispherical in shape.

68. Id., with a wall, rectangular in shape.

69. Wall downhill, triangular in shape, used as a reservoir.

Pl. XX. Water storage (C)

Pl. XX. Water storage (C)

70. Tattakkaldurgam, depression edged with a wall.

71. Rayakottai, enclosure used as a barrier to store water.

72. Nandidurga, amrtasarovara, stone pond with flight of steps.

  • 5 Major Dirom, A Narrative of the Campaign in India which terminated the War with Tippoo Sultan in 1 (...)

48In the same way, on the flat side of the dissymmetrical inselberg of Rayakottai, the stone enclosure of the fort is used as a barrier where water is confined (photo 71) and, on gently inclined bounding slope, are armchair-shaped hollows surrounded with strong walls. Several tanks or reservoirs that fill during the rains supply it with excellent water.5

49The most imposing reservoir is at Nandidurga. There, the amṛtasarovara, the main source of water supply on the hill, is a fine large stone built pond, about 60 m square, with stone slabs on the sides which form several series of steps (photo 72). Add a natural pool in which the river Arkavati is said to take its origin.

50All these reservoirs collecting surface water and ground water stored in the fractured and weathered granite ensured a dependable supply throughout the year.

Additional Means of Defence

Pettahs at the Foot of the Hills

  • 6 Pēṭe (Kan.), pēṭṭai (Tam.), the extramural suburb of a fortress or the town attached and adjacent (...)

51At the foot of these strongholds were pettahs,6 usually separately fortified. Some of them, such as Hutridurga, lay on the saddle which joins two hills, each one being fortified; the other ones are situated at the bottom or at the lowest part of the hill. Allan and Home's drawings show in detail those of Huliyurdurga, Hutridurga, Ramagiridurga, Krishnagiridurgam and Rayakottai (figs. 3 & 4 and photos 13-15). They are girt by a line of walls, pierced by fortified gateways or barbicans which protected all approaches and which could be considered the first enclosures of the hill forts.

52Many of them have been abandoned after the fort was dismantled and are now deserted and overgrown with scrub jungle. They can be recognised by the remains which are found at their sites, still marked by traces of earthen ramparts, remnants of a gateway, a revetted wall, by fragments of pottery, bricks and tiles, wells, sometimes by a ruined temple or a tamarind grove. Such is the case of Hudedurgam and Ratnagiri. Also deserted are the pettahs situated at the foot of Sivangiridurga or Ramagiridurga, Anchettidurgam and Nilagiridurgam, pitifully overrun with prickly-pear and aloes. Savandurga and Hutridurga are today small impoverished villages, with a limited number of houses. At Krishnagiridurgam and Hutridurga, the old pettahs (without their surrounding walls) are still inhabited, but modem settlements have developed farther on.

Bound-Hedges

  • 7 Ibid., s.v. bound-edge (a corruption of boundary-hedge).
  • 8 M. Wilks, Historical Sketches of the South of India, vol. II, p. 526.

53As an additional protection these hill forts were often surrounded by a thick plantation of thorny trees or an impenetrable screen of bamboos. The British authors called it bound-hedge.7 "The intention of such belts [was] to form a retreat for cattle on the appearance of a superior cavalry and to be a sort of exterior line of defence".8

  • 9 T. Daniell's Journal, cited by M. Archer, Early Views of India. Picturesque Journey of Thomas and (...)
  • 10 Select Views in Mysore, p. 9.
  • 11 M. Wilk, op.cit., vol. II, p. 510.

54Thomas Daniell, after reaching Virabhadradurgam in 1792 writes in his journal: "Its sides are very thickly clothed with wood a considerable way up, and the lower part is so surrounded by an impenetrable jungle, that the tigers which are said to be very numerous here find a secure and undisturbed shelter."9 R. Home,10 describing Savandurga, says that "besides all this, added to the rocky hills and natural forest thickened with clumps of planted bamboos which constitute no easily surmountable barricade, the pestiferous atmosphere threatens with inevitable destruction the hardiest troops, should they lie long before it. Hence its significant appellation of Savendrug or the rock of Death". Evoking the same site, M. Wilks11 mentions "the arduous labour of cutting a gun-road through the rugged forest to the foot of the rock".

  • 12 M.S. Naravane (Forts of Maharashtra, p. 24) writes that "most of the Maratha hill forts were surro (...)

55These wide protective belts of thorny jungle were considered, from North to South India, as retarding military operations considerably, since no human being could pass it without cutting it down, a work of the utmost difficulty, and Indian generals had great reliance on it for their defence.12 Tipu Sultan himself was sure that, at Savandurga, it would block the advance of the British troops.

Regional Defence Based on Fortified Villages

56In order to understand the role of these strongholds, we must keep in mind that, on the fringe of the Mysore plateau, a very sensitive strategical zone, in the present taluks of Hosur and Krishnagiri, almost every village was fortified and remains of military works were still found until the end of the 19th century.

57The fort was usually square and consisted of a simple mud bank revetted with uncemented stones, the wall was irregularly loop-holed, the corners were strengthened by semicircular bastions, the entrance was generally a gateway of four rough upright pillars surmounted by a roof of horizontal slabs.

58Most of these military works were of mediocre dimensions, usually 20 m square; but it was sufficient for the defence of a small hamlet. When raiders came, the villagers took refuge in the fort with their families, cattle, grain, and were safe, as a few musketeers would render the approach of marauders very difficult.

59Then, if, in every village, the local chieftain could maintain an average of ten musketeers when needed, it was possible in the region to equip and maintain small armies.

60The former martial character of the village organisation has left traces in the Hosur taluk, where, in the palaiyams situated near the foot of the passes to the Baramahals, are found umpiḷikkai (land granted rent-free for the performances of services) and inams or irattamāṉiyam (blood fiefs granted as rewards for military services).

61These military fiefs are usually enjoyed by settlements of Vedars or Kurubas, both of them fighting classes that preserve their military traditions. And these people are precisely found at the foot of Tattakkaldurgam where they form homogenous group.

62As regards the Muhammadans of this region, particularly those living at Krishnagiri in the old pettah, they are probably descendants of Haidar Ali and Tipu Sultan's garrisons. There are also a number of Maratha families with like traditions.

63Thus, the hill forts served as citadels to these fortified settlements.

Conclusion

64To conclude this analysis let us summarize the main features of the defence systems adopted in the construction of hill forts.

A. Defence Systems

65a. First remark: parapets with box machicolations and fausses-brayes, great innovations adopted in most of the strongholds of the Deccan kingdoms, during the 16th and 17th centuries, are not seen in any of these hill forts, even in places where the first enclosure stands in the plain.

66b. Second remark: in all these enclosures, parapets or elevations raised above curtain walls and towers have been modified from time to time according to the evolution of artillery. In particular, it should be noted that

  • the Hindu system of building based on quadrangular towers with small rectangular gates is found mostly in the Kannada country, in the hills surrounded with several enclosures, such as Hutridurga, Huliyurdurga and Ramagiridurga;
  • semicircular works are seen mostly in the Tamil country in forts such as Krishnagiridurgam and Rayakottai, but they are also found in Nandidurga;
  • in most of the works, whether quadrangular or semicircular, the joints are without mortar, a proof that masons remained faithful to the old method of the laying up of stone.13

67c. To explain these facts we have to consider the history of the strongholds.

  • Probably these structures are not earlier than the Vijayanagara period. Most of them were built by the local governors of the great Hindu empire according to the old system of fortification (15th-1st half of the 16th century)14 in order to control strategic points, road crossings, passes, in a crucial zone linking plateau and eastern plain. In the inscriptions of this period we find that durga has also the meaning of territory depending on a fort and the title given to the governors of provinces was durga-daṇṇaik, or head of the fort.15
  • The fall of Vijayanagara in the middle of the 16th century was followed by a civil war, inaugurating a period of intense strife. The Nayakas therefore had to maintain the existing strongholds and build new military works. At that time, some of the forts in the Tamil country were remodelled or rebuilt, probably in the 17th and the 1st half of the 18th centuries.
  • Finally, during the emergence of a strong power in Mysore, under Haidar Ali and Tipu Sultan, in the second half of the 18th century, all these strongholds were renovated and modernized in view of the threat of the East India Company.

68In this respect, the plan of Hutridurga (fig. 4) made by British officers (1794) is significant. It shows how the old Hindu fort was reshaped. The walls with rectangular or square towers, surrounding the pettah and the north-western slope were not touched, but towards the eastern side, which must have been more important from the strategic point of view, were raised several new constructions, including massive semicircular towers, with large openings intended for artillery, which should be ascribed to the military engineers of Haidar Ali and Tipu Sultan. In all the sites, obviously, the parapets with large embrasures are the works of the Mysore rulers at the end of the 18th century.

B. Role of the Fortified Hills

69Now, if we consider the role they played at the regional level, we find that, during all this time, they never developed as urban centres, unlike Senji (Gingee), Penukonda or Chandragiri, which became capitals of kingdoms. They just remained as mere strongholds. The main reason for this stagnation is that they never had any administrative or political importance which could have been favourable to the development of a town. Their only function was strategic. They have been used as long as this function was there. When it disappeared, they lost their raison d'être and were abandoned.

C. Defence Value

  • 16 "In regard to the Hill Forts of India, many of them, if properly defended, may be considered absol (...)

70Last point, we wonder how these formidable hill forts, regarded even by the British generals16 as impregnable were taken so easily during the Mysore wars. When we think that, in the years 1770, it took three years to Haidar Ali to seize Nandidurga from the Marathas and, in 1791, only 21 days for the British to take possession of the same stronghold, it may be asked whether profound changes in the art of war or introduction of new firearms had taken place in such a short time.

  • 17 "This plan of operation was purposely recommended in the hope of intimidating the defenders", but (...)

71It is true that European engineers had adopted the tactics to make breaches in the walls of the fort with the help of a powerful artillery, but resolute commanders could have resisted the East India Company troops for a very long time.17

  • 18 They knew that they could "entertain no rational prospect of retrieving their Master's fortune, by (...)

72The veritable reason of this sudden collapse is to be found elsewhere. It is very likely due to the demoralization of the Indian garrisons who had lost faith in their capacity to oppose British arms.18

73With the pax britannica some hill forts sheltered garrisons for a short period, but, regarded as out-of-date, all of them were soon abandoned or dismantled.

Annexes

Appendix Catalogue of the Hill Forts19

A. Hill Forts in the Tamil Country

1. Anchettidurgam (Hosur taluk, Dharmapuri district)

It is a wedge-shaped hill that was strongly fortified in the days of Haidar Ali and Tipu Sultan. Allan’s drawing shows at least three enclosures. It is said that in 1791 the approach to the third fort was so strong that "five old women with brickbats might defy lord Cornwallis in such a place". Today, very little remains of the original masonry of the fort.

Ref.: Asiatic Quaterly Review, July 1912, pp. 132-135; A. Beatson, A View of the Origin and Conduct of the War with Tippoo Sultaun, p. 55; Major Dirom, A Narrative of the Campaign in India, p. 35; F.J. Richards, M.D.G., Salem, vol. I, part I, pp. 9, 75, 86, 88, part II, pp. 111, 115-116, 154; M. Wilks, Historical Sketches of the South of India, vol. I, pp. 474-475; W.J. Wilson History of the Madras Army, Madras, vol. II, pp. 209-210.

Illustrations: engravings in A. Allan, Views in the Mysore Country, No. IV, "Anchitty-Droog"; at the India Office Library there is a watercolour by the same author made between 1790 and 1792, View of Anchittidrug (No. 107) and two drawings from the Mackenzie collection (No. 757 (27) and No. 784 (54) (see M. Archer, British Drawings in the India Office Library, pp. 94, 510, 513).

2. Chendrayadurgam (Krishnagiri taluk, Dharmapuri district)

A small but strong hill fort; according to Allan's drawing, it was a strategic place at the end of the 18th century. Today, only ruins of fortification and buildings are found on the hill-top.

Ref.: Major Dirom, A Narrative of the Campaigns in India, p. 35; F.J. Richards, Salem, vol. I, part I, pp. 86, 87 note. 2, part II, p. 170; Supplementary Despatches of the Duke of Wellington, vol. I, pp. 55-67.

Illustration: engraving in A. Allan, Views in Mysore Country, No. VIII, "Chinroyen-Droog".

3. Gaganagiridurgam (Krisnagiri taluk, district Dharmapuri)

This hill appears to be a perfect sugar-loaf from north or south, but viewed from east and west is seen to be a narrow jagged ridge; its summit is protected by a formidable rampart; remains of substantial buildings are still standing.

Ref.: the only description will be found in F.J. Richards, Salem, vol. I, part II, pp. 165-166; no illustration.

4. Hudedurgam (Hosur takuk, Dharmapuri district)

The hill which rises in a sheer cliff has two lines of ramparts, with gateways, built with material of inferior quality.

Ref.: Major Dirom, A Narrative of the Campaign in India, p. 35; A. Beatson, A View of the Origin and Conduct of the War with Tippoo Sultaun, p. 55; F.J. Richards, Salem, vol. I, part I, pp. 86, 88, part II, pp. 111, 139-140; W.J. Wilson, History of the Madras Army, vol. II, pp. 209-210.

Illustrations: engravings in A. Allan, Views in the Mysore Country, No. VII, "Woodia-Droog"; J. Hunter, Picturesque Scenery in the Kingdom of Mysore, "Ourry Durgam"; at the India Office Library will be found a drawing by T. & W. Daniell (No. 225), "Oorin Durgum" (see M. Archer, British Drawings in the India Office Library, vol. II, p. 589).

5. Jagadevidurgam (Krishnagiri takuk, Dharmapuri district)

The hill forms two peaks strongly fortified, as shown in the drawing made by the Daniell. Part of the enclosure can still be seen, with semicircular towers made of neatly jointed stone, with a neat brick parapet freely loop-holed.

Ref.: F.J. Richards, Salem, vol. I, part I, p. 13, part II, pp. 166-70.

Illustrations: engravings in T & W. Daniell, Oriental Scenery, part III, 11, "Jag Deo & Warrangur"; L.M. Langlès, Monuments anciens et modernes de l'Indoustan, vol. II, p. 42, pls. 20 and 21 (after the Daniell), "Djag-Déo et Warangor".

6. Krishnagiridurgam (taluk of the same name, Dharmapuri district)

A picturesque rock fortress which figures prominently among the plates and engravings published by the British artists. It is described as "a frowning square mass of gneiss mostly bare, fissured by huge boulders of stupendous size" (Le Fanu); its fortifications were dismantled during the Mutiny, but remains of these are found to the north, west and north-east

Ref.: Annual Report of the Archaeological Department Southern Circle, 1920-1921, p. 27; Major Dirom, A Narrative of the Campaign in India, pp. 57-58; F.J. Richards, Salem, vol. I, part I, pp. 76, 80, 86-87, part II, pp. 171-178; J. Welsh, Military Reminiscences, vol. I, p. 305; M. Wilks, Historical Sketches of the South of India, vol. I, pp. 566, 597, 618, 634, 667, 669, vol. II, pp. 406-407, 496, 500-502; W.J. Wilson, History of the Madras Army, vol. I, p. 201.

Illustrations: engravings in A. Allan, Views in the Mysore Country, No. XX, "Kistnagherry"; J. Hunter, Picturesque Scenery in the Kingdom of Mysore; at the India Office Library, will be found watercolours by Alexander Beatson in a manuscript entitled: Geographical Observations in Mysore & the Barramaul, Madras, May 1792, p. 112, Nos. 22-26, which comprises 5 views (north, south, east, west faces) of "Kistnagheri", November 1790 (see M. Archer, British Drawings in the India Office Library, vol. II, pp. 392-393); in the Tamilnadu Archives, Chennai, there is a "plan of the Hill Fort of Kistnagherry and its environs (No. 208).

7. Nilagiridurgam (Hosur taluk, Dharmapuri district)

This hill forms a longish ridge, accessible only from the east. Of the first enclosure, at the foot of the glacis, scant relics remain; of the second and third at the top, walls of loose unshaped stones of poor workmanship can still be seen.

Ref.: A. Beatson, A View of the Origin and Conduct of the War with Tippoo Sultaun, p. 55; Major Dirom, A Narrative of the Campaign in India, p. 35; F.J. Richards, Salem, vol. II, pp. 154-155; W.J. Wilson, History of the Madras Army, vol. II, pp. 209-10.

Illustration: engraving in A. Allan, Views in the Mysore Country, No. V, "Neel-Droog".

8. Rayakottai (Hosur taluk, Dharmapuri district)

The place had a very great strategic importance before the British period. It consists of "an immense rock, exceedingly well fortified, rearing its crest above the surrounding mountains and assuming different forms from different directions" (Col. Welsh). The most impressive drawing of this fort was made by the Daniells. Although the main buildings have fallen into disrepair, the lines of the intricate fortifications can still be traced along the contours of the great hill.

Ref.: Annual Report of the Archaeological Department Southern Circle, 1920-1921, pp. 27-28; Major Dirom, A Narrative of the Campaign in India, p. 35; T.V. Mahalingam, A Topographical List of Inscriptions, p. 208, Dh: 213; F.J. Richards, Salem, vol. I, part I, pp. 88-89, 294, part II, pp. 111, 181-188; J. Welsh, Military Reminiscences, vol. I, p. 306; M. Wilks, Historical Sketches of the South of India, vol. I, p. 597, vol. II, pp. 495, 558, 707, 720; W.J. Wilson, History of the Madras Army, vol. II, p. 210.

Illustrations: engravings in A. Allan, Views in the Mysore Country, No. VI; T. & W. Daniell, Oriental Scenery, part III, 12, "Ryacotta"; L.M. Langlès, Monuments anciens et modernes de l'Indoustan, vol. II, p. 90, pl. 18 (after the Daniells), "Rya-cotté"; H. Salt, Twenty-four Views taken in St. Helena, the Cape, India, Ceylon, the Red Sea, Abyssinia and Egypt, plate 12; J. Welsh, Military Reminiscences, vol. I, f.p. 306, "Ryacottah"; at the India Office Library will be found a drawing by T. & W. Daniell (No. 226) dated 9 May 1792, entitled "Riacotta", and also a wash-drawing by H. Salt (No. 1304), dated 23 February 1804; in the Tamilnadu Archives, Chennai, there is a "plan of the Hill Fort of Ryacottah" (No. 234); M. Wilks (in op. cit., 597 note) has used a plan of the fortress probably drawn by John Call in 1767.

9. Tattakkaldurgam (Krishnagiri district, Dharmapuri district)

The fort is in a good preservation and the masonry work is of good quality; the summit is protected on all sides by precipices and is encircled by a rampart of heavy stone securely set in the living rock; the gates are particularly strongly built.

Ref.: The only description of this fort will be found in F. J. Richard, Salem, vol. I, part II, p. 188; no illustration.

10. Virabhadradurgam (Krishnagiri taluk, Dharmapuri district)

This site is described by Thomas Daniell as "one of the most romantic forts of the Baramahals"; the summit of the hill is accessible through seven lines of fortifications.

Ref. : F.J. Richard, Salem, vol. I, part I, pp. 71, 87 note 2, part II, pp. 111, 162, 188-189; Supplementary Despatches of the Duke of Wellington, vol. I, pp. 55-67; M. Wilks, Historical Sketches of the South of India, vol. I, p. 64.

Illustrations: engravings in T. & W. Daniell, Oriental Scenery, part III, p. 13, "Verapadroog"; L.M. Langlès, Monuments anciens et modernes de l'Indoustan, vol. II, pp. 41-42, pl. 19 (after the Daniell), "Verdabendroug".

B. Hill Forts in Karnataka

11. Huliyurdurga (Kunigal taluk, Tumkur district)

This hill is a solid mass of rock, cup-like in shape and almost inaccessible. Of the impressive fortifications shown in the drawings made by A. Allan and R. Home, with two barbicans as entrances, six enclosures with gates, square and rectangular towers, there are few remains, since the place was dismantled and abandoned.

Ref.: Annual Report of the Mysore Archaeological Department, Mysore, 1919, pp. 15-16, 1938, pp. 16-17, pl. VI, 3; C. Hayavadana Rao, History of Mysore (1399-1799 A.D.), vol. I, pp. 126, 230; C. Hayavadana Rao, Mysore Gazetteer, vol. V, pp. 181-182, 489-490; R. Home, Select Views in Mysore, pp. 25-26; M. Wilks, Historical Sketches of the South of India, vol. II, pp. 468, 469,513,526.

Illustrations: engravings in A. Allan, Views in the Mysore Country, No. III, "Hoolioor-Droog"; R. Home, Select Views in Mysore, "North-East" and "South-East View of Oliahdroog".

12. Hutridurga (Kunigal taluk, Tumkur district)

The place rises in two rocky forts; the first, to the south, is called Basavandurga, the second, to the north, is the main stronghold; between the two there is a narrow ridge of lesser hight where the pettah stood. The drawings by A. Allan and R. Home, especially the plan made in 1799, show how strongly fortified were the two hills, the first being surrounded with three lines of walls with quadrangular towers, the second having eight gateways from the foot to the summit.

Ref.: Annual Report of the Mysore Archaeological Department, 1916, p. 64, 1919, pp. 14-15; Major Dirom, A Narrative of the Campaign in India, pp. 21, 74; C. Hayavadana Rao, Mysore Gazetteer, pp. 235-237, 490-491; R. Home, Select Views in Mysore, pp. 17-19; M. Wilks, Historical Sketches of the South of India, vol. II, pp. 512-513, 516.

Illustrations: engravings in A. Allan Views in the Mysore Country, No. XVI, "Ootray-Droog"; R. Home, Select Views in Mysore, "South View of the Works and Pettah of Ootradroog", "South-West View of Ootradroog, "Plan of Ootradroog taken by the English Army". At the India Office Library there is a watercolour by A. Allan, "View of Ootradroog" (No. 108), made between 1790 and 1792 (see M. Archer, British Drawings in the India Office Library, p. 94).

13. Kabbaladurga (Malavalli taluk, Maisur district)

It is a rocky cone protected on all sides by precipices. Allan's drawing shows at least 3 lines of walls at the summit. Unfortunately the fort was dismantled by the British in 1791.

Ref. : Annual Report of the Mysore Archaeological Department, 1938, pp. 41-43, pl. XXI, 1 & 2; C. Hayavadana Rao, Mysore Gazetteer, vol. V, pp. 685-686; M. Wilks, Historical Sketches of the South of India, vol. I, pp. 255, 724, vol. II, pp. 271, 287, 310, 513, 518.

14. Kalavaradurga or Skandagiri (Chikkaballapur taluk, Kolar district)

A very prominent height to the north of Nandidurga, it was crowned with 3 lines of walls, but it was dismantled by the British.

Ref.: Major Dirom, A Narrative of the Campaign in India, pp. 41, 47; C. Hayavadana Rao, Mysore Gazetteer, vol. V, p. 325; J. Welsh, Military Reminiscences, vol. I, pp. 318-321.

Illustrations: engravings in A. Allan, Views in the Mysore Country, No. XI, "Kummaul-ghur or Calaramconda"; J. Welsh, op. cit., p. 319, "Hill-Fort of Kurmuldroog".

15. Nandidurga (Chikkaballapur taluk, Kolar district)

This hill is a granite inselberg at the southern extremity of a long range of which it is the highest point. The strength of this natural fortress had been increased by a double wall and towers wherever an ascent was possible, so as to render it quite impregnable. At the top is an extensive plateau sloping to the west, favourable to human settlements from the earliest period. Along with the walls which have been well preserved, quite a number of buildings dating from the period of Haidar Ali and Tipu Sultan can still be seen (see fig. 5).

Fig. 5. Plan of Nandidurga (after M.H. Krishna, A Guide to Nandi, f.p. 10).

Ref. : Annual Report of the Mysore Archaeological Department, 1932, pp. 57-65, pl. XVI; Major Dirom, A Narrative of the Campaigns in India, pp. 41-47; C. Hayavadana Rao, Mysore Gazetteer, vol. V, pp. 351-359; J. Welsh, Military Reminiscences, vol. I, pp. 310-318; M. Wilks, Historical Sketches of the South of India, vol. I, pp. 6, 241, 495, 500, 524, 688, vol. II, pp. 497-500, 509, 510, 514; there is an excellent guide of the site by M.H. Krishna, A Guide to Nandi, 38 p.

Illustrations: engravings in A. Allan, Views in the Mysore Country, No. X, "Nundy-Droog"; J. Welsh, op. cit., vol. I, f.p. 310, "Nundydroog", p. 314, "Hyder's Drop", f.p. 317, "Nundydroog and Bayne's Hill"; at the India Office Library will be found an anonymous drawing (No. 113) entitled "Nundedroog"; a watercolour by A. Allan (No. 360), made between 1790 and 1792, "Nundy Droog"; a drawing by P.M. Taylor (No. 117), dated March 1834, "Nandidrug and the gate of the Temple of Nandi"; watercolours by A. Beatson in a manuscript: Geographical Observations in Mysore & the Barramaul, Madras, May 1792, p. 424, Nos. 27-29, "Nandedurgum from the Battery of Four Guns", "View of the Breach" and "from the North", October 1791; a water colour from the Mackenzie collection (No. 569), entitled: "View of Nudidroog with the Batteries firing on the place during the Siege of 1791" and a drawing by T. & W. Daniell (No. 221), "Near Bangalore. Nundidroog in the distance, 1 May 1792" (see M. Archer, British Drawings in the India Office Library, pp. 72, 94, 327, 335, 393, 475, 588).

16. Rahmangarh (Chintamani taluk, Kolar district)

This conspicuous tall steep-sided dome was well fortified on the western part, where there is a long sloping shoulder covered with large boulders, as shown by Allan's drawing. The fortifications have not been dismantled.

Ref.: Major Dirom, A Narrative of the Campaigns in India, p. 41; C. Hayavadana Rao, Mysore Gazetteer, vol. V, pp. 362-363.

Illustration: engraving in A. Allan, Views in the Mysore Country, No. IX, "Rayman-Ghur".

17. Ramagiridurga (taluk Ramanagaram, district Bangalore)

It is a mass of rudely-heaped rocks, strewn with boulders and covered with thorny jungle, strongly defended to the north-east by several lines of walls. Allan's drawing shows the first enclosure around the pettah with a parapet pierced by large embrasures, then the second and the third, with quadrangular towers, protecting all accessible approaches. The first line has been destroyed, but vestiges (crumbling walls) of the second and third, can still be seen.

Ref.: C. Hayavadana Rao, Mysore Gazetteer, vol. V, pp. 212-214; R. Home, Select Views in Mysore, pp. 21-22; M. Wilks, Historical Sketches of the South of India, vol. II, pp. 451, 513.

Illustrations: engravings in A. Allan, Views in the Mysore Country, No. 14, "Ramgherry"; R. Home, Select Views in Mysore, "North View of Ramgaree".

18. Savandurga (Magadi taluk, Bangalore district)

“This stupendous fortress enjoys such advantages from nature, as to need little assistance from art” (R. Home). It is an enormous mass of granite rising in the centre of an extensive forest; the summit consists of two peaks separated by a chasm. It was fortified at the top and commanded the approaches to Srirangapattana.

Ref. : Annual Report of the Mysore Archaeological Department, Mysore, 1934, pp. 15-17, pl. VI, 1; Major Dirom, A Narrative of the Campaign in India, pp. 21-22, 66-70, 77; C. Hayavadana Rao, Mysore Gazetteer, vol. V, pp. 218-222; R. Home, Select Views in Mysore, pp. 9-14; A.M. Tabard, Savandroog, The Quaterly Journal of the Mythic Society, vol. II, No. 1, October 1910, pp. 22-28; M. Wilks, Historical Sketches of the South of India, vol. I, pp. 79, 251, 630, 688, 692, vol. II, pp. 509, 512, 521, 535.

Illustrations: engravings in A. Allan, Views in the Mysore Country, Nos. XII & XIII, "Sawen-Droog, from the North, from the South"; R. Home, Select Views in Mysore, "Distant view of Savendroog", "Distant view of Savendroog two days march from Bangalore", "North view of Saverndroog from Maugree". At the India Office Library will be found a drawing by J.T. Blunt (f. 26), entitled "Sevandroog, view in the fort"; a watercolour by J. Johnson (f. 10), "Assault of Savendurg"; a drawing by R. Strachey (p. 31 a), "Saverndroog fort"; nine watercolours by A. Beatson in a manuscript: Geographical Observations in Mysore & the Barramaul, Madras, May 1792, p. 436, Nos. 30-38, "Sawindroog from South-West, West, South-East, East, NorthWest, etc."; three watercolours from the Mackenzie collection (Nos. 573 (5), 575 (7) and 800 (70), entitled "Distant View of Savan-Droog in Mysore from the East side", "View of the Cavern of Saverndroog, 1791" and " Savandroog as viewed from the East in 1791"; finally a drawing by T. & W Daniell (No. 222), "Near Bangalore, Sauvern Droog in the distance" (see M. Archer, British Drawings in the India Office Library, pp. 133, 234, 327, 393, 475, 476, 514, 589, pls. 19, 64).

19. Sivangiridurga (Ramanagaram taluk, Bangalore district)

A large isolated fortified rock in the centre of an extensive forest, crowned with a rampart.

Ref. : Major Dirom, A Narrative of the Campaign in India, p. 76; C. Hayavadana Rao, Mysore Gazetteer, vol. V, p. 232; R. Home, Select Views in Mysore, p. 27; M. Wilks, Historical Sketches of the South of India, vol. II, pp. 451, 513.

Illustrations: engravings in A. Allan, Views in the Mysore Country, No. XV, "Shevenghery", and in R. Home, Select Views in Mysore, "View of Shevagurry from the top of Ramgaree".

List of Figures

Fig. 1. Distribution of the fortified sites.

Fig. 2. Fortified inselberg profiles.

Fig. 3. Plan of Krishnagiridurgam (after Tamilnadu Archives, No. 208). Fig. 4. Plan of Hutridurga (1794) (after R. Home, Select Views).

Fig. 5. Plan of Nandidurga (after M.H. Krishna, A Guide to Nandi, f.p. 10).

List of Plates

Pl. I. Sites (A): Sugar-loave inselbergs

1. Huliyurdurga, from the north.

2. Anchettidurgam, from the south.

3. Rayakottai, from the south-east.

Pl. II. Sites (B): Flat-topped inselbergs

4. Krishnagiridurgam, from the south-east.

5. Nandidurga, from the north-east.

6. Virabhadradurgam, from the west.

Pl. III. Sites (C): Inselbergs in clusters

7. Ramagiridurga, from the west.

8. Jagadevidurgam, from the north-east.

9. Savandurga, from the south.

Pl. IV. Types of fort (A): with walls on the top

10. Kalavaradurga, from the south (A. Allan, Views).

11. Sivangiridurgam, from the south-east (A. Allan, Views).

12. Jagadevidurgam, from the west (A. Allan, Views).

Pl. Types offort (B): with several lines of walls at different levels

13. Huliyurdurga, from the north (A. Allan, Views).

14. Hutridurga, from the south (R. Home, Select Views).

15. Rayakottai, from the south-east (T. Daniell, Oriental Scenery).

Pl. VI. Curtain walls and rectangular towers

16. Savandurga (Basavandurga).

17. Savandurga (Karigudda).

18. Huliyurdurga.

19. Savandurga (Karigudda).

20. Savandurga (Basavandurga).

Pl. VII. Curtain walls and semicircular towers (A)

21. Nandidurga, 1st enclosure.

22. Nandidurga, 2nd enclosure.

23. Nandidurga, 2nd enclosure.

Pl. VIII. Curtain walls and semicircular towers (B)

24. Krishnagiridurgam.

25. Krishnagiridurgam.

26. Rayakottai.

27. Jagadevidurgam.

28. Krishnagiridurgam, cavalier.

Pl. IX. Masonry

29. Nandidurga, 2nd enclosure.

30. Nandidurga, 1st enclosure.

31. Krishnagiridurgam.

32. Jagadevidurgam.

33. Ramagiridurga.

34. Kabbaladurga.

Pl. X. Chemins-de-ronde and parapets

35. Tattakkaldurgam.

36. Krishnagiridurgam.

37. Jagadevidurgam.

Pl. XI. Gateways (A): simple rectangular openings

38. Ramagiridurga, 3rd gate.

39. Hutridurga, 5th gate.

40. Hutridurga, 3rd gate.

Pl. XII. Gateways (B): Tattakkaldurgam

41. 2nd gate, from without, rectangular in shape.

42. 2nd gate, from within, rectangular in shape.

43. 1st gate, vault.

44. Last gate, vault.

Pl. XIII. Gateways (C): later modifications

45. Nandidurga, 1st gate, to the north-west.

46. Rayakottai, 1st gate, to the north-east.

47. Nandidurga, 1st gate, to the west.

48. Rayakottai, north-east gate.

Pl. XIV. Pathways and steps

49. Krishnagiridurgam.

50. Krishnagiridurgam.

51. Rayakottai.

52. Rayakottai.

53. Nandidurga.

Pl. XV. Buildings (A): Rayakottai

54. Granaries.

55. Granary.

56. Granary and barracks.

Pl. XVI. Buildings (B): Krishnagiridurgam

57. Granary.

58. Kacheri of the qil’ahdar.

59. Saiyid Padshah’s mosque.

Pl. XVII. Buildings (C)

60. Nandidurga, powder magazine.

61. Nandidurga, Nellikai Basavana.

62. Savandurga (Karigudda), mandapa.

Pl. XVIII. Water storage (A)

63. Ramagiridurga, elliptical weather pit.

64. Hutridurga, rectangular weather pit.

65. Jagadevidurgam, crevice.

66. Savandurga (Karigudda), circular weather pit.

Pl. XIX. Water storage (B): Krishnagiridurgam

67. Depression edged with a wall, hemispherical in shape.

68. Id., with a wall, rectangular in shape.

69. Wall downhill, triangular in shape, used as a reservoir.

Pl. XX. Water storage (C)

70. Tattakkaldurgam, depression edged with a wall.

71. Rayakottai, enclosure used as a barrier to store water.

72. Nandidurga, amṛtasarovara, stone pond with flight of steps.

Notes

1 The Mysore wars fought between 1767 and 1799 aroused great interest in England and pictures of Mysore landscapes and monuments were in a great demand. Fascinated by the picturesque character of the dry rocky country of the Mysore plateau, studded with hill forts, forming a very jagged sky-line, several able amateurs and professional artists made drawings of the intricate fortifications which crown the top of these inselbergs (it is a that time that the Indian word durga for a fortified hill became absorbed into the English language as "droog").
Besides the famous Thomas and William Daniell who, in May 1792, were in the Baramahals and drew three of the most picturesque and impressive defensive works (reproduced in Oriental Scenery, London, 1785-1808, vol. III, 11, 12, 13, London, 1795-1808), British officers who took part in the third Mysore War systematically produced topographical landscapes, with fortifications along the contours of the hills. Alexander Allan published his drawings made during his service as Views in the Mysore Country, in London in 1794; Robert Home, who accompanied lord Cornwallis's army during the same war, published his Select Views in Mysore also in London in 1794; James Hunter's Picturesque Scenery in the Kingdom of Mysore (he too served under lord Cornwallis) appeared in London in 1804-05. Finally, topographical drawings were made at that time by Alexander Beatson, captain of Guides, which are now preserved at the India Office Library. The sketches made by Alexander Beatson (some of them arc mere diagrams but others have topographical and artistic interest) arc found in a manuscript Geographical Observations in Mysore & the Barramaul, Madras, May 1792, preserved at the India Office Library. In the same place arc the drawings made by James Tillyer Blunt and John Johnson (see M. Archer, British Drawings in the India Office Library, London, 1969, pp. 392-393, 133, 233-235).
To this must be added the sketches made by James Welsh on Rayakottai, Nandidurga and Kalavaradurga, published in Military Reminiscences, London, 1830 and Henry Salt's drawings on Rayakottai, published in Twenty Four Views taken in St. Helena, the Cape, India, Ceylon, the Red Sea, Abyssinia and Egypt, London, 1809.

2 E. Lake, Journals of the Sieges of the Madras Army in the Years 1817, 1818 and 1819, p. 205.

3 In sanscrit, durga, fort, means also: difficult of access or approach, impassable.

4 At Aihole, Badami, Alampur, Halebid (6th-13th century) or in more recent sites such as Vijayanagara, Penukonda, Chandragiri (15th-16th century).

5 Major Dirom, A Narrative of the Campaign in India which terminated the War with Tippoo Sultan in 1792, 1793, p. 35.

6 Pēṭe (Kan.), pēṭṭai (Tam.), the extramural suburb of a fortress or the town attached and adjacent to a fortress (H. Yule & A.C. Burnell, Hohson-Jobson, p. 702).

7 Ibid., s.v. bound-edge (a corruption of boundary-hedge).

8 M. Wilks, Historical Sketches of the South of India, vol. II, p. 526.

9 T. Daniell's Journal, cited by M. Archer, Early Views of India. Picturesque Journey of Thomas and William Daniell, 1786-1794, p. 105.

10 Select Views in Mysore, p. 9.

11 M. Wilk, op.cit., vol. II, p. 510.

12 M.S. Naravane (Forts of Maharashtra, p. 24) writes that "most of the Maratha hill forts were surrounded by jungles which made the approach difficult". W. Irvine (The Army of the Indian Moghuls, pp. 261-262) gives other examples of these bound-hedges which surrounded fortresses in the plain, and Father Wendel says (J. Deloche, Wendel's Memoirs on the Origin, Growth and Present State of Jat Power in Hindustan (1768), p. 106) that, in 1768, in the Jat country, "around Bharatpur, more than 8 kos in length, one sees in our time a type of forest which has come to be over the last several years through interdiction (under penalty of having the cars cut off), and which one preserves, as all types of undergrowth, with the greatest care in the world".

13 In the hill fort of Gutti (Anantapur district, Andhra Pradesh), obviously renovated by the Muslims and the Marathas, the decorated Hindu rectangular gates (14 in number) have not been destroyed and still exist.

14 According to certain traditions, Savandurga has been built in 1543 and Huliyurdurga at about the same time (C. Hayavadana Rao, Mysore Gazetteer, Bangalore, vol. V, pp. 531, 218, 489.

15 B. Stein, Peasant State and Society in Medieval South India, pp. 403, 411 & 412.

16 "In regard to the Hill Forts of India, many of them, if properly defended, may be considered absolutely impregnable... And in fact there seems no certain mode of reducing them, if vigourously defended, but the tedious operation of strict blockade" (E. Lake, op.cit., p. 205).

17 "This plan of operation was purposely recommended in the hope of intimidating the defenders", but "if this attempt at working upon their minds by a show of vigour should fail, the capture of these strongholds was absolutely impossible"... "From the great natural strength of this rock, a garrison of 200 determined men, supplied with the requisite provisions & c. might bid defiance to the largest and best appointed army" (ibid., pp. 205-206, 92).

18 They knew that they could "entertain no rational prospect of retrieving their Master's fortune, by a determined opposition to the British arms, which eventually might be injurious or even ruinous to themselves... It is more than probable that they only waited for the opening of the first battery to afford them a decent pretext for surrendering" (ibid., pp. 206-207).

19 For a detailed description of the different sites, see my article, ‘Les monts fortifiés du Maisur méridional, 2e partie, Catalogue des sites fortifiés’, Bulletin de l'Ecole française d'Extrême-Orient 82, pp. 231-252.

Notes de fin

* Revised version of my article, ‘Etudes sur les fortifications de l’Inde. II. Les monts fortifiés du Maisur méridional’; Bulletin de l’Ecole française d’Extrême-Orient 81, 1994, pp. 219-266; 82, 1995, pp. 231-252.

Table des illustrations

Légende Fig. 1. Distribution of the fortified sites.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/4026/img-1.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 456k
Légende Fig. 2. Fortified inselberg profiles.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/4026/img-2.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 215k
Titre Pl. I. Sites (A): Sugar-loave inselbergs
Légende 1. Huliyurdurga, from the north.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/4026/img-3.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 223k
Légende 2. Anchettidurgam, from the south.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/4026/img-4.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 223k
Légende 3. Rayakottai, from the south-east.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/4026/img-5.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 244k
Titre Pl. II. Sites (B): Flat-topped inselbergs
Légende 4. Krishnagiridurgam, from the south-east.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/4026/img-6.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 237k
Légende 5. Nandidurga, from the north-east.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/4026/img-7.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 196k
Légende 6. Virabhadradurgam, from the west.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/4026/img-8.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 178k
Titre Pl. III. Sites (C): Inselbergs in clusters
Légende 7. Ramagiridurga, from the west.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/4026/img-9.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 244k
Légende 8. Jagadevidurgam, from the north-east.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/4026/img-10.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 233k
Légende 9. Savandurga, from the south.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/4026/img-11.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 261k
Titre Pl. IV. Types of fort (A): with walls on the top
Légende 10. Kalavaradurga, from the south (A. Allan, Views).
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/4026/img-12.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 250k
Légende 11. Sivangiridurgam, from the south-east (A. Allan, Views).
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/4026/img-13.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 236k
Légende 12. Jagadevidurgam, from the west (A. Allan, Views).
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/4026/img-14.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 235k
Titre Pl. V. Types offort (B): with several lines of walls at different levels
Légende 13. Huliyurdurga, from the north (A. Allan, Views).
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/4026/img-15.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 268k
Légende 14. Hutridurga, from the south (R. Home, Select Views).
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/4026/img-16.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 239k
Légende 15. Rayakottai, from the south-east (T. Daniell, Oriental Scenery).
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/4026/img-17.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 182k
Légende Fig. 3. Plan of Krishnagiridurgam (after Tamilnadu Archives, No. 208)
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/4026/img-18.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 595k
Légende Fig. 4. Plan of Hutridurga (1794) (after R. Home, Select Views).
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/4026/img-19.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 471k
Titre Pl. VI. Curtain walls and rectangular towers
Légende 16. Savandurga (Basavandurga).
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/4026/img-20.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 216k
Légende 17. Savandurga (Karigudda).
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/4026/img-21.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 146k
Légende 18. Huliyurdurga.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/4026/img-22.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 145k
Légende 19. Savandurga (Karigudda).
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/4026/img-23.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 157k
Légende 20. Savandurga (Basavandurga).
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/4026/img-24.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 156k
Titre Pl. VII. Curtain walls and semicircular towers (A)
Légende 21. Nandidurga, 1st enclosure.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/4026/img-25.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 200k
Légende 22. Nandidurga, 2nd enclosure.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/4026/img-26.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 201k
Légende 23. Nandidurga, 2nd enclosure.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/4026/img-27.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 246k
Titre Pl. VIII. Curtain walls and semicircular towers (B)
Légende 24. Krishnagiridurgam.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/4026/img-28.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 165k
Légende 25. Krishnagiridurgam.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/4026/img-29.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 154k
Légende 26. Rayakottai.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/4026/img-30.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 170k
Légende 27. Jagadevidurgam.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/4026/img-31.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 159k
Légende 28. Krishnagiridurgam, cavalier.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/4026/img-32.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 210k
Titre Pl. IX. Masonry
Légende 29. Nandidurga, 2nd enclosure.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/4026/img-33.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 158k
Légende 30. Nandidurga, 1st enclosure.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/4026/img-34.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 176k
Légende 31. Krishnagiridurgam.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/4026/img-35.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 185k
Légende 32. Jagadevidurgam.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/4026/img-36.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 196k
Légende 33. Ramagiridurga.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/4026/img-37.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 175k
Légende 34. Kabbaladurga.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/4026/img-38.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 174k
Titre Pl. X. Chemins-de-ronde and parapets
Légende 35. Tattakkaldurgam.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/4026/img-39.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 220k
Légende 36. Krishnagiridurgam.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/4026/img-40.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 227k
Légende 37. Jagadevidurgam.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/4026/img-41.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 236k
Titre Pl. XI. Gateways (A): simple rectangular openings
Légende 38. Ramagiridurga, 3rd gate.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/4026/img-42.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 214k
Légende 39. Hutridurga, 5th gate.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/4026/img-43.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 210k
Légende 40. Hutridurga, 3rd gate.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/4026/img-44.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 233k
Titre Pl. XII. Gateways (B):Tattakkaldurgam
Légende 41. 2nd gate, from without, rectangular in shape.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/4026/img-45.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 197k
Légende 42. 2nd gate, from within, rectangular in shape.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/4026/img-46.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 187k
Légende 43. 1st gate, vault.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/4026/img-47.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 241k
Légende 44. Last gate, vault.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/4026/img-48.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 216k
Titre Pl. XIII. Gateways (C): later modifications
Légende 45. Nandidurga, 1st gate, to the north-west.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/4026/img-49.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 211k
Légende 46. Rayakottai, 1st gate, to the north-east.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/4026/img-50.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 223k
Légende 47. Nandidurga, 1st gate, to the west.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/4026/img-51.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 149k
Légende 48. Rayakottai, north-east gate.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/4026/img-52.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 142k
Titre Pl. XIV. Pathways and steps
Légende 49. Krishnagiridurgam.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/4026/img-53.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 212k
Légende 50. Krishnagiridurgam.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/4026/img-54.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 188k
Légende 51. Rayakottai.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/4026/img-55.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 197k
Légende 52. Rayakottai.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/4026/img-56.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 190k
Légende 53. Nandidurga.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/4026/img-57.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 191k
Titre Pl. XV. Buildings (A): Rayakottai
Légende 54. Granaries.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/4026/img-58.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 179k
Légende 55. Granary.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/4026/img-59.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 164k
Légende 56. Granary and barracks.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/4026/img-60.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 216k
Titre Pl. XVI. Buildings (B): Krishnagiridurgam
Légende 57. Granary.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/4026/img-61.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 240k
Légende 58. Kacheri of the qil'ahdar.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/4026/img-62.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 187k
Légende 59. Saiyid Padshah's mosque.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/4026/img-63.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 225k
Titre Pl. XVII. Buildings (C)
Légende 60. Nandidurga, powder magazine.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/4026/img-64.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 209k
Légende 61. Nandidurga, Nellikai Basavana.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/4026/img-65.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 224k
Légende 62. Savandurga (Karigudda), mandapa.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/4026/img-66.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 218k
Titre Pl. XVIII. Water storage (A)
Légende 63. Ramagiridurga, elliptical weather pit.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/4026/img-67.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 201k
Légende 64. Hutridurga, rectangular weather pit.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/4026/img-68.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 198k
Légende 65. Jagadevidurgam, crevice.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/4026/img-69.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 145k
Légende 66. Savandurga (Karigudda), circular weather pit.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/4026/img-70.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 176k
Titre Pl.. XIX. Water storage (B): Krishnagiridurgam
Légende 67. Depression edged with a wall, hemispherical in shape.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/4026/img-71.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 216k
Légende 68. Id., with a wall, rectangular in shape.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/4026/img-72.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 205k
Légende 69. Wall downhill, triangular in shape, used as a reservoir.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/4026/img-73.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 220k
Titre Pl. XX. Water storage (C)
Légende 70. Tattakkaldurgam, depression edged with a wall.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/4026/img-74.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 211k
Légende 71. Rayakottai, enclosure used as a barrier to store water.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/4026/img-75.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 207k
Légende 72. Nandidurga, amrtasarovara, stone pond with flight of steps.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/4026/img-76.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 198k
Légende Fig. 5. Plan of Nandidurga (after M.H. Krishna, A Guide to Nandi, f.p. 10).
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifp/docannexe/image/4026/img-77.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 328k

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