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From an Ancient Road to a Cultural Route

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Elifnaz Durusoy

Chapter 5: Making decisions for the future of the place

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5.1 Objectives for conservation and development

1Although the above mentioned weaknesses and threats cause several obstructions and barriers regarding the future of the site, it can easily be said that the road between Milas and Labraunda together with its strengths and opportunities is one of the most important surviving old roads of Anatolia. Containing a large number of evidence of the history, archi­tecture, nature, social and cultural life of both the ancient and present days, the road and the cultural accumulation on and around it offer a complete picture comprised with different con­texts. Due to its distinctive natural, man-made, temporal, social and cultural, functional, visual and aesthetic, economic, administrative as well as meaning and spiritual contexts, it is neces­sary to set general decisions and principals for the future conservation, preservation, main­tenance and sustainable transformation of the site into a cultural route. As mentioned in the previous chapters, the most useful way of start­ing this is determining the objectives and the statement of significance that assist to shape the vision and theme of the conservation and management project for the future of the site. In this respect,

  • Reinstituting the significance of the road between Milas and Labraunda by experienc­ing and recreating the meaning and spirit behind it should be respected as one of the most crucial objectives of the transformation project. On the other hand, increasing the state of conservation, preservation, mainte­nance and sustainability of the road between Milas and Labraunda and the components of its cultural accumulation on and around it together with their strengths should be listed as another key objective. In addition to these strengths, the cultural route project for the road between Milas and Labraunda should also be integrated with the opportunities of the region. Furthermore, it should also promote the features of cultural heritage. By doing this, enhancement of public aware­ness and participation of local people can be sustained. Accordingly, ensuring local resi­dents to view the site as a part of their identity to pass on to their next generations and to continue their inhabitancy with harmo­nized conditions should be added as one of the main objectives. Further, attracting visi­tors and researchers to come and enjoy with proposed improvements and developments of the whole site together with its near sur­roundings within a framework constructed by the collaborative work of all key interest groups and partners should also be counted as a crucial objective for the development of the cultural route project. Therefore, the main objectives regarding the planning and management of the road between Milas and Labraunda and the cultural accumulation on and around it can be summarized as: Reinstituting the significance of the road between Milas and Labraunda by experienc­ing and recreating the meaning and spirit behind it.

  • Increasing the state of conservation, pres­ervation, maintenance and sustainability of the road between Milas and Labraunda and the cultural accumulation on and around it, together with their values, archaeological entities, cultural landscape and agricultural activities.

  • Ensuring local residents to view the site as a part of their identity to pass on to their next generations and to continue their inhabitancy with harmonized conditions.

  • Attracting visitors and researchers to come and enjoy with proposed improvements and developments of the whole site together with its near surroundings within a frame­work constructed by the collaborative work of all key interest groups and partners.

5.2 Statement of significance and theme of the project

2Since the concept of cultural routes reveals added values thanks to the singular heritage elements that are physically and mentally connecting tools, the process of developing a cultural route should be built upon the cultural significance of the place. In this respect, it can be said that the wide range of strengths and opportunities diffused through the region and the significance of the place expose an appro­priate basis to assess the road between Milas and Labraunda as a cultural route. In other words, with respect to the surviving man-made components: the remaining parts of the ancient road, spring houses and wells, fortification towers, honey towers, tombs, bridges, archae­ological site (Labraunda), traditional rural settlements (Kırcağız, Kızılcayıkık, Kargıcak-Yukarıilamet, Aşağıilamet) and the traditional urban settlement (Milas/Baltalı Kapı Street), natural setting as well as the social and cultural assets, the road between Milas and Labraunda can be considered as a cultural route within a conceptual frame of basic principles.

3Since the aim of specifying a statement of significance and a general theme is to assist the interpretation process together with the enhancement of public awareness and building up a better understanding regarding the region, decisions and principles should also be asso­ciated with them. As mentioned, depending mainly on the objectives and the assessment of the region that the road between Milas and Labraunda and the cultural accumulation on and around it are located, the statement of sig­nificance should be determined with respect to the distinctive and irreplaceable characteristics of the complete system. With this regard, theme of cultural route project should be arranged in a way to reflect the historical and spiritual iden­tity and the cultural significance of the road between Milas and Labraunda and the compo­nents of its cultural accumulation.

4According to these specified objectives, historical and spiritual identity as well as the cultural significance of the road between Milas and Labraunda, the statement of signifi­cance can be specified as Re-cording the road between Milas and Labraunda by registering the records, reconnecting the individual pieces and correlating the people through strengthen­ing its meanings, highlighting its spirit of place and valorizing its records.

5In the light of this - since it contains the meanings of register, reconnect and cor­relate at the same time - the appropriate mean and the general theme of the transfor­mation project: From the road between Milas and Labraunda to the cultural route between Milas and Labraunda can be identified as re(-)cord.

  • 9 Definition of record - Oxford English Dictionary (The definitive record of the English Language). O (...)

Record9:
Register
- “A thing constituting a piece of evidence about the past, especially an account of an act or occurrence kept in writ­ing or some other permanent form.”
Reconnect
- “Connect back again the thin, flexible string or rope made from several twisted strands.”
Correlate
- “Have a mutual relationship or connection, in which one thing affects or depends on another.”

6It is known that from the beginning of civilization, human beings have found different methods to save what they have discovered or created. People have recorded things that give evidences regarding crucial events in appropri­ate forms for their future usage. Indeed, human progress would not have been possible without kept and recorded thoughts, ideas, facts and/or assets. These information and evidences relat­ed with the thoughts, ideas, facts and/or assets of human beings could be registered and stored in the forms of visual, audio/oral, literary and physical records.

7Since they all can be regarded as crucial historical registers of the region, the process of “Re-cording the road between Milas and Labraunda by registering the records, recon­necting the individual pieces and correlating the people through strengthening its mean­ings, highlighting its spirit of place and valor­izing its records” should primarily start with understanding and verifying all of the com­ponents of the cultural accumulation of the road. This phase should be continued with relevant interventions for bringing all of these components into new functions. Therefore, it can be said that registering should be the first strategy and the first stage of the project (Figure 34-a).

8Secondly, in order to reach the original pat­tern and configure the relationship between the sub-parts of the road between Milas and Labraunda; its origin - Milas Baltalı Kapı Monument - and its end point - Labraunda - should be bonded to each other (Figure 34-b). Further, all of the registered records as the remaining components of the cultural accu­mulation should also be connected back to the structure with the help of physical, functional and/or spiritual interventions.

Figure 34: Registering, reconnecting and correlating policies of the road between Milas and Labraunda, respectively

Figure 34: Registering, reconnecting and correlating policies of the road between Milas and Labraunda, respectively

9Correlation of the people to the road between Milas and Labraunda should not be ignored. Therefore, people living either in traditional urban or rural settlements along the road between Milas and Labraunda, tourists coming to the site and researchers related with the studies concerning the components of the cultural accumulation and/or the road should be seen as crucial interest groups maintaining the holistic mechanism of the road between Milas and Labraunda (Figure 34-c).

10Considering these, the road itself and all of the components of the cultural accumula­tion on and around it have direct connections with the registering, reconnecting and cor­relating meanings of record. In this respect, the road between Milas and Labraunda can be approached as a cord which is made from several twisted strands and all of the records as the components of the cultural accumula­tion on and around the road can be seen as its detached constituents of it. Accordingly, the main aim regarding the configuration of the cultural route proposal should be reconnect­ing the cord with the help of these individual pieces and reproducing the holistic system for the region.

5.3 General principles and preliminary decisions

11All of the studies structured for the sections of analysis and assessment are made in order to prepare a base for the process of transforma­tion of the road between Milas and Labraunda into a cultural route. Accordingly, consider­ing the main objectives of the project and the statement of significance of the conservation and management process as crucial points of development, general principles and prelimi­nary decisions which include the main con­ceptual and contextual basis of the proposed cultural route proposal are determined. These principles can be grouped under the previously defined objectives regarding the planning and management of the road as follows;

General principles and preliminary decisions

12Reinstituting the significance of the road between Milas and Labraunda by experienc­ing and recreating the meaning and spirit behind it.

Reflecting the identified strengths, weak­nesses, opportunities, threats, statement of significance and theme of the pro­ject

13All principles that are going to be issued regarding the road between Milas and Labraunda and the cultural accumula­tion on and around it should be determined according to the identified strengths, weak­nesses, opportunities and threats of the region. In addition, they should all relate with the statement of significance and the theme of the project.

Conserving the sacredness, legends, myths, special feelings, unique memories and spiritual experiences

14All principles that are going to be issued regarding the road between Milas and Labraunda and the cul­tural accumulation on and around it should be determined in a way that they should all aim to conserve the sacredness, legends, myths, special feelings, unique memories and spiritual experiences associated with the region. In this respect, coherence, leg­ibility, order and enclosure that cannot be correlated with the road between Milas and Labraunda at the present should be revived.

15Decomposing and presenting the road in a legible way: The present configuration of the road between Milas and Labraunda which is not legible should be decomposed and presented in a clear and noticeable way in terms of its origin, medium and end.

16Increasing the state of conservation, pres­ervation, maintenance and sustainability of the road between Milas and Labraunda and the cultural accumulation on and around it, together with their values, archaeological entities, cultural landscape and agricultural activities.

Increasing the state of conservation, pres­ervation, maintenance and sustainability

17All principles that are going to be issued regarding the road between Milas and Labraunda and the cultural accumulation on and around it should be determined in a way that they should all aim to increase the state of conservation, preservation, main­tenance and sustainability of the cultural route project.

Comprising a holistic and comprehensive methodology

18All principles that are going to be issued regarding the road between Milas and Labraunda and the cultural accu­mulation on and around it should be deter­mined in a holistic and comprehensive methodology, by taking all the components of the cultural accumulation into account. In this respect, the general international principles and guidelines related with the concept of cultural routes and conservation should be respected. In addition to this, while the positive aspects of the existing and/or ongoing macro scale and micro scale projects such as regional judgments, development plans and actions by the col­laboration of related authorities should be identified and integrated to the project; the negative and inconvenient sides of these projects should be eliminated.

Taking the previous implementations, pub­lic investments and projects into account:

19In order not to repeat mistakes and errors, previous implementations, public invest­ments and projects conducted to the region that hosts the road between Milas and Labraunda and the cultural accumulation on and around it should be reviewed. In a more detailed manner, the positive aspects of the presently ongoing projects conduct­ed for the region such as the Regional Development Plan of Muğla, Aydın and Denizli and the Rehabilitation Project for the Baltalı Kapı Area, Muğla Cultural Route Project and several similar projects direct­ed by the key interest groups should be adapted to the cultural route project of the road between Milas and Labraunda. Their negative criteria and decisions should be revised with the assistance of the relevant key interest groups.

Taking the frequently occurring natural disasters into consideration

20Precautions and measures should be taken regarding the frequently occurring natural disasters such as heavy rains, landslides and earth­quakes with the help of the people from related professions.

Respecting the location of the road between Milas and Labraunda

21The location of the road between Milas and Labraunda and the closeness of it to Milas-Bodrum Airport and to the sites having archaeological, architectural, historical and/or touristic features and the long tourism period of the region thanks to the appropriate climate should be supported with the assistance of macro scale decisions. This should be man­aged by organized several different pres­entation measures such as advertisements, brochures, web sites and several similar media. Therefore, the tourism potential of the region should be respected as a signifi­cant input for the cultural route project.

Conserving the components in their origi­nal locations

22All of the components of the cultural accumulation should be conserved in their original locations.

Using durable and compatible materials with reversible techniques

23Because of the location, geography and nature of the region, new construction activities and interventions should all be made with the help of the durable and compatible materi­als with reversible techniques.

Benefiting from various techniques and scale of documentation with the assis­tance of people from relevant professions

24In order to define, document and review these current situations, conditions, carry­ing capacities and general features of the archaeological site, traditional rural settle­ments and/or structures on and around the road between Milas and Labraunda, various techniques and scales of documentation should be used under the coordination of people from relevant professions.

Composing an upper scale cultural network

25The road between Milas and Labraunda should be respected as a crucial section of the remaining cultural route net­work of Aegean region. In this respect, with the help of the existing cultural routes, the paths of groups of travelers and individual trekkers, an upper scale cultural route net­work. Moreover, different route scenarios should be composed as long and short time visits (Figure 35, Figure 36 and Figure 37).

Improving the infrastructural conditions of the road between Milas and Labraunda

26Existing infrastructure especially the elec­tricity, water, sewage, transportation and other basic services of the road between Milas and Labraunda should be ensured and improved.

Making periodical cleanings without giv­ing any damage to remains

27Periodical cleanings should be made especially for the archaeological structures of Labraunda and the components of the cultural accu­mulation of the road. In this regard, Sarıçay River, its branches and the general nature of the region should be rehabilitated. In addition to this, especially the organically occurring biological and natural forma­tions on the components of the cultural accumulation of the road between Milas and Labraunda should be controlled. These should be cleaned with the help of har­monic conservation materials without giv­ing any damage to the remains.

Monitoring the research, investigation and excavation works periodically

28These research, investigation and excavation work plans that determine the areas of operation and objectives of action should be periodi­cally monitored during the implementation phase.

Arranging periodical meetings

29Periodical meetings should be arranged for the above mentioned key interest groups, partners, permanent working team and decision- making unit according to a previously specified schedule in order to determine gener­al actions and plans, to better safeguard and promote the meaning and spirit of place and also to evaluate previous years. In addition to this, all the related information obtained from works of research, investiga­tion and/or excavation of the road between Milas and Labraunda and the cultural accu­mulation on and around it should be dis­seminated to other key interest groups in the forms of periodical meetings in the forms of publications, educational activi­ties and/or several similar means either in in-situ or ex-situ. Therefore, consciousness key interest groups who perceived the road as a value can be generated.

Providing further financial sources

30Financial sources should be provided by the funds of the ministries mentioned under the heading of the key interest groups, the resources of the excavation team, sponsors and related local authorities. Therefore, the scope of the investigation and excavation studies should be increased. Further means and connections should be established in order to find sponsors.

31Ensuring local residents to view the site as a part of their identity to pass on to their next generations and to continue their inhabitancy with harmonized conditions.

Increasing consciousness of the residents

32The level of consciousness of the people of the region regarding the road between Milas and Labraunda and its close environment should be increased with the assistance of suitable presentation and interpretation media such as educational programs, work­shops and/or relevant informing activities.

Organizing the techniques and priorities of implementation

33The implementation pri­orities should be given to the areas and/or structures that are in bad, deteriorated and/ or highly damaged conditions. Suitable techniques of conservation and appropriate harmonic materials should be selected for the rehabilitation and/or consolidation of the components of the cultural accumula­tion not only for their survival but also for the contribution of local residents to the project to view themselves as a part of their identity to pass on to their next genera­tions.

Attracting visitors and researchers

34To come and enjoy with proposed improvements and developments of the whole site together with its near surroundings within a framework con­structed by the collaborative work of all key interest groups and partners.

Arranging different tours at various scales

35Different tours which include different scopes of services and facilities at various scales should be arranged for different age groups according to their expected inter­ests.

Increasing the accessibility of the road between Milas and Labraunda

36Public transportation system which serves between Milas-Bodrum Airport and Milas / Baltalı Kapı Street and Baltalı Kapı Street and Kargıcak should be arranged.

Minimizing the new construction activities and interventions

37The present condition of the road between Milas and Labraunda which lost its historical meaning and spirit should be made visible and perceptible with the help of appropriate interferences. However, it should also be mentioned at this point that new construction activities and interventions that are going to be done within the scope of the cultural route pro­ject should be minimized. The necessity of new places for proposed functions should aim to be arranged mostly in suitable open areas.

Consolidating the components of the cul­tural accumulation

38In order not to make reconstruction, the destroyed and/or buried components of the cultural accumulation should be rehabilitated and/or consoli­dated according to their overall conditions and the principles of the proposed environ­mental project for the road between Milas and Labraunda.

Respecting and ensuring basic needs of visitors, tourists and researchers

39Basic needs of visitors, tourists and research­ers should be respected and ensured. The cultural route project of the region should be made accessible to the local people of the region, visitors and researchers to come and enjoy with proposed improvements and developments.

Arranging a general control mechanism for marble, quartz and feldspar quarries:

40Marble, quartz and feldspar quarries should be approached as important sources of economy. However, because of their nega­tive effects, a general control mechanism should be arranged for the quarries located within the boundaries of the region that hosts the road.

Promoting the road in local, national and international stages

41In order to increase the awareness and interest, the cultural route between Milas and Labraunda should be disseminated both in local, national and international stages.

Forming the road between Milas and Labraunda to appeal everyone

42In order to appeal for everyone, the trail should be detached into both challenging and easier stages passing through rocky and smooth lands. Therefore, different walking paths that have different difficulty levels, chal­lenging stages and durations should be identified for different user classes by pro­viding a more comfortable visit.

Providing various accommodation alterna­tives

43Alternative accommodation opportu­nities such as camping should be identified for the people who would like to stay in the unique nature of the site.

Composing a permanent working team

44A permanent working team which provides the archaeological research, investigation and/or excavation should be created in order to continue working at times other than the excavation season. Identifying sub-projects and comprising key interest groups for their operational organization: Several sub projects should be identified and these should be managed by a general planning body which comprises key interest groups and partners such as archaeologists, architects, planners, conservationists, restoration, history, man­agement, ecology, environmental science, anthropology, arts, sociology, geology, met­allurgy and materials, human psychology and several similar associated disciplines for the future of the site. All these projects should be seen as a starting point.

Arranging a general decision-making unit:

45A general decision-making unit should be arranged with the assistance of key interest groups and partners of the road between Milas and Labraunda and the cultural accumulation on and around it. In this respect, this unit should be com­prised of the representatives of the related local authorities: the Governor of Milas, Director of Milas Municipality, Director of Milas Museum, Head of excavation team of the region. In addition to these speci­fied people, representatives of the related ministries: the Ministry of Culture and Tourism, Ministry of Forest and Water Management, Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Livestock, Ministry of Environment and Spatial Planning and Ministry of Energy and Natural Sources, representatives of the related local communities: headman of Baltalı Kapı region, headmen of the villages of Kırcağız, Kızılcayıkık and Kargıcak and finally directors of excavations, profes­sionals and researchers in related fields of work representatives of other landowners, financial sponsors and non-governmental organizations should also be added to this decision-making unit.

Taking security preventions

46Organized tours should be developed and arranged. These activities should be supported with educational information either for adults or children. In addition to the organized tours, independent travelling should also be sup­ported with security preventions.

Constituting a controlling and reviewing mechanism

47The cultural route between Milas and Labraunda should be made acces­sible to all without a ticketing mechanism. Therefore, a more comprehensive control­ling and reviewing mechanism should be established with the assistance of the key interest groups and partners for the road between Milas and Labraunda and the cul­tural accumulation on and around it.

5.4 General policies, strategies and projects

48Following the identification of the general principles and preliminary decisions that are specified to maintain the existing strengths minimize the weaknesses and threats and attained the determined opportunities regard­ing the cultural route proposal between Milas and Labraunda, strategies and related projects should be identified according to the specified general policies: register, reconnect and corre­late. In this respect, general policies and their related strategies for the transformation pro­cess of the road between Milas and Labraunda into the cultural route between Milas and Labraunda are identified as follows,

Register

  • A general environmental management pro­ject including not only the macro, but also the micro scale decisions should be pre­pared for the cultural route between Milas and Labraunda together with the participa­tion of the people from related professions.

  • All of the components of the cultural accu­mulation should be brought to an operating state either by revitalizing their historical functions or by attaching new meanings.

  • General housing and living conditions of the traditional rural settlements located along the cultural route between Milas and Labraunda should be enhanced as “ecologi­cal culture villages”.

  • New construction and intervention activi­ties proposed within the boundaries of the region that hosts the cultural route between Milas and Labraunda should be made com­patible both with the natural and physical setting of the region as a new layer of the cultural accumulation.

Reconnect

  • Transportation of the cultural route between Milas and Labraunda should be arranged in a way that it should respect the historical meaning and spiritual side of the road by ensuring necessary accessibility and secu­rity measures.

  • The cultural route between Milas and Labraunda and the cultural accumulation on and around it should be presented and interpreted as a whole both in-situ and ex-situ.

Correlate

  • Economic conditions of the residents living in the region that hosts the cultural route between Milas and Labraunda should be improved via the existing components for ensuring them to view the road as a part of their identity to pass on to next generations and to continue their inhabitancy with har­monized conditions.

  • The continuous traditional life of the people of the region should be revitalized as a cru­cial part of the cultural route between Milas and Labraunda.

  • Consciousness of residents, tourists and researchers should be increased by strength­en the relationship between different key interest groups and partners with the help of the recently introduced buildings, educa­tional activities, workshops, etc.

49Considering these, in order to realize the above mentioned objectives, significance of the place and theme of the cultural route proposal, following figures are prepared to highlight all of the determined projects, their related com­ponents and contexts (Figure 38).

5.5 General scenarios proposed for residents, tourists and researchers

50Following the composition of strategies and projects, different scenarios should be proposed for relevant interest groups. However, it should not be ignored that there is not a con­stant and single scenario. They can be acquired shape according to the vision, imagination, foresight, ideals, priorities and perception of the group and/or planner working in the field.

Figure 35: Proposed upper scale cultural route network for Aegean Region

Figure 35: Proposed upper scale cultural route network for Aegean Region

Figure 37: Latmos Mountains

Figure 37: Latmos Mountains

http://etiennecalamescapes.blogspot.com/2013/01/latmos-mountains.html

51In this respect, since residents, tourists and researchers are all different from each other, scenario proposal conducted for the cultural route between Milas and Labraunda within the scope of the research is divided into three for different interest groups: residents, tourists and researchers. However, although there are three different interest groups, these scenarios should be realized in the form of a comprehen­sive system connecting them into each other by respecting the previously determined general principles and projects. With this regard, residents are the permanent inhabitants of the traditional settlements located along the road, tourists are temporary guests of the region and finally researchers are voluntary visitors of the site. Therefore, under a single comprehen­sive system proposed in the Figure 38, three different general scenarios should be com­posed for these three different interest groups as follows.

Figure 38: Proposed main cultural route, sub-routes, cultural accumulation and their codes

Figure 38: Proposed main cultural route, sub-routes, cultural accumulation and their codes

Notes

9 Definition of record - Oxford English Dictionary (The definitive record of the English Language). Oxford English Dictionary Online. from http://www.oed.com/definition/american_english (Last Accessed on 01.04.2013)

Table des illustrations

Titre Figure 34: Registering, reconnecting and correlating policies of the road between Milas and Labraunda, respectively
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifeagd/docannexe/image/741/img-1.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 232k
Titre Figure 35: Proposed upper scale cultural route network for Aegean Region
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifeagd/docannexe/image/741/img-2.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 100k
Titre Figure 36: Iasos
Crédits http://www.1resim.com/​iasos.html
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifeagd/docannexe/image/741/img-3.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 28k
Titre Figure 37: Latmos Mountains
Crédits http://etiennecalamescapes.blogspot.com/2013/01/latmos-mountains.html
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifeagd/docannexe/image/741/img-4.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 32k
Titre Figure 38: Proposed main cultural route, sub-routes, cultural accumulation and their codes
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifeagd/docannexe/image/741/img-5.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 119k

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