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From an Ancient Road to a Cultural Route

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Elifnaz Durusoy

Chapter 3: Understanding the place: The road between Milas and Labraunda

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3.1 General features of Milas

“Anladım ki bu topraklar boşuna yurt seçil­memiş. Buralarda aşka adanmış şehirler boşuna kurulmamış, dünyada bir örneği olmayan tapınak boşuna yapılmamış, insa­nın sanatı sayesinde tanrılarla yarışabi­leceği, ölümsüzlüğünü sulara gizleyebile­ceği söylenceleri boşuna uydurulmamış.” (Topçu, 2012: 66).

  • 6 Translated by the author.

I realized that this land was not selected as homeland for nothing. Cities dedicated to love was not established around these regions for nothing, the temple which is unique was not constructed for nothing, legends by which the people can rival with gods and the immortality of people can be concealed to water were not assimilated for nothing6.

1In ancient times, Karia was a mountainous territory in the southwest Anatolia, neighbor­ing to Lydia in the north, Phrygia and Pisidia in the east, Lycia in the south and the islands of the Aegean Sea in the west (Sevin, 2001: 108­109) (Figure 6). In terms of natural boundaries, it was surrounded by Büyük Menderes River (Maiandros) and Aydın Mountains (Messogis) in the north, Babadağ Mountain (Salbakos) in northeast, Acıpayam Basin in the east, Dalaman Stream (Indos) in the southeast and Aegean Sea in the south and west (Umar, 1999: 1) (Figure 7). Today, considerable parts of Aydın, Muğla and the southwestern part of Denizli encircle the boundaries of ancient Karia.

2The first capital city of Karia was Milas (Ancient Mylasa). Its occupation lasted long as archaeological investigations showed remains from the prehistoric times down to the mod­ern period without discontinuity. Although the town lost its leadership sometimes in the Hellenistic period it was again a capital of Menteşe principality (Oktik et al., 2004: 14).

3At the present, Milas that covers an area of 2167 km2 is the second largest one of the twelve districts of Muğla (Milas Kaymakamlığı et al., 2006: 20). It is bordered by Söke, Koçarlı and Çine districts of Aydın in the north, the city center and Yatağan district of Muğla in the east and Bodrum district of Muğla in the south. Within the borders of the city, there are 13 neighborhoods, 5 townships which are Bafa, Beçin, Güllük, Ören, Selimiye and 118 villages (Milas Kaymakamlığı et al., 2006: 21). Additionally, Milas hosts 27 archaeologi­cal sites within its boundaries (and more are discovered every year). Among these archae­ological sites, Iasos, Stratonikea, Euromos, Becin, Keramos, Sinuri, Heraklia-Latmos and Labraunda are among the most important ones (Oktik et al., 2004:13).

Figure 6: Map of Karia

Figure 6: Map of Karia

Henry, 2010

Figure 7: Geography of Milas

Figure 7: Geography of Milas

Google Earth, Last Accessed on 01.02.2013

4Milas is situated on a fertile plain in the west of the Menderes-Saruhan Menteşe massive. It is bounded by the shores of the Lake Bafa and Çomak Mountain in the north (Ancient Latmos), by Mountain of Ilbıra and Bodrum Peninsula in the west, by Gökova Gulf in the south and by Ak Mountain, Koca Mountain, Marçalı Mountain and Kurukümes Mountain that is the highest point of the city with 1373 meters in the east (Kızıl, 2002:1).

5Despite its mountainous geography, main plains of the city, namely Milas, Bahçeburun, Yaşyer, Pınarlı, Selimiye, Ağaçlıyük, Çamköy, Çine, Tabai and Gereme are located within the steep topography of Milas. They have a high degree of fertility thanks to the richness of water sources in the region (Aksan, 2007: 2).

6Milas was one of the major religious centers and one of the most important cities of Karia since it had a strategic location in the general layout of the region. It was situated at the crossroads from Stratonikea to the Aegean Sea and from Halicarnassos and Keramos to Labraunda. That is why Milas was the first capital of Karia region in the 6th century B.C. (Bean, 1989) (Figure 8).

Figure 8: Ancient location of Milas

Figure 8: Ancient location of Milas

Bremen and Carbon, 2010

7Milas, as a significant town, has a long his­tory from Prehistory to the Turkish Republic. However, although all periods that influenced the development pattern of a site should be appreciated for the significance of it, successive segments and effects which played much more effective roles for the evolution and growth of regions should clearly be differentiated (ICOMOS, 2008: 8). Considering this, although the history of Milas starts from the early times and continues with different phases, all these periods could not be categorized as separate layers for the comprehension of the develop­ment process of the area because of their degree of effects to the city. On the other hand, due to the lack of sources and material, information related with several phases could not be identi­fied specifically.

8Depending on these factors, although Milas has experienced eight distinctive periods throughout its history, six independent histori­cal layers that have acted on the development of Milas and have affected the formation of the city and its nearby surrounding by giving it an identical, specific, successive and valu­able character are identified. These six peri­ods can be categorized as (Classical) Karian Period-Persian Period, Hekatomnid Period, Hellenistic Period-Roman Period, Byzantine Period, Menteşe Principality Period-Ottoman Period and Republican Period.

3.2 Comprehension of the road between Milas and Labraunda

3.2.1 Location and general characteristics

9A great number of intensive rearrangement, construction and building activities were carried in the region of Karia under the rule of the Hekatomnids. As one of the crucial traces of these intense activities, a surviving substan­tial road was discovered in Milas towards the archaeological site of Labraunda, together with its nearby cultural accumulation (Figure 9).

10After its starting point at Milas-Baltalı Kapı Monument, the road runs toward the north from the center of Milas, crosses the fertile plain of Sarıçay River, orients to the olive for­ested hills and continues into the mountainous, rocky and wild areas of the region. Finally, the road reaches the sanctuary of Labraunda, 700 m above sea level and 14 km away from the city center (Baran, 2011: 51-52). In particular, the natural and challenging physical character of Milas and its environs is also valid for the region which hosts the road between Milas and Labraunda and the cultural accumulation on and around it.

Figure 9: The road between Milas and Labraunda

Figure 9: The road between Milas and Labraunda

Google Earth, Last Accessed on 01.02.2013

11Since it bears various elements of cultural accumulation that reveal evidence of cultural and historical actions, the road can be respect­ed as an added cultural value within the cultur­al landscape in which it is located. Therefore, this road that is considered to be used by differ­ent cultural groups for different purposes over different periods, can be regarded as one of the most crucial cultural values of Milas.

3.2.2 Development process

12There are no evidences related with the pres­ence of the road between Milas and Labraunda within the classical Karian Period. However, it is believed that the settlement pattern of Milas and Labraunda started to be developed by Karians thanks to the discovered potsherds and architectural fragments during the excavation studies conducted at Labraunda.

13The road between Milas and Labraunda was assumed to be built as a stone paved axis during the extensive building activity of the Hekatomnids in the first half of the 4th century B.C. In order to facilitate the transportation of the marble from Milas to Labraunda, this stone paved ancient road was developed with bridges, drainage channels and strong retaining walls as a part of this extensive network (Baran, 2011: 52).

14Within the period of the Hekatomnids, the road between Milas and Labraunda was supported with various water structures, espe­cially fountains at regular intervals in order to distribute the sacred natural spring water of the region. These fountains and wells are also considered to be constructed in order to enable areas of rest and relaxation for the travel of construction workers and pilgrims walking to Labraunda (Baran, 2011). Because of these features, it is thought that Labraunda was not only seen as a sacred place but also as a vacation destination. Moreover, again in this period of time, the road between Milas and Labraunda was thought to be braced with a network of defensive structures from the isolated tower to the bastion; toward the sanctuary it was also surrounded by a large necropolis.

15Following these kinds of construction and development activities, the road between Milas and Labraunda was called the “Sacred Road of Labraunda” since it was used to increase the accessibility of pilgrims from Milas to Labraunda for annual festivals and specific ceremonies on behalf of the worship of Zeus Labraundos (Hellström, 2007: 145). In addi­tion to this, considering the defensive instal­lations built during the Hekatomnid period, Lars Karlsson suggested that the road might also have played an important geostrategic role both in the Hekatomnid and Roman Periods (Hellström, 2007: 151-153).

16Another important element of the road, Baltalı Kapı, was constructed in Milas as the starting point of the road. Although there are different views on the construction date of the structure among researchers, this monument that was used as the northern gate of Milas and regarded as the origin of the ancient road of Labraunda, is mostly considered to be built during the Roman Period.

17During the Turkish Period, especially in Menteşe Principality and Ottoman Periods, the environs of the road between Milas and Labraunda were started to be built-up. It is known that several honey towers as crucial traces of the rural traditional life of the region were constructed within this time period (Hellström, 2007: 151-153). Moreover, the road was also framed by a traditional modern set­tlement pattern in the environs of Baltalı Kapı monument.

18One can also find traditional rural vil­lages (Kırcağız, Kızılcayıkık, Kargıcak) and two neighborhoods of Kargıcak (Yukarıilamet and Aşağıilamet) which were probably built during Menteşe Principality and Ottoman Period along the road. Accordingly, since these settlements that have been developed in the course of time show different characteristics, the road through Labraunda has also revealed a social and cul­tural diversity by connecting different patterns of lives and traditions.

19Furthermore, according to İlhan Tekeli (2006: 67 - 70), both the historical caravan road network and harbor network of the region depending on the maritime and trade activities of ancient Karia might be a substantial evidence that this road was indeed part of this com­plex commercial system in the 19th century. Therefore, it can be said that the road between Milas and Labraunda might have also a valu­able role as it stood within the caravan and long-distance trade routes of Anatolia.

20Eventually, the section that lays immedi­ately north of the town of Milas, and hosts several small commercial and administrative structures as Milas cattle market, Labranda drinking water facilities, Milas Court of Justice, restaurants and green housing structures is called “Labraunda Boulevard”. Further, north the road is also the main access to several quartz and feldspar quarries and windmills that are located within the rugged topography of the region.

“Bir coğrafyanın tarihi ne kadar eskiyse kültürü de o kadar zengin ve çeşitlidir. Zaman içinde gelenekler, görenekler, inan­çlar değiştikçe kültürler de değişir. Hele coğrafya, bizimki gibi insan yaşamı için ideal bir coğrafyaysa bu değişim daha hızlı ve yoğundur.” (Topçu, 2012: 22).

The older the history of a region, the richer and more diverse the culture of a region. As customs, traditions, beliefs change over time, cultures also change. Especially, if the geography is ideal for human life as in the case of ours, this change is quicker and denser.7

21Therefore, it can be said that there has been a diverse cultural accumulation with various cultural values at different scales along the road between Milas and Labraunda with its areas rich in cultural, historical and natural heritage together with the local, architectural and spiritual values over the years.

3.2.3 The road between Milas and Labraunda: Its meaning and spirit

22Since ancient ceremonies, festivals and/or sim­ilar processions were accomplished by walking old roads, routes and/or axes themselves, sacred pilgrim roads can easily be regarded as meaningful symbolic parts of the ceremonies of worship. Pilgrims and people attending to these religious festivals have used sacred roads in order to reach sanctuaries. Accordingly, since the road between Milas and Labraunda was used as the “Sacred Road of Labraunda” by pilgrims on behalf of the worship of Zeus Labraundos during a period of history, it should also be respected with a spiritual point of view (Figure 10).

“Yürüyüş değil, yaşadığımız an ve mekanla bütünleşmek bu bizim yaptığımız. Bazen bir otun başında dakikalarca konuşabiliyor, bazen bir taş parçasına övgüler düzebili­yoruz.” (Topçu, 2012: 150).

  • 7 Translated by the author.

It’s not a walk, what we do is the integration with time and space. Sometimes, we can talk about a weed for minutes or sometimes we can praise a piece of stone7.

23As quoted from Hamdi Topçu; not only the sacredness, but also the natural, cultural, social life styles and other values of the region arouse interest and different spiritual feelings regarding regions that host ancient axes. Considering this, integration with elapsed time, unique spaces and people who are examiners should also be respected as a crucial input for the road between Milas and Labraunda.

24In addition to these, as stated by Christina Williamson (2010: 3-5), with the help of the ancient processional road between Milas and Labraunda, the pilgrims were steered through different economical, spatial, natural and social zones of the area for days, even sometimes weeks on end. With this regard, it can be said that there should have been an awareness regarding the meanings of places of the road for people who walked through it previously. Depending on this argument; for example, when pilgrims passed along the ostentatious graves of the necropolis of Labraunda, they were believed to consider the time passed and effort spent. Thereby, the sacred ceremonies, festivals and regular processions performed along the “Sacred Road of Labraunda” were also thought to provide an opportunity for pil­grims to commemorate the people buried there (Henry, 2010: 102).

25In addition, since there were fresh and clear natural water springs in the region, especially in the sections close to Labraunda, the road can also be regarded as a symbolic intermediary tool that provides connection between Milas and the curative place of Labraunda (Blid, 2010). Further, fountains and wells that were considered to be built in order to facilitate places of rest and relaxation for the travel of construction workers and travelers might also have crucial meanings for the people walking along this road connecting Milas to Labraunda.

26At this point, the accounts of travelers regarding the road and the components of the cultural accumulation should be appre­ciated as a crucial input. It is known that the road between Milas and Labraunda, the cultural landscape with its above mentioned cultural accumulation including natural val­ues, archaeological and/or architectural assets and traditional urban and/or rural settlements together with their social and cultural lifestyles were seen, observed, noted and/or illustrated by several different travelers. Although the information coming from the records of travel­ers are not completely reliable because of their fields of interest, they still give an overall figure regarding the meaning of the road and the idea achieved.

27Indeed, following its construction period, the road between Milas and Labraunda was believed to be used by several different cultures for several different purposes and supported with various cultural assets, just like a vein (Figure 11). In other words, a wide range of assets dispersed through the nearby environ­ment of the road between Milas and Labraunda in the course of time.

28Accordingly, since the monumental road between Milas and Labraunda that accommodated the rich cultural accumulation and transported pilgrims through the sacred areas of their region provided them a broad per­spective of the lifestyle, experiences of older generations and uniqueness of place, it should not be reflected as a simple piece of connection medium. On the contrary, the road between Milas and Labraunda should be approached as a physical and spiritual witness of the pro­cess of development and pilgrimage, which strengthened the sense of identity and spirit of community together with the unique meanings, customs, ideas and values attached to it.

Figure 10: Rendering of the sacred festival in Labraunda illustrated by Berg

Figure 10: Rendering of the sacred festival in Labraunda illustrated by Berg

www.labraunda.org

29However, the road between Milas and Labraunda has been transformed into a common transportation path formed with static compo­nents for the residents of the region to meet their daily necessities, by the new functionsCultural accumulation of the road between Milas and Labraunda given and new structures constructed to the region.

Chronology of usage pattern of the road between Milas and Labraunda

Built for transporting the building materials up to Labraunda

Used as an intermediate tool that provides connection between Milas and Labraunda

Used as the “Sacred Road of Labraunda”

Used for fortification, military and political concerns

Supported with modern and rural traditional settlements with their social and cultural natures

Used as a part of the complex commerce system

+

Respected as a symbolic and spiritual site

Figure 11: Bridge, retaining wall, fortification tower and honey tower examples of the cultural accumulation

Figure 11: Bridge, retaining wall, fortification tower and honey tower examples of the cultural accumulation

Figure 12: Cultural accumulation on and around the road between Milas and Labraunda

Figure 12: Cultural accumulation on and around the road between Milas and Labraunda

30Although it plays a crucial role for tourists who visit the archaeological site of Labraunda and for villagers to graze their animals (espe­cially for the inhabitants of the villages Kırcağız, Kızılcayıkık, Kargıcak and its two small neigh­borhoods Yukarıilamet and Aşağıilamet) the road and its components have started to lose their meanings and spiritual significance with the negative effects of modern days.

31Since places develop from combinations of many factors that are closely interrelated, it is not possible to separate the concepts of cultural aspects from their natural dimensions especially units of Kargıcak as Yukarıilamet and Aşağıilamet and finally the social and cultural components (Figure 12).

3.2.4 Cultural accumulation on and around the road between Milas and Labraunda

32Considering their specific features, the com­ponents of the cultural accumulation of the road between Labraunda and Milas can be grouped under three main categories as: natu­ral components, man-made components with its two sub-headings as historical components (the archaeological site-Labraunda, remain­ing parts of the ancient road, spring houses and wells, fortification towers, honey towers, tombs, bridges and contemporary components) traditional urban settlement pattern (Baltalı Kapı Street) and traditional rural settlements (Kırcağız, Kızılcayıkık, Kargıcak and two neigh­borhood units of Kargıcak as Yukarıilamet and Aşağıilamet) and finally social and cultural components.

Natural components

33It is not possible to separate concepts of cul­tural aspects from their natural dimensions, especially from the dynamic and living envi­ronment of the flora, fauna, vegetation and the geomorphology. Accordingly, as also men­tioned within the scope of the understanding of the place, planning and management studies of cultural routes must include a perception of natural components which have formed the cultural landscape.

34When associated with the case study area, it can be said that there is a rich and diverse natural accumulation in the region between Milas and Labraunda. Firstly, as stated by A. Batur in the book “Mylasa Labraunda-Milas Çomakdağ (2010: 159), the flora of the region is mainly characterized by trees with needle-like leaves and maquis-like plants. Therefore, these maquis-like plants and oak species, together with the Turkish pine, stone pine and tobacco can be counted as the predominant species of the surrounding forests of the road between Milas and Labraunda.

35On the other hand, olive groves and olive trees that are the most typical elements of the natural beauty of the fertile region between Milas and Labraunda should not be ignored. Even, these components of the nature can be identified as the major elements of the unique nature of the region. In addition, evergreen olive trees are also crucial in relation with the subsistence and investment with their fruits, oil and waste products for centuries. Further, public and private gardens, parks together with the agricultural lands and green housing areas within the boundaries of the traditional vil­lages along the road-especially in Sarıçay Plain should also be respected from this point of view, as the region in terms of the values of nature.

“Her dönemeçte ansızın karşımıza çıkan ve her biri başka bir varlığa benzeyen bu kayalardan ürkmemek olanaksız. - Bu bir kaplumbağa... - Bu da balina... - Bak bak bu buldoğa benziyor değil mi? - Tanrıça Hekate’nin geceleri bu dağlarda dolaşırken yanında gezdirdiği Kerberoslardan biri, bu olmasın sakın? - Şu kaya var ya, şu kaya! Karyalılar, Zeus’un labrisini kesinlikle ondan esinlenerek yapmışlardır. (Topçu, 2012: 102).

It is impossible not to blench from the rocks that all look like different entities and are encountered at every corner. - It’s a tur­tle. - It’s a whale... - Look, look this looks like a bulldog, isn’t it? - Can it be one of the Kerberoses that walks with the Goddess Hekate when she was wandering around at night? - That rock, that rock! Karians cer­tainly made the labrys of Zeus by inspiring it.

36As quoted from Topçu, the unprecedented topography of the region provides several astonishing and surprising panoramas of the natural landscape of the region (Batur, 2010: 160). Moreover, large groves of sacred plane trees and several similar types of monumen­tal like trees in the sanctuary of Labraunda also contribute to these panoramas as crucial qualities of the nature. With this regard, with its tremendous masses of rocks turned into natural sculptures in time and the colorful covering of its landscape in the skirts of topog­raphies, the special pattern of topography is in a unique harmony with the archaeological site Labraunda and the traditional villages (Figure 13). There are also streams, rivers, natural sacred water sources and fountains that provide fresh and clean water in the region - especially in the several sections close to the sanctuary. Particularly Sarıçay that provide the lands nearby much more fertile also provide a distinctive character for the region.

Figure 13: General flora of the region and tremendous masses of rocks turned into natural sculptures

Figure 13: General flora of the region and tremendous masses of rocks turned into natural sculptures

Muğla Conservation Council Archive

Man-made components

“Except the indispensable physical element which is the communication route itself, basic substantive elements of cultural routes are the tangible heritage assets related to its functionality as a historic route such as staging posts, customs offices, places for storage, rest, and lodging, hospitals, mar­kets, ports, defensive fortifications, bridges, means of communication and transport; industrial, mining or other establishments, as well as those linked to manufacturing and trade, that reflect the technical, scien­tific and social applications and advances in its various eras; urban centers, cultural landscapes, sacred sites, places of worship and devotion, etc.” (ICOMOS, 2008: 3).

37Man-made components that constitute one of the major component groups of cultural routes can be regarded as one of the most important elements that form the basic characteristics of a place. For the case of the study area-the road between Milas and Labraunda, man-made components can be divided into two as historical components and contempo­rary components. According to this grouping, while historical components that bear diverse traces and qualities of past within their con­figurations can be stated as the archaeological site of Labraunda, remaining parts of the road between Milas and Labraunda itself, spring houses and wells, fortification towers, honey towers, tombs and bridges; contemporary components of the region which mainly consist of the values of the present can be categorized as Milas-Baltalı Kapı Street and rural settlements as Kırcağız, Kızılcayıkık, Kargıcak and its two small rural neighborhoods Yukarıilamet and Aşağıilamet.

Historical components

Figure 14: The archaeological site of Labraunda

Figure 14: The archaeological site of Labraunda

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38Archaeological site-Labraunda: The archaeo­logical site of Labraunda, located north of Milas, on the south-eastern slope of the Beşparmak Mountains (ancient Latmos) was a sanctuary and a sacred center for pilgrims and people of Karia in ancient times (Figure 14). Since the sanctuary hosts the “Temple of Zeus Labraundos” that is one of the three important temples in the region, it was visited by Karians once a year using the previously mentioned road to sacrifice on behalf of the god Zeus Labraundos (Hellström, 2011). In this respect, it can be said that Labraunda was valued as one of the most important sanctuaries in western Karia in antiquity. Indeed, it is one of the few ancient sites spared from devastation with its unique and special landscape, impres­sive view, well conserved ruins, architectural remains and inscriptions.

39Remaining Parts of the Road Between Milas and Labraunda Itself: According to the studies conducted by researchers, the road between Milas and Labraunda, dating back to Hekatomnid times, was nearly a 6-8 meter wide and approximately 14 km long path paved with large stone blocks [Baran, 2011: 51-53] (Figure 15]. In addition, small bridges and strong retaining walls equipped with drain channels were used to support the road from the center of Milas through the mountainous area of the sanctuary of Labraunda [Baran, 2011: 65].

40Although the road was extremely wide and long in history, only ten remaining parts of it could be discovered thanks to the investigations carried by the excavation team of Labraunda. Then, within the content of the research, all these ten remaining parts were documented by photographs and brief explanations.

Figure 15: Remaining parts of the road between Milas and Labraunda

Figure 15: Remaining parts of the road between Milas and Labraunda

Muğla Conservation Council Archive

41Spring Houses and Wells: As one of the most significant witnesses of the sacred water and natural springs of the region, the remains of fountains should also be considered as the elements of man-made cultural accumulation of the road between Milas and Labraunda. Since

“a spring is the resurgence of an under­ground water channel mostly at the surface of the ground or simply as a natural outpouring of water and a fountain is a man-made architec­tural expression of delivery of water to a pub­lic place”;

these fountain remains have been called “spring houses” by the excavation team of Labraunda (Baran, 2011: 66) (Figure 16).

42A broad archaeological research regarding the discovery and documentation of the exist­ing spring houses was started by the excavation team of Labraunda in 2003. Forty-two spring houses and two wells were found along the road between Milas and Labraunda within the scope of this research.

Figure 16: Spring house example

Figure 16: Spring house example

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Figure 17: Fortress example

Figure 17: Fortress example

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Figure 18: Honey tower example

Figure 18: Honey tower example

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Figure 19: Honey tower example

Figure 19: Honey tower example

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Figure 20: Tomb examples

Figure 20: Tomb examples

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43Fortification Towers: Apart from the dis­covered remains of the road between Milas and Labraunda itself, i.e. spring houses and wells, the investigations between 2007 and 2010 revealed that the sanctuary of Labraunda was situated within a complex defense system in ancient times (Figure 17). This defensive system that was composed of three fortification towers (Uçalan, Kepez and Harap Tower), two fortresses (Tepesar and Burgaz Fortress) and an Acropolis Fortress located above the sanctu­ary, was aimed to control access along the road between Milas and Labraunda.

44Honey Towers: In addition to the fortifica­tion ones, there are also several honey towers or with their local names, “Kovanlık”, along the road between Milas and Labraunda. However, as also mentioned within the content of the annual reports prepared by the excavation team of Labraunda and reflected from the work of Jesper Blid (2010: 25), in addition to the discovered examples; there should be several more honey towers in the mountainous region. Since there is not a concentrated research related with honey towers of the region to date, there are no definite information regarding their locations, total numbers and basic architectural features.

45As in the case of the fortification towers, almost all of these discovered honey towers were also constructed on top of hills and/or big rock masses. However, different from the configurations of the fortifications, they are approximately five meters high semicircular shaped stone structures. As stated by Blid (2010: 25); although some of these honey towers were built with marble pieces, they were usually constructed with reused and/ or recut ashlar gneiss stones and fixed with mortar. Even, almost all honey towers contain large stone pieces that were originally parts of the architectural elements and/or structures of Labraunda. Considering this information, these honey towers are thought to be recently con­structed edifices of the region (Figure 18 and Figure 19).

46As their names imply, honey towers are believed to be used to protect the local honey production from bears (Blid, 2010: 25). In other words, based on a regional tradition, honey towers were considered to be used by the people of the region as storages for honey. As it can be seen from the photographs, none of these honey towers are in use today because of their damaged conditions, changing traditions and customs and/or recent technologies of the modern ways of living.

47Tombs: Being one of the most important components of the cultural accumulation of the road between Milas and Labraunda, tombs that show various characteristics in terms of size, shape and material occupy an extensive area in the mountainous region of Labraunda (Figure 20). According to the studies of Olivier Henry, the necropolis hosts more than a hun­dred tombs, each of which sheltered more than one individual. The chronological range of the necropolis also seems fairly extended as the first tombs seem to have appeared sometimes in the 5th century B.C. while the latest carry trace of Late Roman material (Henry, 2010: 90-95).

Figure 21: Bridge example

Figure 21: Bridge example

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48Bridges: As also mentioned previously, the road between Milas and Labraunda was also supported with small bridges and strong retain­ing walls because of the assorted topography of the mountainous region. Especially the areas where rivers and/or spring houses are located could only be managed with connections in the forms of bridges and/or similar overpass­es (Baran, 2011: 65). Therefore, two ancient bridges should also be mentioned as the final elements under the heading of the man-made components of the road between Milas and Labraunda (Figure 21).

Contemporary components

49As also mentioned under the heading of the history of the region, human beings have been surviving in the settlements of inner Karia from the ancient times because of its special aspects such as the geomorphologic characteristics, topographical features, natural resources, fertil­ity conditions, protection and/or defense quali­ties (Batur, 2010: 153-155). To be specified, as the area surrounding the road between

50Milas and Labraunda was very productive for agriculture, appropriate for protection against the enemies due to its rugged topography and for the basic necessities, the region has been very suitable for settlements since the ancient times. Therefore, the surviving settlements should also be counted under the heading of the cultural accumulation as the contemporary components of the road between Milas and Labraunda. Depending on their nature, general characteristics, significance of culture and the relationship with the elements of the cultural accumulation, these settlements can be regard­ed as the living evidences of the life and history of the region. Therefore, not only the singular man-made structures, but also general identi­ties of their settlement patterns such as their geographical locations, topographical features, settlement forms, relationships with the build­ings and structures nearby, natural elements and the social life itself should be considered and evaluated as the contemporary cultural components of the ancient road.

51From this point of view, there are two dif­ferent settlement patterns as contemporary components within the region, along the road between Labraunda and Milas. While the first one is Milas/Baltalı Kapı Street as a traditional urban figure, the second group is composed of Kırcağız, Kızılcayıkık and Kargıcak as well as two small settlement clusters of Kargıcak namely Yukarıilamet and Aşağıilamet as tra­ditional rural settlements with smaller domi­nance areas.

Traditional Urban Settlement:

52Milas/Baltalı Kapı Street: The street of Baltalı Kapı is where the road between Milas and Labraunda has its beginning is located in be­tween the ring road of Milas, Balavca River and weekly open air market area of Milas in Ahmet Çavuş Neighbourhood. It is called as Baltalı Kapı Street because of Baltalı Kapı Monument that measures approximately 5x12 meters located at the beginning of the street (Oktik et al., 2004: 30) (Figure 22 and Figure 23).

53Baltalı Kapı Monument that was construct­ed with white marble of Sodra Mountain is claimed as one of the best preserved works of the antiquity in Milas. As stated by Kızıl (2002: 27), there are several drawings and gravures of Baltalı Kapı Monument in the literature.

Figure 22: Baltalı Kapı Monument

Figure 22: Baltalı Kapı Monument

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Figure 23: Baltalı Kapı Street

Figure 23: Baltalı Kapı Street

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Figure 24: Reused Elements of Baltalı Kapı Monument

Figure 24: Reused Elements of Baltalı Kapı Monument

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54The environs of Baltalı Kapı Monument have shown a traditional urbanized settlement characteristic in the course of time because of the construction and development activities. Therefore, Baltalı Kapı Monument and its near­by environment-especially Baltalı Kapı Street should also be considered as an important ele­ment of the cultural accumulation of the road between Milas and Labraunda. In this regard, in order to comprehend the context and setting of the region as a whole, this area should also be included under the heading of the contemporary component of the road between Milas and Labraunda.

55Although they are not specified and docu­mented, there are several remaining parts of the ancient road between Milas and Labraunda along the Baltalı Kapı Street. As also shown in the captured figures, these Hekatomnid stone blocks are either used as supportive elements for garden walls, structures and/or architec­tural elements for building and living purposes such as pieces of basements, stairs and/or rest­ing points (Figure 24). On the other hand, some of them are observed under the modern asphalt road, either in hidden, changed, deteriorated or destroyed conditions.

Traditional Rural Settlements:

56Kırcağız: Kırcağız that constitutes several exam­ples of both historical and modern architecture within its boundaries is a traditional village 3 km away from the center of Milas. It estab­lished on a slightly sloping area which expands from north towards the south-through the plain of Sarıçay.

57As it can be seen from the figure, the com­pact form of Kırcağız shaped by the features of the topography such that it consists two main sections which are old Kırcağız - the northern section of the village located on the hill side - and new Kırcağız - the southern section of the settlement located on the plain of Sarıçay along the main street (Figure 25). Considering this feature of the village, it can be said that while the examples of the vernacular architecture of Kırcağız is more preserved around the hilly areas in old Kırcağız, new Kırcağız is mostly composed of recently constructed buildings with their wide gardens and/or unused open areas. Accordingly, although traditional ver­nacular buildings cannot be observed with a large number of well-preserved examples in the village, there are several examples of this kind of buildings within the boundaries of old Kırcağız.

Figure 25: Kırcağız settlement pattern

Figure 25: Kırcağız settlement pattern

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58Kızılcayıkık: 5 km to the center of Milas, Kızılcayıkık is settled on Sarıçay Plain. Since it is surrounded by hills on the north and east, the general settlement pattern of Kızılcayıkık formed by parcels mostly having wide gardens and greenhouse areas. In a more detailed manner, since the western and southern parts of the region which are closer to Sarıçay are much more fertile than the other parts of Kızılcayıkık, these sections of the village covered mostly with green houses (Figure 26). Accordingly, it can be said that the main sources of livelihood in Kızılcayıkık are formed with agriculture and greenhouse activities.

Figure 26: Kızılcayıkık settlement pattern

Figure 26: Kızılcayıkık settlement pattern

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59Kargıcak, Yukarıilamet and Aşağıilamet: Kargıcak together with its two small and com­pact neighborhood clusters namely Yukarıilamet and Asağıilamet also have several exam­ples of both traditional and modern architec­ture within their boundaries. Different from the villages mentioned above, these traditional settlements which are 5, 7 and 6 km away from Milas respectively established on the steep and rocky topography on the southern side of the sanctuary of Labraunda.

60Considering this feature as dominant natu­ral consequences, overall settlement patterns and general architecture of them depend on the main characteristics of their geography, size and positions of rocks and stones of the region. Moreover, as it can be seen from the fig­ure, these morphological features of the region not only determine the locations of buildings and locality of lands but also characterize the boundaries of gardens and lands to be cultivat­ed, open and closed spaces whether public or private and even outline the lines of transporta­tion [Batur, 2010: 160] (Figure 27]. Accordingly, it can be said that Kargıcak, Yukarıilamet and Aşağıilamet which are strongly influenced by the geological characteristics of the region and in a strong contact with the nature as a factor of aesthetic harmony give incredible views to the region from all points.

Figure 27: Kargıcak settlement pattern

Figure 27: Kargıcak settlement pattern

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Social and cultural components

“A cultural route must necessarily be sup­ported by tangible elements that bear wit­ness to its cultural heritage and provide a physical confirmation of its existence. Any intangible elements serve to give sense and meaning to the various elements that make up the whole... The “intangible cultural heritage” means the practices, representa­tions, expressions, knowledge, skills - as well as the instruments, objects, artifacts and cultural spaces associated there with - that communities, groups and, in some cases, individuals recognize as part of their cultural heritage.” (ICOMOS, 2008: 4).

61Physical setting and social as well as cultural relations of historic environments are continuously interrelated by influencing and changing each other. Therefore, as mentioned in the ICOMOS “Charter of Cultural Routes”, man- made elements and their physical artifacts need to be considered and analyzed together with their social and cultural features.

62Social and Cultural Values of the Archaeological Site-Labraunda: Apart from its general historical identity - as one of the most important monumental symbols of ancient Karia - the traces of the diverse intangible features of Labraunda such as the life at the sanctuary together with the traditions, mythical stories, symbols and organizations are crucial for the overall assessment of the region. In order to comprehend this character of the site, it is important firstly to figure out the story behind the origin of Labraunda. As also men­tioned within the section of history, Labraunda was transformed into an independent sanctu­ary with the power of the Hekatomnids dur­ing the 4th century B.C. According to further investigations of researchers, the first architec­tural remains were discovered as dated back to 7th century B.C. However, as also mentioned previously, although the earliest evidence and the first architectural remains were belonged to much earlier times before the Hekatomnids, the shrine of Labraunda is thought to be much older than those findings (Hellström, 2011).

63In the light of this view, the broadened studies of researchers revealed that Labraunda was firstly perceived as a sacred place during Karian and Lydian times due to a notable rock formation which was located just above the sanctuary (Figure 28). In ancient times, this rock was believed to be chapped into two as a result of a strong thunderstorm and allow the flow of rain water between its broken parts.

64According to ancient people, nothing less than the hand of a god could have created that kind of a rock mass and then divide it in half. Therefore, this sacred rock, in its local name “Yarık Kaya”, made people believe that Labraunda was the home of god Zeus Labraundos. Indeed, since it originated the idea that Labraunda is the home of Zeus Labraundos, the rock together with the sources of sacred clean and fresh water running from it can be considered as the key elements of the intangible dimension of the region.

65Although Labraunda was a sanctuary quite far away from its nearest city Milas, there were also some people such as priests together with their relatives, shrine retainers, helpers, work­ers and farmers living at or close to Labraunda (Figure 29). As also highlighted by Hellström (2011), the regular daily life of those people was possibly predictable within the existing layout of the sanctuary with predetermined works and specific cultural activities in public structures such as baths, churches, temples and dining buildings. However, in direct contradiction with the modest ordinary life in Labraunda, “Sacred Feasts” that were organ­ized from Milas through Labraunda as one of the major commemorations to sacrifice Zeus Labraundos changed the common image of the sanctuary. There is also a natural side of the social and cultural values of the sanctuary of Labraunda. In this regard, when there were limited numbers of structures in Labraunda during the Hekatomnid Period, the region was called as a sanctuary with “grove of plane trees” because of its natural features. In addi­tion to this, the local name of Labraunda, “Koca Yayla” especially by the residents from nearby settlements also illustrates the natural identity of the site.

Figure 28: The Split-Rock “Yarık Kaya” of Labraunda

Figure 28: The Split-Rock “Yarık Kaya” of Labraunda

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Figure 29: A figure showing the people of the sanctuary together with the restored view of the Andrones and the Temple

Figure 29: A figure showing the people of the sanctuary together with the restored view of the Andrones and the Temple

www.labraunda.org

66On the other hand, as also mentioned above, the water of the region together with the plane trees of Labraunda were considered to be sacred. Because of this reason, there were several water structures in the sanctuary such as baths, pools, wells and springhouses. Depending mainly on some basic characteristics of these clean and fresh sacred water sources of the archaeologi­cal site of Labraunda, several legendary stories were recorded by travelers. For example, as mentioned by the ancient traveler Pliny the Elder, there were “oracle eels wearing earrings” within these sacred spring waters.

67Social and Cultural Values of the Traditional Settlement Pattern-Milas - Baltalı Kapı Street: The intangible character of the traditional urban settlement pattern Milas-Baltalı Kapı Street should also be analyzed as another sub­heading of the social and cultural components of the road between Milas and Labraunda. The social and cultural values of Baltalı Kapı Street can be studied under two categories as cultural activities - life styles at Baltalı Kapı Street, daily occupations and economy of people, relations with public structures, practices, tra­ditional knowledge - and cultural expressions - symbols, meanings and representations of Baltalı Kapı Monument, mythical stories, inter­relations with the other archaeological ruins in the area (Figure 30).

68Considering the historical identity of the site, the labrys symbol which is a double axe with two cutting edges figure can also be regarded as an important expression for Baltalı Kapı Monument (Figure 31). Since it was carved at the top of the arch of Baltalı Kapı, this symbol is accepted as one of the most impor­tant signs of ancient Karia (Kızıl, 2002: 27). On the other hand, as also shown in Figure 31, there are also two eye figures located on both sides of the labrys symbol. According to a pub­lication prepared by the Municipality of Milas; these eye figures associated with the eyes of Zeus Labraundos. It was mostly believed that the eyes of Zeus Labraundos can see the road between Milas and Labraunda. Therefore, Zeus Labraundos can follow the pilgrims on the road during their sacred walks and/or processions (Milas Kaymakamlığı et al., 2006: 20). Hence, it can easily be noted that labrys symbol held a crucial place for the continuity of the power of Karia in ancient times.

Figure 30: Open air market area of Baltalı Kapı

Figure 30: Open air market area of Baltalı Kapı

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Figure 31: Labrys symbol of Baltalı Kapı Monument

Figure 31: Labrys symbol of Baltalı Kapı Monument

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69Since it reflects the ways of life of the resi­dents as an attractive factor, the open air mar­ket area that is prepared once a week in front of the area of Baltalı Kapı Monument should also be regarded as one of the crucial inputs for the social and cultural dimension of the area. Therefore, this area can also be regarded as an intangible element contributing to the cul­tural accumulation of the ancient road between Milas and Labraunda.

70Social and Cultural Values of the Traditional Settlement Pattern-Villages: Kırcağız, Kızılcayıkık, Kargıcak and Yukarıilamet, Aşağıilamet: As the final section of the social and cultural components of the region between Milas and Labraunda, it is important to identify the tan­gible components as physical edifices provid­ing traces for the intangible character of the region. For instance, since different storeys of buildings reflect different life sections, the spatial organization of residential buildings can be considered as one of the most important evidences showing the daily life of residents.

71In this regard, depending mainly on the archi­tectural and photographic survey of buildings conducted during the field studies, it can be said that while entrances and ground floors of buildings are generally used as service and cir­culation spaces, other storeys of the houses are mainly consist of living, hosting, meeting, rest­ing and bathing spaces with or without courtyards and/or balconies. On the other hand, secondary service buildings located within the lots of building of these villages show a cultural value regarding the rural character and traditional way of life. As also mentioned in the description part of the traditional rural settlements, these interior spaces are equipped with various interior architectural elements such as doors, fireplaces, sedirs, sekis, niches, cupboards, hearts, lamp stands and shelves in relation with the daily requirements. These can also be classified as important evidences of daily life of residents.

72Right along with these residential ones, tra­ditional public buildings and structures such as tandoors, mosques, special olive produc­tion spaces and structures, public storages and fountains should also be examined under the heading of intangible cultural assets of the region. In this regard, tandoors are generally used by women of the region for the purposes of baking and cooking. This traditional custom not only helps women population of the villag­es to prepare their food, but also bring relatives and neighbors together as a social practice and increases their sense of collaboration. However, there is a disappearance of tandoor tradition in almost all villages because of the new construc­tion activities, daily technologies and timing issues.

73Economy of these villages that depends mainly on the geographical and natural fea­tures of the region should also be added as an important variable for the intangible charac­ter of the traditional settlements. Considering this, agricultural production, green housing, forestry, livestock breeding and mining can be considered as the main economic activities for Kırcağız, Kızılcayıkık and Kargıcak together with its neighboring units Yukarıilamet and Aşağıilamet. It is learned that especially olive industry held a crucial place for the living of the residents in the past. However, consider­ing the shifts in daily life styles, production patterns, socio-economic structures, economic sectors and relations of these settlements have started to be changed.

74Depending mainly on this, most of the local residents gave up animal husbandry in time, however continued agriculture with a new form: green housing. Green housing is carried by several local residents as a source of liveli­hood, in both the areas developed around vil­lage skirts for that purpose and in their private gardens.

75In addition to these variables, the traditional cultural practices, knowledge and representations can also be linked directly with the intan­gible values of the region. With respect to this, it is important firstly to mention about the local productions, folk dance and music, clothes, jewelry and food. It should also be mentioned at this point that Milas and its nearby environment have a unique title in terms of carpet weaving. This tradition dated back to the times of Menteşe Principality. However, there are also views on these products that they are dated back to the Karian times, such that the name “Ada Milas” which is a pattern type of the carpets of Milas was assumed to derived from Karian Queen Ada. Milas carpets which are generally made by wool and yarn have various patterns. They depend mainly on various geometric figures and colors which are provided by root dye obtained from plants and natural substances.

76Furthermore, local performances and folk dances which are usually carried out during these cultural activities in the public squares of Kırcağız, Kızılcayıkık and Kargıcak can also be regarded as an intangible asset for the region. Especially “Zeybek Culture including its traditional music, dance and performance can be experienced with the help of local drum and horn – “zurna” – musicians in these villages. As in the case of streets and squares, private open spaces, courtyards and/or gardens also serve for similar purposes.

77Therefore, it can be said that these multi­purpose spaces stimulate the communication between local inhabitants by strengthen their social integration. With their colorful clothes, multi-colored flower crests and traditional necklaces consisting of a combination of thirty gold coins – “sandıklı” -, women of this region can also be seen as an intangible component of the traditional culture of the region. As another input for the intangible values of these villages, local foods and traditional dishes such as fried liver, keşkek, stuffed artichokes, salads and pies with various weeds growing in these vil­lages hold an important place.

3.3 Conservation and development activities

78Conservation and Development Activities in Regional Scale: Since the existing legal deci­sions as well as the conservation, planning and development activities are the major guides of the current status of a region, the develop­ment history of the road between Milas and Labraunda and the components of the cultural accumulation on and around it should also be examined and evaluated from the beginning to the end. In order to reach a holistic framework, this study should also be supported with the regional and local planning practices related with Milas [Table 1).

Table 1: Conservation and development activities in regional scale

Year

Conservation and Development Activities

1938

Development Plan of Milas

1961

Revision of the Development Plan of Milas prepared in 1938

1976

First Registration and Designation of Archaeological Site Boundaries of Milas

1978

1/5000 Development Plan of Milas

1983

Revision of the 1/5000 Development Plan of Milas prepared in 1978

1985

Change in 1st Degree Archaeological Site Area and Conservation Plan of Milas

1990

Revision of the 1/5000 Development Plan of Milas revised in 1983

1992

Enlargement in 1st Degree Archaeological Site Area and Conservation Plan

2006

1/1000 Conservation Development Plan of Milas

2009

1/100000 Aydın, Denizli, Muğla Territorial Development Plan – Semra Kutluay Planlama

2010

Salvaging excavations for Uzunyuva Monument and its environs has started.

2010-2013

GEKA TR 32 Regional Development Plan

2011- (Continuing)

Other Alternative Walking Activities such as Zirve Dağcılık ve Doğa Sporları Club, Milas Doruk Dağcılık, Karia Trekking Road Project, Muğla Cultural Route Project and Karian Trail Group

2012- (Continuing)

Milas-Aydın Highway Project

79Conservation and Development Activities Related Directly with the Road between Milas and Labraunda and the Cultural Accumulation On and Around It: Apart from the conservation and development activities in regional scale, there are also several conservation and devel­opment activities related with the case study area. As it can be seen from the table prepared, these activities directly affect the road between Milas and Labraunda and/or the cultural accu­mulation on and around it (Table 2).

Table 2: Conservation and development activities related directly with the road between Milas and Labraunda and the cultural accumulation on and around it

Year

Conservation and Development Activities

1960s

It is known that an appropriate road was built from Milas to Labraunda in order to ease the transportation between Milas and Labraunda (Figure 32).

1993

Labraunda together with 38 discovered physical remains such as remaining parts of the ancient road, spring houses and tombs were registered and the area covering these structures was designated as 1st Degree Archaeological Site by the 3209 numbered decision of GEEAYK in 17.3.1993.

2002

Modern asphalt road project was implemented along the road from Milas to Labraunda by the General Directorate of Highways.

2005

The 1st Degree Archaeological site boundary of Labraunda was expanded thanks to the discovered remains such as wells and bridges by the 1494 numbered decision of GEEAYK in 14.12.2005. In addition, 10 meters conservation zone was specified for all the registered components of the cultural accumulation.

On the other hand, a new road project which will follow a different route was specified as a crucial necessity.

2006

88 immovable cultural heritage assets which were under the property of Treasury were allocated and their status transformed into the Ministry of Culture and Tourism. The nearby area of Baltalı Kapı Monument was defined as 3rd degree archaeological and urban site by the Conservation and Development Plan of Milas.

2010

The first degree archaeological site boundary of the region was expanded with the 6066 numbered decision of GEEAYK in 6.5.2010.

2011

The road comprising the remaining parts of the road between Milas and Labraunda were registered with the 7197 numbered decision of GEEAYK in 3.6.2011.

The boundary of the 1st degree archaeological site was considered to be expanded through south-east according to the recently discovered tombs.

In addition to this, in order to protect the cultural accumulation elements observed outside the boundaries of the 1st degree archaeological site, a conservation 10 meters belt which comprise the road between Milas and Labraunda with its two sides were also identified as 1st degree archaeological site.

The demand regarding the expansion of the existing modern asphalt road between Milas and Labraunda was rejected with the 7198 numbered decision of GEEAYK in 3.6.2011. A new road construction for easing the accessibility to planned tourism facilities was rejected with the 250 numbered decision of GEEAYK in 24.11.2011.

2012

3 more spring houses, some discovered tomb remains, Roman and Byzantine remains were registered with the 829 numbered decision of the GEEAYK in 4.7.2012.

All works related with the construction and repair of the modern asphalt road between Milas and Labraunda was designated to be made with the supervision of the professionals of Milas Museum.

All works related with the “Muğla Cultural Road Project was designated to be made in coordination with the Conservation Council of Muğla with the 831 numbered decision of the GEEAYK in again 4.7.2012.

80,

Figure 32: The asphalt road that was built in between Milas and Labraunda during the 1960s

Figure 32: The asphalt road that was built in between Milas and Labraunda during the 1960s

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3.4 Key interest groups concerning the road between Milas and Labraunda

81Almost all of the components of the cultural accumulation of the road between Milas and Labraunda that are mentioned above have an organization under a broad framework consisting of various key interest groups and partners. Key interest groups and partners that are also known as stakeholders can be defined as author­ities and/or people both at central, provincial, municipal levels for those who given value to the site, those who implemented knowledge about the site and those who can influence for the future of the site. Identification of and communication with these key interest groups are crucial from the beginning to the end of the process (Figure 33).

Figure 33: Key interest groups and partners related with the road between Milas and Labraunda and the cultural accumulation on and around it

Figure 33: Key interest groups and partners related with the road between Milas and Labraunda and the cultural accumulation on and around it

Notes

6 Translated by the author.

7 Translated by the author.

Table des illustrations

Titre Figure 6: Map of Karia
Crédits Henry, 2010
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifeagd/docannexe/image/739/img-1.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 44k
Titre Figure 7: Geography of Milas
Crédits Google Earth, Last Accessed on 01.02.2013
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifeagd/docannexe/image/739/img-2.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 40k
Titre Figure 8: Ancient location of Milas
Crédits Bremen and Carbon, 2010
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifeagd/docannexe/image/739/img-3.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 48k
Titre Figure 9: The road between Milas and Labraunda
Crédits Google Earth, Last Accessed on 01.02.2013
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifeagd/docannexe/image/739/img-4.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 44k
Titre Figure 10: Rendering of the sacred festival in Labraunda illustrated by Berg
Crédits www.labraunda.org
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifeagd/docannexe/image/739/img-5.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 76k
Titre Figure 11: Bridge, retaining wall, fortification tower and honey tower examples of the cultural accumulation
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifeagd/docannexe/image/739/img-6.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 68k
Titre Figure 12: Cultural accumulation on and around the road between Milas and Labraunda
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifeagd/docannexe/image/739/img-7.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 84k
Titre Figure 13: General flora of the region and tremendous masses of rocks turned into natural sculptures
Crédits Muğla Conservation Council Archive
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifeagd/docannexe/image/739/img-8.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 56k
Titre Figure 14: The archaeological site of Labraunda
Crédits Personal Archive
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifeagd/docannexe/image/739/img-9.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 68k
Titre Figure 15: Remaining parts of the road between Milas and Labraunda
Crédits Muğla Conservation Council Archive
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifeagd/docannexe/image/739/img-10.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 56k
Titre Figure 16: Spring house example
Crédits Personal Archive
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifeagd/docannexe/image/739/img-11.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 40k
Titre Figure 17: Fortress example
Crédits Personal Archive
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifeagd/docannexe/image/739/img-12.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 32k
Titre Figure 18: Honey tower example
Crédits Personal Archive
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifeagd/docannexe/image/739/img-13.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 36k
Titre Figure 19: Honey tower example
Crédits Personal Archive
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifeagd/docannexe/image/739/img-14.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 40k
Titre Figure 20: Tomb examples
Crédits Personal Archive
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifeagd/docannexe/image/739/img-15.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 48k
Titre Figure 21: Bridge example
Crédits Personal Archive
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifeagd/docannexe/image/739/img-16.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 52k
Titre Figure 22: Baltalı Kapı Monument
Crédits Personal Archive
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifeagd/docannexe/image/739/img-17.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 36k
Titre Figure 23: Baltalı Kapı Street
Crédits Personal Archive
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifeagd/docannexe/image/739/img-18.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 32k
Titre Figure 24: Reused Elements of Baltalı Kapı Monument
Crédits Personal Archive
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifeagd/docannexe/image/739/img-19.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 36k
Titre Figure 25: Kırcağız settlement pattern
Crédits Personal Archive
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifeagd/docannexe/image/739/img-20.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 32k
Titre Figure 26: Kızılcayıkık settlement pattern
Crédits Personal Archive
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifeagd/docannexe/image/739/img-21.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 16k
Titre Figure 27: Kargıcak settlement pattern
Crédits Personal Archive
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifeagd/docannexe/image/739/img-22.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 24k
Titre Figure 28: The Split-Rock “Yarık Kaya” of Labraunda
Crédits Personal Archive of Ayşe Bike Baykara
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifeagd/docannexe/image/739/img-23.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 36k
Titre Figure 29: A figure showing the people of the sanctuary together with the restored view of the Andrones and the Temple
Crédits www.labraunda.org
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifeagd/docannexe/image/739/img-24.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 44k
Titre Figure 30: Open air market area of Baltalı Kapı
Crédits Personal Archive
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifeagd/docannexe/image/739/img-25.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 32k
Titre Figure 31: Labrys symbol of Baltalı Kapı Monument
Crédits Personal Archive
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifeagd/docannexe/image/739/img-26.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 16k
Titre Figure 32: The asphalt road that was built in between Milas and Labraunda during the 1960s
Crédits Personal Archive
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifeagd/docannexe/image/739/img-27.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 28k
Titre Figure 33: Key interest groups and partners related with the road between Milas and Labraunda and the cultural accumulation on and around it
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifeagd/docannexe/image/739/img-28.jpg
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