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Hittitology today: Studies on Hittite and Neo-Hittite Anatolia in Honor of Emmanuel Laroche’s 100th Birthday

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Alice Mouton

V. Historiographie

“What do we understand in Hurrian?”

Susanne Görke

Note de l’auteur

List of grammatical abbreviations: a = agent; abl = ablative; abs = absolutive; abstr = abstract; act = active; adj = adjective; ‘art’ = article; ass = associative; bel = belonging; conn = connective; dat = dative; der = derivational suffix; dir = directive; encl = enclitic; epenth = epenthic; erg = ergative; ess = essive; gen = genitive; imp = imperative; ind = indicative; instr = instrumental; intrans = intransitive; neg = negation; opt = optative; pat = patient; pl = plural; poss = possessive; pot = potential; purp = purposive; relat = relator; sg = singular; suff = suffix; trans = transitive; v = vowel.

Texte intégral

I would like to thank Dr. Th. Richter for various comments

1Among the numerous articles Emmanuel Laroche published on Anatolian Studies, there are a number that provide major insight into the understanding of the Hurrian language and texts. One could cite his “Glossaire de la langue hourrite” (Laroche 1976-77) as his most important oeuvre concerning the understanding of Hurrian, as he not only gives – wherever possible – translations, but he also analyzes words and therewith discusses grammatical features.

2Moreover, Laroche published Hurrian texts from outside Anatolia, in particular from Ugarit (Laroche 1968). Most of them are rather small and it is often difficult to determine the content or context of a fragment. Of special interest are the alphabetic cuneiform texts found in Ugarit, and also published by Laroche (Laroche 1968: 497-518). These provide a lot of information on the phonological system of Hurrian.

3Nevertheless, Laroche did not have access to the publications of important Hurrian texts that have come to light during the last decades, among others the well-known bilingual (KBo 32; Neu 1996), the trilingual Sumerian – Akkadian – Hurrian vocabulary from Ugarit (André-Salvini/Salvini 1998), and some texts from Ortaköy/Šapinuwa (Wilhelm/Süel 2013; de Martino/Süel 2015). These have helped especially to enlarge the Hurrian thesaurus, but also to shed light on grammatical features like the so-called “Old Hurrian” verbal system.

  • 1 See also Fournet 2013a and Fournet 2013b.

4After the appearance of two grammatical sketches (Giorgieri 2000 and Wegner 2000 and 2007),1 a study on the non-indicative verbal forms (Campbell 2015), and two glossaries (de Martino/Giorgeri 2008; Richter 2012), Hurrian studies nowadays find themselves seemingly with a decent base of philological work. In this article, three examples of text passages from Ḫattuša/Boğazköy will show the status quo of Hurrian studies. The first one, part of Šalašu’s ritual, offers a Hittite counterpart and has already been discussed by Laroche; the second one, a Hurrian ritual for the royal couple, offers Hurrian sections that have partially been discussed recently; the third, part of Ummaya’s ritual, has, to my knowledge, not yet been discussed elsewhere.

Šalašu’s ritual

  • 2 Laroche 1970: 58-63.

5In 1970 Emmanuel Laroche discussed in an article parts of Hurrian-Hittite rituals, among them “Šalašu’s Ritual”.2 Only the eighth tablet of this ritual to cure a bewitched person is partly preserved in KBo 19.145, depicting ritual actions in Hittite and accompanying recitations in both Hurrian and Hittite.

  • 3 KBo 19.145 (ChS I/5 Nr. 40) obv. i-ii 1: [nu-]uš-ši-kán DUGḫu-u-p[u-wa-]a-i š[e-e]r ar-ḫa wa-aḫ-nu- (...)

6It starts with the following part, obverse 1-5: “I am waving a ḫup[uw]ai-vessel o[ve]r him an[d speak in Hurrian as follows]:”3

  • 4 See (slightly different) Campbell2015: 142 example 6.73.
  • 5 KBo 19.145 (ChS I/5 Nr. 40) obv. i 2-5: (2) ḫu-ub-le-e-eš ḫu-ú-pu-w[a-a]š-⌈še⌉-ni-en-na ti-i-e (3) (...)

ḫub(=o)=l=ēž

ḫūbuw[a]=šše=ni=nn(i)=a

tīe=ø4

sul=ōbade=ø

break(+pat)+l+opt

.-vessel+der+‘artsg+ass

word+abs

bind+der+abs

āri=ø

ne[r](i)=ubāde=ø

āri=ø

kad=ugar=ni=ø

kōri=ø

evil+abs

good+neg der+abs

evil+abs

dispute+abs

anger+abs

kōrgorē=ø=mā

ēn(i)=n(a)=āž=(v)[e]

ḫub(=o)=l=ēž

hūbuwa=šše=ni=[nn(i)=a]5

rage+abs+conn

god+‘artpl+pl+gen

break(+pat)+l+opt

.-vessel+der+‘artsg+ass

  • 6 Cf. Görke 2010: 78.

7“It shall break like a ḫubuw[a]šše-vessel, the (evil) word, the bound evil, the bad evil,6 the dispute, the anger and rage of the gods, it shall break [like] a ḫubuwašše-vessel.”

8The Hittite counterpart expresses largely the same:

Hittite:

  • 7 KBo 19.145 (ChS I/5 Nr. 40) obv. ii 2-5: (2) DUGḫu-p[u-wa-ia-aš-at i-wa-ar du-wa-ar-na-at-ta-ru] (3 (...)

DUGḫup[uwayaš=at iwar duwarnattaru] idāl[u UḪ7-tar š/ḫullatar DINGIRMEŠ-aš ḫatu]gaš kardim[iyaz … ]-raš
DUGḫupuw[ayaš iwar duw]arnattaru7

“[Like a] hup[uwai-]vessel [shall break] the ev[il sorcery, dispute, terr]ible ang[er of the gods, ... ] … shall [bre]ak [like a] ḫupuw[ai]-vessel.”

  • 8 Reading and translation according to Giorgieri 1998: 73.

9In the following lines the description of ritual actions in Hittite starts as follows: “I [h]i[t the hupuwai-vessel with?] a stone and [break] it.”8

  • 9 Laroche 1970: 59.

10Laroche already recognized the structure of the sentence and equated Hittite DUGḫupuwai- with Hurrian ḫubuwa=šše=ni=nna (with incorrect analysis “celui des ḫupuwai-”). He moreover analyzed ḫuplieš as “forme verbale d’optatif-impératif” corresponding to the only partially preserved Hittite ]x-nattaru at the end of the recitation, without daring to restore it fully to duw]arnattaru.9 In any case, it becomes clear that the recitation is closely related to the ritual action described in the first and following lines.

11On the reverse 41’-49’ both Hurrian and Hittite parts of a recitation are almost completely preserved.

  • 10 KBo 19.145 (ChS I/5 Nr. 40) rev. iii-iv 25’: [...-]x a-a-pí-in ki-i-nu-zi “he opens the pit”. See a (...)

12They follow a broken Hittite section describing offerings into a pit10 and a fragmentary paragraph with Hurrian recitations (KBo 19.145 rev. iv 30’-40’).

  • 11 Cf. Campbell 2015: 117-118 with examples 6.14 and 6.15. Compare footnote 53 below.
  • 12 Cf. Campbell 2015: 46 (example 4.15) and Wegner 2001: 445-447.
  • 13 Cf. Campbell2015: 115 example 6.10 and Wegner 2001: 445-447.
  • 14 Cf. Campbell 2015: 116 example 6.11.
  • 15 KBo 19.145 (ChS I/5 Nr. 40) rev. iv 41’-49’: (41’) ka-aš-ša-pa-a-ti-il a-ra-a-re-e[-ni aš-ta] (42’) (...)

Hurrian:

kašša=vā=dil

arārē[=ni

ašt(e)=a]

firfir=išt=i=b11

gate+dat+1. pl abs

sorcery+abl

woman+ess

release+der+act+b

kašša=v[ā=di]l

arārē=ni

taġ(e)=a!

firfir=išt=i=b

gate+dat+1. pl abs

sorcery+abl

man+ess

release+der+act+b

ā[i?= …-i=]f(fa)?

ušš=ēva

faž=a=ffa

parġi=d[a12 ]

if+ … +2. pl abs

go+pot

enter+imp intrans+2. pl abs

courtyard+dir

[ …-š]a

pedar(i)=re(<ne)=va(<e)=f(fa)

hā=i13

abra and[u- … ]

bull+‘art’ sg+gen+2. pl abs

take+imp trans

… …

[ … ]-a=f(fa)

ḫērē=ni?

ḫērb(e)=ā=l

ḫe[r=ibād]i=ø

…+2. pl abs

wood?+abl

binding?+ess+3. pl abs

wood+der+abs

zōl(e)=a

zull=ūd=i=(e)ž14

tie+ess

tie+der neg+act+opt

ka[šša=vā=dil]

arārē=ni

ašt(e)=a

firfi[r=išt=i=b]

gate+dat+1. pl abs

sorcery+abl

woman+ess

release+der+act+b

kašša=vā=dil

arārē[=ni]

taġ(e)=[a

firfir=išt=i=b]15

gate+dat+1. pl abs

sorcery+abl

man+ess

release+der+act+b

  • 16 See Campbell 2007: 79.
  • 17 According to Wegner 2001: 447. See already Haas/Thiel 1978: 310-311.

13“We released [the woman from] sorcery at the gate, [w]e released the man from sorcery [a]t the gate.16 I[f? …] you (pl) want to go,17 enter (pl) in[to] the courtyard! Take the […] of the bull … May you (pl) unbind the bound ones (from) the bindings from the wood! May you (pl) untie the ties! [We] relea[sed] the woman from sorcery [at the] g[ate], [we released] the man [from] sorcery at the gate.”

Hittite:

  • 18 KUB 19.145 (ChS I/5 Nr. 40) rev. iv 41’-50’: (41’) a-aš-ki-kán an-d[a-m]a al-wa-an-za-ah-ḫa-an-da-a (...)

14āški=kan and[a=m]a alwanzaḫḫandan MUNUS-an lānun āšk[i=ka]n anda alwanzaḫḫandan LÚ-an lānu[n m]ān iyadduma n=ašta ḫīe[ll]i ītten nu GU₄-aš šuwantiyan dātten ki[tp]andalaz išḫiyandan [l]ātten LÚ GIŠ[-ruwa]ndan=ma=kan GIŠ-ruwaz [arḫ]a!tarna[tten āšk]i=kan anda [alwanz]a[ḫ]ḫ[anda]n MUNUS-an lātten [āški=kan anda alwanz]aḫḫandan LÚ-an arḫa[tarnatt]en18

  • 19 See HEG Š: 1231; Campbell 2015: 115 n. 40: “fullness”.
  • 20 Campbell 2015: 116 n. 44.
  • 21 Cf. Haas/Thiel 1978: 304-311.

15“[B]ut a[t] the gate I released the bewitched woman (from the spell), [at] the gate [I] released the bewitched man (from the spell). [W]hen you (pl) go, go (pl) to the cou[rty]ard. Take (pl) the šuwantiya-19 of an ox. From this mo[men]t, [un]bind (pl) the bound one, relea[se] (pl) the st[ak]ed man [fro]m the stakes!20 At the [ga]te release (pl) / you (pl) released the [bewi]t[ched] woman, [at the gate releas]e (pl) / you (pl) [releas]ed the [bewi]tched man!”21

16As far as one is able to analyze the Hurrian text and compare it to the Hittite one, which also reveals some semantic difficulties, one can state that the Hurrian text is quite close to its Hittite counterpart.

17Nevertheless, the use of a verbal first person singular in Hittite (“I released”) versus a first person plural in Hurrian (“we released”) or first person in Hurrian (“we released”) versus a second person in Hittite (“release!/you (pl) released”) also reveal major differences. With regard to contents, this section seems to emphasize the aim of the ritual, namely the healing of a bewitched person.

A Hurrian Ritual for the Royal Couple

  • 22 KUB 27.42 (ChS I/1 Nr. 11) obv. 27, 28, 29: [ … ]x ki-iš-ša-an te-ez-zi “… speaks as follows” fol (...)

18The “Hurrian Ritual for the Royal couple” KUB 27.42 is an approximately half-preserved, one-columned tablet that basically contains a Hurrian text, interrupted by short Hittite sentences introducing direct speech.22 Its beginning is missing and the only partly preserved colophon was restored by I. Yakubovich as follows:

  • 23 Yakubovich 2006: 125, with discussion of older readings by Haas 1984: 119.
  • 24 Yakubovich 2006: 125.
  • 25 Yakubovich 2006: 125 n. 58; Röseler 1999: 399, understands the verbal root tu- as “to cook”. For th (...)

19(rev. 27’) DUB 1.KAM QA-TI šar?-ra?-aš?-ši-ia-aš?-š[a?-aš i]š-ga-u-wa-aš (28’) x x SANGA DUMU.LUGAL “One tablet, (ritual) finished, of the [a]nointment [for] kingshi[p?]. … the priest, son of the king.”23 The repeated mention of Hurrian ḫažari “oil” on the rather badly preserved obverse supports Yakubovich’s assumption that this part is dedicated to the preparation of oil.24 He interprets the expression du-i-du-ma ḫa-a-ša-a-ri as “and they prepared? oil” (that is tu=id=o=ma (prepare?+3. pl a+trans+conn) ḫāžāri=ø (oil+ abs)).25 This expression occurs in obv. 17, 24 (broken context), 25 (broken context), 26, 27, 28, 29:

  • 26 KUB 27.42 (ChS I/1 Nr. 11) obv. 17: … ḫa-a-ša-ri-ta iš-ta-ni du-i-d[u]-um … .
  • 27 KUB27.42 (ChS I/1 Nr. 11) obv. 26: … du-i-du-ma ḫa-a-ša-a-ri e-bi-ir-ši-ḫa-⌈a-i⌉ … .
  • 28 See Yakubovich 2006: 125 n. 58.
  • 29 KUB 27.42 (ChS I/1 Nr. 11) obv. 27: (… speaks as follows (compare footnote 22):) [d]u-i-du-ma ḫa- (...)
  • 30 Another form of a noun šeġni of unknown meaning might be attested in KBo 19.144+ rev. iv 4’ še-e-eḫ (...)
  • 31 See Yakubovich 2006: 125 n. 58 (without šehnāe).
  • 32 KUB27.42 (ChS I/1 Nr. 40) obv. 28: (… speaks as follows:) du-i-du-ma ḫa-a-ša-a-ri ta-ḫa-ša-a-e du (...)
  • 33 KUB27.42 (ChS I/1 Nr. 11) obv. 29: (… speaks as follows:) du-i-du-ma ḫa-a-ša-a-ri ta-a-ta-a-e š (...)
  • 34 Maybe connected to šad- “replace, compensate” (Richter2012: 362) with der -ar-: šād=ār=i.

ḫāžari=da

ištani=ø

tu=id=o=m26

oil+dir

middle+abs

prepare?+3. pl a+trans+conn

“and they prepared? the middle for the oil”

tu=id=o=ma

ḫāžāri=ø

evri=ži=ġ(e)=āi27

prepare?+3. pl a+trans+conn

oil+abs

“and they prepared the oil lordshiplike / with one of lordship”28

tu=id=o=ma

ḫāžāri=ø

allā=ž(e)=āe

šeġn(i)=āe29

prepare?+3. pl a+trans+conn

oil+abs

mistress+der+instr

?30+instr

“and they prepared? oil with … queenship/ladyship”31

tu=id=o=ma

ḫāžāri=ø

taġ(i)=a=ž(e)=āe

tūd(i)=o=ž(e)=āe32

prepare?+3. pl a+trans+conn

oil+abs

man+epenth+der+instr

?+der+instr

“and they prepared? oil with … maleness”

tu=id=o=ma

ḫāžāri=ø

tād(i)=āe

šādāri=ø

tad(i)=āe33

prepare?+3. pl a+trans+conn

oil+abs

love+instr

?34+abs

love+instr

20“and they prepared? oil with love, … with love”

21On the reverse Hurrian recitations accompanying sacrifices to various gods are written down. As the end of the tablet is rather well preserved, parts of it are “understandable”:

  • 35 See Giorgieri 2000: 396; Wegner 2007: 88; Richter 2012: 136.
  • 36 KUB27.42 (ChS I/1 Nr. 11) rev. 12’: ha-zi-iz-[z]i-pal šal-ḫu-u-le-eš nu-i-waa-al-la ḫa-ša-a-š[i-li- (...)
  • 37 For he/inz- “to be in trouble (intrans); to suppress (trans)”. See Richter2012: 151; Campbell 2015: (...)

ḫaziz[z]i=b=a=l(la)

šalġ=ōl=i=(e)ž

wisdom+2. sg poss abs+epenth+3. pl encl

hear+der+act+opt

nui=v=a=lla

ḫaž=āž=[i=l=e]ž

ear+2. sg poss abs+epenth+3. pl encl

hear+der35+act+l+opt

Rev. 12’: “May they hear your wisdom! [May] your ears hear (it)!”36

āri=ffǝ

evil+1. sg poss abs

ān=āl=i=(ē)ž

delight+der+act+opt

irdi=ø

tongue+abs

urġ(i)=a

true+ess

tij(e)=a

kad=i=l=ē[ž]

[t]ij(e)=a

pāži=da

šindi=a=šše

word+ess

speak+act+l+opt

word+ess

mouth+dir

seven+abstr?+abs?

ḫinz=ōr=i=l=ēž

en(i)=n(a)=až=už

suppress?37+der+act+l+opt

god+pl+erg+pl

šarr(i)=a=[šš](e)=i=ġe=ni=ve=n(a)=až=už

king+epenth+abstr+epenth+suff bel+‘art’ sg+gen+relat pl+erg+pl

ēvr(i)=e=šš(e)=i=ġe=ni=ve=n(a)=až=už

lord+epenth+abstr+epenth+suff bel+‘art’ sg+gen+relat pl+erg+pl

hinz=ur=uga(ri>)n=na

hōr(i)=i=až=a

h[ō]ž=inn=and=i

suppress?+der+der+abs pl

lap+3. poss+pl+dat

bind+?+and+act

  • 38 Cf. Wilhelm 1995: 11 n. 8, who proposes a possible derivation from an- “to rejoice”, often with der(...)
  • 39 See Campbell2015: 129-130 example 6.42 and 6.43 with discussion.
  • 40 KUB27.42 (ChS I/1 Nr. 11) rev. 17’-19’: § (17’) a-a-ri-ip-pa a-a-na-a-le-e-eš ir-ti ur-ḫati-[i] (...)

22Rev. 17’-19’ “May I delight38 the evil! Ma[y] the tongue speak the true word! May the seventh suppress? the [w]ord to the mouth!39 The gods of the belonging to kingship and lordship shall b[in]d the suppressions? to their lap.”40

  • 41 See for this analysis Wilhelm 1995: 12, and Wilhelm 1998: 180. The translation “brightness” is my p (...)
  • 42 See for this analysis Wilhelm 1998.
  • 43 See for this emendation already Laroche 1968: 506. See the discussion in Richter 2012: 211, and Cam (...)
  • 44 For the omission of the word šije see Wilhelm 1995: 13, and Campbell2015: 231 n. 50.
  • 45 See Richter 2012: 467.
  • 46 See Richter 2012: 428-429 and Wilhelm 2010, 375.

kabōži=ni=v

eni=v(e)=āi

ḫežm(i)=ir=ž[i=n]i=v(e)=āi41

?+ind suff+2. sg poss

god+gen+instr42

bright+der+der+‘art’+gen+instr

ḫažar(i)=āi

ḫāž=o=l=ēž

kabuži=v

en[i=v(e)]=āi

oil+instr

anoint+pat+l+opt

?+2. sg poss

god+gen+instr

ḫežm(i)=ir=ži=ni=v(e)=āi

ḫažar(i)=āi

hāž=o=l=ēž

pušši=ø

bright+der+der+‘art’+gen+instr

oil+instr

anoint+pat+l+opt

?+abs

ḫōmar(i)=o=ḫḫe=ø

kērāži=ø43

še[ġu]rni=ve=n(e)=a

tuppi=n(e)=a

?+epenth+suff bel+abs

long+abs

life+gen+relat+ess

tablet+‘art’+ess

niv=ōž=inn=āi=n

?+?+purp?+3. sg abs

fandi=b

tōr=o=hh(e)=āi

tulb=ur=(i)=āi

tag=o=l=[e]ž44

right+2. sg poss

male+epenth+adj+instr

prosper45+der+instr

to be shining46+pat+l+opt

[š]apḫaldi=b

ašt(i)=o=ḫḫ(e)=āi

tulb=ur=(i)=āi

tag=o=l=ež

left+2. sg poss

woman+epenth+adj+instr

prosper+der+instr

to be shining+pat+l+opt

šī=ia

tag=o=l=ē[ž]

ḫōbri=b=ā=l

ōšš=o=l=ēž

eye+3. sg poss

to be shining+pat+l+opt

?+2. sg poss+epenth+3. pl abs

go/take+pat+l+opt

hōd=ol=a=b

Teššob=ve

šarr(i)=a=šš(e)=i=ġe=ne=ve

pray+der+intrans+b

Teššob+gen sg

king+epenth+abstr+epenth+suff bel+‘art’ sg+gen

ēvr(i)=i=šš(e)=i=ġe=ne=ve

uwām

ūi

faġr=u=ma

fōri

lord+epenth+abstr+epenth+suff bel+‘art’ sg+gen

good+intrans+conn

look

  • 47 Slightly different Yakubovich 2006: 131: “Let your k. be anointed with the divine oil of .”. Wilhe (...)
  • 48 See the discussion of this phrase in Campbell2015: 232 with example 10.12. The verb seems to be rat (...)
  • 49 Slightly different Campbell 2015: 231 example 10.11. See also Haas 2010: 167 n. 16.
  • 50 See for suggested interpretations as body part or smoke and others Richter2012: 166, with literatur (...)
  • 51 KUB 27.42 (ChS I/1 Nr. 11) rev. 20’-26’: § (20’) nam-ma A-NA LUGAL te-ez-zi ka-pu-u-ši-ni-ip e-ne-p (...)

23Rev. 20’-26’ (Moreover (s)he speaks to the king:) “May your kapuži be anointed with the oil of the god (and) of brightne[s]s?!”47 ((S)he speaks to the queen:) “May your kapuži be anointed with the oil [of the g]od and of brightness?, (so that?) the homarohhi and long pušši in the tablet of li[f]e might/should ...48 M[a]y your right side be shining through the male prosperity?! May your [l]eft side be shining through the female prosperity?!49 Ma[y] your! (text: his) eye be shining. May your hōbri-s go away.50 He prayed … of Teššob of kingship and lordship … And the look is good.”51

24Even if the meaning of a lot of words is still unknown and even if recitations are on the whole difficult to understand, it is nevertheless possible to get an impression of what those recitations are about. One can surmise that the practitioner asks for the royal couple’s honesty and sincerity and the gods’ help in this respect. By anointing the king and queen, namely, some of their body parts, they shall become pure and bright, obviously without bad things around.

Ummaya’s ritual

25This last example is part of Ummaya’s only fragmentarily preserved ritual KUB 7.58 to regain success in war. After a Hittite section mentioning the burying of something close to a wall, a Hurrian recitation starts as follows:

KUB 7.58 (ChS I/5 Nr. 47) obv. ii

(6’)

ka-aš-šap-ta-am DU-up

(7’)

ta-an-ti-na-am ka-aš-šap-ta-am

(8’)

mu!(text: ši)-uš-ta-a-am da-an-ti

(9’)

an-ti-na mu-uš-ta!(text: ša)-am i-ki a-ku-uš-ta

(10’)

ḫa!(text: a)-pu-ru-un-ni šar-ru mu-uš-ta!(text: ša)-an i-ki

(11’)

a-ku-uš-ta ḫa-pur-ni-wii

26The shortness of the lines and the repetition of words lead me to the assumption that these lines might be “easily” understandable. Nevertheless, the following analysis is highly tentative and only gives one out of several possibilities of interpretation.

kaššap=t=a=m(ma)

Teššob=ø

conjure+der+intrans+2. sg abs

Teššob+abs

tandi=n(i)=a=m

kaššap=t=a=m

act?+‘art’ sg+ess+2. sg abs

conjure+der+intrans+2. sg abs

muš=t=ā=m

tandi

right+der+intrans+conn

act?+abs

andi=n(i)=a

muš=t=a=m

egi=ø

ag=oš=t=a

this+‘art’ sg+ess

right+der+intrans+2. sg abs

spring/inside+abs

rise+der+der+intrans

havor(ni=ni>)onni

šarru=ø

muš=t=a=n

egi=ø

heaven+instr

king+abs

right+der+intrans+3. sg abs

spring/inside+abs

ag=oš=t=a

havorni=vi

rise+der+der+intrans

heaven+gen sg

“You conjure, Teššob, you conjure (in) an act, and the act is right. In this you are right. The spring/inside rose from heaven, the king is right, the spring/inside of heaven rose.”

27Commentary:

  • 52 See Görke 2010: 80, for discussion.
  • 53 See Šalašu’s example above, where kašša=va is interpreted as dat sg. This equation fits with the Hi (...)
  • 54 In any case, the Hittite lines before this Hurrian incantation mention a sacrifice at a wall: “I pr (...)

28This analysis and translation gives only a potential interpretation. The meaning of kaššap- is still under debate;52 Haas’ proposal of a relationship of kaššapti- with Akkadian kaššaptu “witch” has been refuted. An equation of Hurrian kaššap(a)t- and Hittite aška- “gate” or BÀD-eššar “wall” (Haas/Thiel 1978: 307-309) was basically confirmed by Wilhelm 2001: 453 n. 9, who votes for kaššapV- “gate” and a second word kaššapte of unknown meaning. Campbell 2015: 117, understands Hurrian kašša as “gate” (without further literature).53 Here a verb with a transitive meaning “to bewitch” (cf. Görke 2010: 80) and intransitive “to witch, conjure” better fits the context.54

  • 55 The parallel text KBo 15.1 (ChS I/5 Nr. 46) rev. iv 6’ shows the writing mu-uš-a-am for the second (...)

29For the meaning of muž- see Giorgeri 2000: 400; Wegner 2007: 267; and Richter 2012: 254 (the writing mu-ú- is attested once; see also Wilhelm/Süel 2013: 160). My proposal of correcting all three verbal forms remains difficult.55

30The interpretation of tandi as “act?” from tan- “to do” with -(a)di as suffix for the formation of nouns (Giorgieri 2000: 200; Wegner 2007: 59) is my proposal.

31For egi “spring” and “inside”, see Richter 2012: 77-79 s.v. egi I and egi II.

  • 56 Also possible is an analysis ag=ošt=a with a der -Všt-; cf. Giorgieri 2000: 224 with n. 156.

32For ag- “carry, raise (trans.); rise (intrans.)”, see de Martino/Giorgieri 2008: 29-31; Richter 2012: 4-5; here it is understood with the derivational suffixes -ož- and -t-, marking past tense and intransitivity (see for them: Giorgieri 2000: 225-226).56

33The beginning of this recitation in the translation presented here seems to refer to the Storm-god who guarantees the correctness of the ritual’s actions and to the relationship between Storm-god and king, as the king seems to receive his strength also from heaven through the Storm-god.

34The three Hurrian text examples presented here are all parts of recitations that per se are difficult to understand. Those in Šalašu’s ritual are comprehensible, also thanks to their Hittite counterparts. Good wishes for the king and queen are presumably expressed in the second example, the ritual for the royal couple. The lack of a corresponding Hittite section leaves open various questions. The translation of a part of Ummaya’s ritual is highly hypothetical, but refers, as far as it is understood here, to a strong relationship between god and king. In any case it becomes clear that the poor understanding of certain words in combination with our ignorance of various grammatical features still poses major difficulties in the understanding of Hurrian texts.

35The field of Hurrian studies thus is still wide-open and provides many possibilities for research. New text discoveries might be necessary to provide more material on semantics or grammatical specifications. Today, Laroche’s oeuvre is still outstanding and serves as the base of Hurrian studies.

Bibliographie

André-Salvini, B. / Salvini, M., “Un nouveau vocabulaire trilingue sumérien-akkadien-hourrite de Ras Shamra”, Studies on the Civilization and Culture of Nuzi and the Hurrians 9, 1998, 3-40.

Campbell, D., “The Old Hurrian Verb”, SMEA 49, 2007, 75-92.

Campbell, D., Mood and Modality in Hurrian (Languages of the Ancient Near East 5). Eisenbrauns, Winona Lake, 2015.

de Martino, S. / Giorgieri, M., Literatur zum Hurritischen Lexikon (LHL) Band 1 A (Eothen). LoGisma, Florence, 2008.

de Martino, S. / Süel, A., The Third Tablet of the itkalzi-Ritual (Eothen 21). LoGisma, Florence, 2015.

Fournet, A., A Manual of Hurrian. The BookEdition.com, La Garenne Colombes, 2013.

Fournet, A., A Descriptive Grammar of Hurrian. The BookEdition.com, La Garenne Colombes, 2013.

Giorgieri, M., “Die erste Beschwörung der 8. Tafel des Šalašu-Rituals”, Studies on the Civilization and Culture of Nuzi and the Hurrians 9, 1998, 71-86.

Giorgieri, M., “Schizzo grammaticale della lingua hurrica”, Parola del Passato 55, 2000, 171-277.

Görke, S., Das Ritual der Aštu (CTH 490). Rekonstruktion und Tradition eines hurritisch-hethitischen Rituals aus Boğazköy/ Ḫattuša (CHANE 40). Brill, Leyde – Boston, 2010.

Haas, V., Die Serien itkahi und itkalzi des AZU-Priesters. Rituale für Tašmišarri und Tatuhepa sowie weitere Texte mit Bezug auf Tašmišarri (ChS I/1). Multigrafica, Rome, 1984.

Haas, V., “Die linke Seite im Hethitischen”, Or NS 79, 2010, 164-170.

Haas, V. / Thiel H. J., Die Beschwörungsrituale der Allaiturah(h)i und verwandte Texte (Alter Orient und Altes Testament 31). Neukirchener Verlag, Neukirchen-Vluyn, 1978.

Haas, V. / Wegner, I., “Beiträge zum hurritischen Lexikon: Die hurritischen Verben ušš- ,gehen‘ und ašš- ,abwaschen, abwischen‘”, in: Investigationes Anatolicae. Gedenkschrift für Erich Neu (StBoT 52), Klinger, J. / Rieken, E. / Rüster, Chr. (éds.). Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden, 2010, 97-109.

Laroche, E., “Documents en langue hourrite provenant de Ras Shamra”, in: Ugaritica V. Nouveaux textes accadiens, hourrites et ugaritiques des archives et bibliothèques privées d’Ugarit, Schaeffer, Cl. (éd.). Geuthner, Paris, 1968, 448-544.

Laroche, E., “Études de linguistique anatolienne, III”, RHA 28, 1970, 22-71.

Laroche, E., “Glossaire de la langue hourrite”, RHA 34-35, 1976-77.

Neu, E., Das hurritische Epos der Freilassung (StBoT 32). Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden, 1996.

Richter, Th., Bibliographisches Glossar des Hurritischen. Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden, 2012.

Richter, Th., Review of I. Wegner, Einführung in die hurritische Sprache, 2nd edition 2007, Orientalistische Literaturzeitung 108, 2013, 18-21.

Röseler, I., “Hurritologische Miszellen”, Studies on the Civilization and Culture of Nuzi and the Hurrians 10, 1999, 393-400.

Wegner, I., Einführung in die hurritische Sprache. Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden, 2000.

Wegner, I., “ ‘Haus’ und ‘Hof’ im Hurritischen”, in: Kulturgeschichten. Altorientalistische Studien für Volkert Haas zum 65. Geburtstag, Richter, Th. / Prechel, D. / Klinger, J. (éds.). Saarbrücker Druckerei und Verlag, Sarrebruck, 2001, 441-447.

Wegner, I., Einführung in die hurritische Sprache. 2., überarbeitete Auflage. Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden, 2007.

Wilhelm, G., Ein Ritual des AZU-Priesters (ChS I Ergänzungsheft 1). Bonsignori, Rome, 1995.

Wilhelm, G., “Zur Suffixaufnahme beim Instrumental”, Studies on the Civilization and Culture of Nuzi and the Hurrians 9, 1998, 177-180.

Wilhelm, G., “Hurritisch naipti “Weidung”, “Weide” oder eine bestimmte Art von Weide”, in: Kulturgeschichten. Altorientalistische Studien für Volkert Haas zum 65. Geburtstag, Richter, Th. / Prechel, D. / Klinger, J. (éds.). Saarbrücker Druckerei und Verlag, Sarrebruck, 2001, 449-453.

Wilhelm, G., “Before God and Men”, in: Gazing on the Deep: Ancient Near Eastern and Other Studies in Honor of Tzvi Abusch, Stackert, J. / Nevling Porter, B. / Wright, D. P. (éds.). CDL Press, Bethesda, ML, 2010, 373-378.

Wilhelm, G. / Süel, A., “The Hurrian Offering Ritual for Tašmišarri Or. 97/1”, KASKAL 10, 2013, 149-168.

Yakubovich, I., “Were Hittite Kings Divinely Anointed? A Palaic Invocation to the Sun-god and its Significance for Hittite Religion”, JANER 5, 2006, 107-137.

Notes

1 See also Fournet 2013a and Fournet 2013b.

2 Laroche 1970: 58-63.

3 KBo 19.145 (ChS I/5 Nr. 40) obv. i-ii 1: [nu-]uš-ši-kán DUGḫu-u-p[u-wa-]a-i š[e-e]r ar-ḫa wa-aḫ-nu-mi na-aš-t[a ḫur-li-li ki-iš-ša-an me-ma-aḫ-ḫi] §. See for the interpretation and analysis of these lines Giorgieri 1998.

4 See (slightly different) Campbell 2015: 142 example 6.73.

5 KBo 19.145 (ChS I/5 Nr. 40) obv. i 2-5: (2) ḫu-ub-le-e-eš ḫu-ú-pu-w[a-a]š-⌈še⌉-ni-en-na ti-i-e (3) zu-lu-u-pa-⌈te⌉ a-a-ri ni-[r]u-pa-a-⌈te⌉ a-a-ri ga-du-kàr-ni (4) ku-u-ri ku-u-ur-ku-re-e-m[a]-a? e?-[e]n-na-a-š[e] ḫu-ub-le-e-eš (5) ḫu-ú-pu-wa-aš-še-ni-e[n-na] §. Reading according to Giorgieri 1998: 72. Even if a distinction between the vowels o and u by using the signs u and ú is basically valid only for the Mittani letter, I will here differentiate between plain writings with u (given as ō) and ú (given as ū).

6 Cf. Görke 2010: 78.

7 KBo 19.145 (ChS I/5 Nr. 40) obv. ii 2-5: (2) DUGḫu-p[u-wa-ia-aš-at i-wa-ar du-wa-ar-na-at-ta-ru] (3) i-da-a-l[u UḪ7 -tar š/ḫu-ul-la-tar DINGIRMEŠ-aš ḫa-tu]-ga-aš (4) kar-di-m[i-ia-az …] x x x-ra-aš(5) DUGḫu-pu-w[a-ia-aš i-wa-ar du-w]a-ar-na-at-ta-ru §. Reconstruction according to Giorgieri 1998: 73.

8 Reading and translation according to Giorgieri 1998: 73.

9 Laroche 1970: 59.

10 KBo 19.145 (ChS I/5 Nr. 40) rev. iii-iv 25’: [...-]x a-a-pí-in ki-i-nu-zi “he opens the pit”. See also Haas/Thiel 1978: 302-303.

11 Cf. Campbell 2015: 117-118 with examples 6.14 and 6.15. Compare footnote 53 below.

12 Cf. Campbell 2015: 46 (example 4.15) and Wegner 2001: 445-447.

13 Cf. Campbell 2015: 115 example 6.10 and Wegner 2001: 445-447.

14 Cf. Campbell 2015: 116 example 6.11.

15 KBo 19.145 (ChS I/5 Nr. 40) rev. iv 41’-49’: (41’) ka-aš-ša-pa-a-ti-il a-ra-a-re-e[-ni aš-ta] (42’) wii-ir-wii-ri-iš-ti-ib ka-aš-ša-p[a-a-ti-i]l a-ra-a-re-e-ni (43’) da-aḫ-e wii-ir-wii-ri-iš-ti-ib a[-a-i- … -i]b? (44’) uš-še-e-éw-waa waa-ša-áw-waa pár-ḫi-d[a? … -š]a (45’) pé-tar-ri-waa-ab ḫa-a-i ab-ra an-d[u- … ]x-ab (46’) ḫé-e-re-e-ne ḫe-e-er-pa-a-al hé[-ri-ba-a-d]i ⌈ḫe⌉-e[r-bu-di]-iš (47’) zu-u-ul-a zu-ul-lu-ú-ti-iš k[a-aš-ša-pa-a-ti-il ] (48’) a-ra-a-<re->e-ni aš-ta wii-ir-wii-[ri-iš-ti-ib] (49’) ka-aš-ša-pa-a-ti-il a-⌈ra-a-re⌉[-e-ni] ⌈da-aḫ⌉[-a wii-ir-wii-ri-iš-ti-ib] §.

16 See Campbell 2007: 79.

17 According to Wegner 2001: 447. See already Haas/Thiel 1978: 310-311.

18 KUB 19.145 (ChS I/5 Nr. 40) rev. iv 41’-50’: (41’) a-aš-ki-kán an-d[a-m]a al-wa-an-za-ah-ḫa-an-da-an MUNUS-an (42’) la-a-nu-un a-aš-k[i-ká]n an-da al-wa-an-za-aḫ-ḫa-an-da-an (43’) LÚ-an la-a-nu-u[n m]a-a-an i-ia-ad-du-ma (44’) na-aš-ta ḫi-i-e[l-l]i i-it-tén nu GU₄-aš šu-wa-an-ti-ia-an (45’) da-a-at-tén ki-i[t-pa]-an-da-la-az iš-ḫi-ia-an-da-an (46’) [l]a-a-at-tén LÚ GIŠ[-ru-wa-a]n-da-an-ma-kán GIŠ-ru-wa-az (47’) [ar-ḫ]a! tar-na-a[t-tén a-aš-k]i-kán an-da (48’) [al-wa-an-z]a-a[ḫ]-ḫ[a-an-da-a]n MUNUS-an la-a-at-tén (49’) [a-aš-ki-kán an-da al-wa-an-z]a-aḫ-ḫa-an-da-an LÚ-an (50’)ar-ḫa[tar-na-at-te-]en.

19 See HEG Š: 1231; Campbell 2015: 115 n. 40: “fullness”.

20 Campbell 2015: 116 n. 44.

21 Cf. Haas/Thiel 1978: 304-311.

22 KUB 27.42 (ChS I/1 Nr. 11) obv. 27, 28, 29: [ … ]x ki-iš-ša-an te-ez-zi “… speaks as follows” followed by Hurrian words; obv. 36 [nu A-N]A LUGAL te-ez-zi “he speaks [t]o the king” (follows Hurrian) A-NA MUNUS.LUGAL-ma te-ez-zi “he speaks to the queen” (follows Hurrian); rev. 7’ at-ta-aš- ma-za DINGIRMEŠ-aš ki-iš-ša-an ir-ḫa-a-iz-zi “he makes sacrifices in a round for the gods of the father as follows”; rev. 10’ ŠA Dḫé-bat-ma-za ki-iš-ša-an ir-ḫa-a-iz-zi “he makes sacrifices in a round for (the gods of the father of) Hebat”; rev. 20’ nam-ma A-NA LUGAL te-ez-zi “moreover, he speaks to the king”; rev. 21’ A-NA MUNUS.LUGAL-ma te-ez-zi “he speaks to the queen”.

23 Yakubovich 2006: 125, with discussion of older readings by Haas 1984: 119.

24 Yakubovich 2006: 125.

25 Yakubovich 2006: 125 n. 58; Röseler 1999: 399, understands the verbal root tu- as “to cook”. For this verbal form see Giorgieri 2000: 227, 244; Campbell 2015: 17.

26 KUB 27.42 (ChS I/1 Nr. 11) obv. 17: … ḫa-a-ša-ri-ta iš-ta-ni du-i-d[u]-um … .

27 KUB 27.42 (ChS I/1 Nr. 11) obv. 26: … du-i-du-ma ḫa-a-ša-a-ri e-bi-ir-ši-ḫa-⌈a-i⌉ … .

28 See Yakubovich 2006: 125 n. 58.

29 KUB 27.42 (ChS I/1 Nr. 11) obv. 27: (… speaks as follows (compare footnote 22):) [d]u-i-du-ma ḫa-a-ša-a-ri al-la-a-ša-a-e še-eḫ-na-a-e.

30 Another form of a noun šeġni of unknown meaning might be attested in KBo 19.144+ rev. iv 4’ še-e-eḫ-na-ša (šeġn(i)=aža dat pl); see Görke 2010: 137, where this form is seen as ess sg of an extended form šeġn=a=že.

31 See Yakubovich 2006: 125 n. 58 (without šehnāe).

32 KUB 27.42 (ChS I/1 Nr. 40) obv. 28: (… speaks as follows:) du-i-du-ma ḫa-a-ša-a-ri ta-ḫa-ša-a-e du-ú-du?-ša-a-e.

33 KUB 27.42 (ChS I/1 Nr. 11) obv. 29: (… speaks as follows:) du-i-du-ma ḫa-a-ša-a-ri ta-a-ta-a-e ša-a-ta-a-ri ta-ta-a-e.

34 Maybe connected to šad- “replace, compensate” (Richter 2012: 362) with der -ar-: šād=ār=i.

35 See Giorgieri 2000: 396; Wegner 2007: 88; Richter 2012: 136.

36 KUB 27.42 (ChS I/1 Nr. 11) rev. 12’: ha-zi-iz-[z]i-pal šal-ḫu-u-le-eš nu-i-waa-al-la ḫa-ša-a-š[i-li-i]š; see Campbell 2015: 136 example 6.60b, who tends to understand this phrase, in comparison with similar phrases, as result of mistakes on part of the scribe; see the discussion in Campbell 2015: 136-137. Although I, on the whole, agree with his objections, I try to give here the translation the closest to the preserved text. For the verbal analysis see also Campbell 2015: 111. Differently Wilhelm 1995: 9: “Dein Sinn möge sie vernehmen, dein Ohr möge sie hören!”

37 For he/inz- “to be in trouble (intrans); to suppress (trans)”. See Richter 2012: 151; Campbell 2015: 228, proposes “to bind”.

38 Cf. Wilhelm 1995: 11 n. 8, who proposes a possible derivation from an- “to rejoice”, often with der -aġ-, -ašt-, -an-, see Richter 2012: 27. Campbell does not discuss this verbal form that seems to show a plene e-writing for =i=(e)ž (cf. Campbell 2015: 111-112).

39 See Campbell 2015: 129-130 example 6.42 and 6.43 with discussion.

40 KUB 27.42 (ChS I/1 Nr. 11) rev. 17’-19’: § (17’) a-a-ri-ip-pa a-a-na-a-le-e-eš ir-ti ur-ḫa ti-[i]a qa-ti-le-e-e[š t]i-ia pa-a-ši-ta (18’) ši-in-ti-ia-aš-ši ḫi-in-zu- u-ri-le-e-eš DINGIRMEŠ-na-šu-uš šar-ra-a[š-š]i-ḫi-ni-bi-na-šu-uš (19’) e-ep-re-eš-ši-ḫi-<ni->bi-na-šu-uš ḫi-in-zu-ru-ga-an-na ḫu-u-ri-ia-ša ḫ [u-u]-ši-in-na-an-ti §. See for a slightly different analysis of the second part Campbell 2015: 228-229 with example 10.7 (with a mixed up verbal form; it should be read as in example 10.6) and discussion. His suggested translation reads as: “The gods of kingship and lordship shall bind it (the word) to their lap like a binding.”

41 See for this analysis Wilhelm 1995: 12, and Wilhelm 1998: 180. The translation “brightness” is my proposal.

42 See for this analysis Wilhelm 1998.

43 See for this emendation already Laroche 1968: 506. See the discussion in Richter 2012: 211, and Campbell 2015: 231-232 example (10.12).

44 For the omission of the word šije see Wilhelm 1995: 13, and Campbell 2015: 231 n. 50.

45 See Richter 2012: 467.

46 See Richter 2012: 428-429 and Wilhelm 2010, 375.

47 Slightly different Yakubovich 2006: 131: “Let your k. be anointed with the divine oil of .”. Wilhelm 1995: 12: “Dein kabūži(ni) möge um deines ene und deines ḫežmirži willen mit Öl gesalbt sein!”; Wilhelm 1998: 180: “Dein k. sei mit dem Öl der Gottheit (und) des/der ḫ. gesalbt.”

48 See the discussion of this phrase in Campbell 2015: 232 with example 10.12. The verb seems to be rather corrupt as one would not expect an -inn- infix without following -and- (see Campbell 2015: 228-230).

49 Slightly different Campbell 2015: 231 example 10.11. See also Haas 2010: 167 n. 16.

50 See for suggested interpretations as body part or smoke and others Richter 2012: 166, with literature. As the verbal form seems to present a patient-focusing optative (see in short Campbell 2015: 265-266), the enclitic personal pronoun -l is taken as a pluralisator (Wegner 2007: 77; Giorgieri 2000: 220) and the intransitive verb meaning of ušš- “go (intrans); take away (trans)” is chosen (see for this word Richter 2012: 502-503). A translation “May your hōbris be taken away!” is also possible. Haas/Wegner 2010: 99 understand only ušš- (written ú-uš-šV or uš-šV-) as “go”, but notice that uš-šu-le-e(-eš) in KBo 29.8 iii 51 (ChS I/1 Nr. 9) might run parallel to the here cited passage, written u-uš-šu-le-e-eš (Haas/Wegner 2010: 100); differently with discussion Campbell 2015, 176-177.

51 KUB 27.42 (ChS I/1 Nr. 11) rev. 20’-26’: § (20’) nam-ma A-NA LUGAL te-ez-zi ka-pu-u-ši-ni-ip e-ne-pa-a-i he-eš-mi-ir-š[i-n]i-pa-a-i ha-ša-ra-a-i (21’) ḫa-a- šu-le-e-eš A-NA MUNUS.LUGAL-ma te-ez-zi ka-pu-ši-ip e-n[e-pa]-a-i ḫe-eš-me-er-*ši-ni-pa-*a-i (22’) ha-ša-ra-a-i ḫa-a-šu-le-e-eš pu-uš-ši ḫu-u-ma-ru-uḫ-ḫi ge-e-<ra->a-ši še-[ḫu-u]r-ni-bi-na tub-bi-na ni-pu-u-ši-in-na-a-in (23’) pa-an-ti-ip tu-u-ru-uḫ-ḫa-a-i túl-pu-ra-a-ai ta-ku-l[i-i]š ši-i-ia [š]a-ap-ḫa-al-ti-ip aš-tu-uḫ- ḫa-a-i (24’) túl-pu-ra-a-i ta-ku-le-eš ši-i-ia ta-ku-le-e-e[š] ḫu-u-up-ri-pa-a-al u-uš-šu-le-e-eš (25’) ḫu-u-tu-la-ap DU-ub-bi šar-ra-aš-ši-ḫi-ni-bi e-eb-ri-iš-ši-ḫi-ni-bi ⌈ú⌉-wa-a-am ú-ú-i (26’) pa-aḫ-ru-ma pu-u-ri §§; see also Campbell 2015: 177-178 with example 7.53, with a slightly different interpretation of the last two words: “you, namely, (your) eye(s) is/are beautiful.”

52 See Görke 2010: 80, for discussion.

53 See Šalašu’s example above, where kašša=va is interpreted as dat sg. This equation fits with the Hittite counterpart, but leaves some questions open, for example why would “gate” end on -a, normally attested with gods’ names and kinship expressions (cf. Wegner 2007: 52, Giorgieri 2000: 199; but see also Richter 2013: 18-19, who votes for a broader distribution of a-stem nouns). Moreover, the dative normally does not answer the question “where?” but “whom?” or “whereto?”.

54 In any case, the Hittite lines before this Hurrian incantation mention a sacrifice at a wall: “I prepare (it) [(at the wall)] and [ … ] and I take stones and bury them down the earth and I conjure as follows” – see ChS I/5: 241 Nr. 47.

55 The parallel text KBo 15.1 (ChS I/5 Nr. 46) rev. iv 6’ shows the writing mu-uš-a-am for the second form (the other two are not preserved), that can be interpreted as muž=a=m without -t- infix (for this see Giorgieri 2000: 200 n. 78, or 226 for the one marking intransitivity in combination with -ož- or -et-; cf. Wegner 2007: 89). The second parallel text KUB 45.20 (ChS I/5 Nr. 48), though, also shows mu-uš-ša-am in rev. iii 9’ and mu-uš-ša-an in rev. iii 10’.

56 Also possible is an analysis ag=ošt=a with a der -Všt-; cf. Giorgieri 2000: 224 with n. 156.

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