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Leggere Fichte. Volume III

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Alessandro Bertinetto

Pratico e teoretico in Fichte e in Hegel

Simone Furlani

Résumé

This paper clarifies the significance of the opposition between Hegel’s idealism and Fichte’s transcendental philosophy. Central to Fichte’s Doctrine of Science is the special relation between absolute and concept. This relation is characterized by a margin, an excess of the absolute. This does not compromise the possibility of knowledge, so as to trap it into that «bad infinity» that Hegel wished to identify. Fichte, instead, shows how this difference becomes the place for the reflection of knowledge in and on itself. The absolute manifests or reveals itself in knowledge to the extent that it recognizes and reconstructs its own conditions and presuppositions. This knowledge of knowledge does not establish itself as an immanent reflection, so as to objectify it in the same process. This maintenance of the conceptual structures of the Doctrine of Science creates the space for the indication of the transcendental difference that discloses the concept as the place of a self-overcoming, by the concept itself, and its reopening to «life». Philosophy articulates itself as the theoretical space of mediation of the absolute and, at the same time, as a practical indication.The analysis of the concepts of «impulse» and «Idea» in Hegel’s Science of Logic demonstrates that Fichte’s transcendental philosophy does not evade Hegel’s critique, but demonstrates, at the same time, that the Doctrine of Science, through its identification of the risk of overriding the difference between absolute and concept, shows ante litteram a critical value against Hegel’s abolute idealism. From this point of view this paper derives the possibility of verifying and criticizing the tenability of philosophy as an objective ‘absolute knowing’ or as a ‘doctrine of science’.

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Extrait du texte

1 – Stereotipi, aporie e forzature

Il tema del rapporto tra pratico e teoretico, che costituisce il quadro entro il quale leggere la questione della volontà in Fichte e in Hegel, è uno dei temi più indicativi delle difficoltà ermeneutiche che incontriamo avvicinando e tenendo assieme la prospettiva della filosofia trascendentale e quella dell’idealismo. Si tratta, innanzitutto, di non subire alcuni pregiudizi. In primo luogo vanno ovviamente ripensati e ricollocati entrambi i margini della questione: l’immagine stereotipata sia dell’una (la filosofia di Fichte come filosofia dell’infinito ‘inseguimento’ dell’io sul non-io) che dell’altra (l’idealismo hegeliano come sintesi e soluzione ‘razionalistica’ delle scissioni e delle parzialità della filosofia trascendentale). Sono stereotipi derivanti e fissati anche dalla critica di una prospettiva a partire dall’altra e viceversa: ormai possiamo distinguere nettamente anche sul versante degli studi fichtiani un’immagine stereotipata della ...

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