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La monnaie dans le Péloponnèse

 | 
Charles Doyen
, 
Eva Apostolou

A small bronze hoard of Antigonos Gonatas from Trapeza near Aigion

Μικρός νομισματικός θησαυρός του Αντίγονου Γονατά από την Τραπεζά Αιγίου

Un petit trésor de bronzes d’Antigone Gonatas trouvé à Trapeza d’Aigion

Andreas G. Vordos et Giovanni Gorini

Résumé

Les auteurs présentent un petit trésor découvert à Trapeza, à 8 km d’Aigion (Péloponnèse), composé de dix monnaies de bronze, cinq de Cassandre et cinq d’Antigone Gonatas. On peut le dater de la période immédiatement postérieure à la guerre de Chrémonidès (c. 262-260 av. J.-C.) et le comparer à ceux de Phayttos (IGCH 159) et Karditsa (IGCH 162). Il prend place parmi de nombreux autres petits trésors de 10/15 monnaies de bronze, qui sont à mettre en relation avec les garnisons militaires éparpillées dans toute la Grèce.

Texte intégral

The excavation

  • 1 On the region’s topography, the ancient road and the new archaeological research, see: A.G. Vordos, (...)

1This small hoard of Macedonian coins comes from Achaea and, specifically, from the archaeological site of Trapeza, in the Agialeia region, at 8 km south-west of Aigion, at the foot of the Panachaikon mountain-range1. The place, formed by a plateau 448 m above sea level, occupied from Mycenaean times, was a fortified acropolis during the Classical period (fig. 1).

2Many scholars have identified the ancient ruins visible on the plateau as the remains of the town of Rhypes, mother city of Croton in southern Italy during the 8th century BC colonization. But, in addition to the new research which began in 1995, there is still no irrefutable archaeological proof. Rhypes lost the status of an independent town in the Hellenistic period, and its coastal territory was attached to Aigion. The full excavation, which began in 2006, has so far been devoted to the large Doric temple, which was the core of the acropolis, at the centre of a temenos, and visible from all the chorai of the ancient town. It is an hekatompedon, erected at the end of the Archaic period, in exactly the last quarter of 6th century BC. The last three annual campaigns have revealed a monument, the ruins of which retain all elements of its foundations and also of its frieze. Moreover, surveys on the east and south sides have provided more then 300 fragments of architectural sculptures, coming from the two pediments of the temple.

Fig. 1. Southern view of Trapeza plateau.

Fig. 2. View of the excavations of the public buildings of the “lower town”, to the North of Trapeza.

  • 2 A. G. Vordos, AD (2010), Χρονικά, Β´ 1β, pp. 907-910.

3At the end of the Classical period and the beginning of the Hellenistic period, occupation spread over the nearby natural terraces, above all to the North and East of the plateau, where a complex of buildings was erected. This complex, which forms the “lower town”, also encompasses public monuments, such as the place called Γούβες, towards the bed of the Meiganitis river2.

  • 3 For the rescue excavation of the “lower town”, see A. G. Vordos, “Συστηματική ανασκαφή Τραπεζάς”, A (...)

4The small hoard of Macedonian coins was found in 2006 during a rescue excavation at a short distance to the north of the complex of fig. 2, in the property of A. Frantzés3. The excavation revealed a corner of two walls erected with large mixed blocks, of which one was discovered, 23.2 m in length. It is certain that the building to which it belonged was part of a large complex of public buildings. In the foundations of the corner, at a depth of 1.25 m from the surface, were the ten coins from Kassandros’ and Antigonos Gonatas’ reigns.

  • 4 A. D. Rizakis, Achaïe III. Les cites achéennes: Épigraphie et histoire (2008), pp. 160-162.
  • 5 Diod. 19.66.1-6.

5The finding of this small hoard is connected directly with the Macedonian movements to help the Peloponnesian towns, above all Aigion, at the beginning of the Diadochoi period4. Moreover, the findspot is very close to an ancient main road, which joined the coastal area level with Aigion with Achaean continental towns such as Leontion, and then with Kynaitha, Lousoi and other Arcadian towns. This road also had a military function; it went through the lower town of Trapeza and, therefore, was used by the Macedonian army in Aigion in 313/314 BC. The ancient Greek sources inform us that Kassandros established a garrison in Aigion, which had been involved in the dispute between him and Antigonos Gonatas. The latter soon sent his general, Aristodemos, to relieve Aigion from the presence of Kassandros’ guards, but instead his soldiers sacked the city, killing a large number of its inhabitants, according to Diodorus5. At the beginning of the 3rd century BC the Macedonian guards were driven away from Aigion, which shortly afterwards joined the second Achaean League (276/275 BC) and became its seat once more.

6Therefore, the find of the numismatic hoard at Trapeza cannot be explained unless the presence of the Macedonian hoplites, in an area that was probably the seat of their garrison, within the territory of Aigion and close to the main communication route, is taken into consideration.

The coins

7The small hoard of 10 bronze coins, of which 5 belong to the Kassandros and 5 to the Antigonos Gonatas issues (277/276–239 BC), was found under circumstances which are well known. As a result they seem worthy of consideration and study, as many other similar hoards are known to have come from the Greek mainland in the same period, which saw bronze issues from both Kassandros and Antigonos Gonatas, and other authorities. The coins are as follows (fig. 3):

  1. Chalkous of Antigonos Gonatas, 277/276–239 BC. AE, 6h, D 19 mm, w. 5 g. ΑΜΑ, no. AN 59. Obv. Head of Heracles in lionskin r. Rev. [Β - Α] Rider on horse walking, r.; he is raising r. hand in salute and holding reins in l. Notes-Bibliography: The coin is worn. Under the horse no monogram or other symbol is visible. For the coin see SNG Alpha Bank, no. 996. For the type see also SNG Copenhagen, nos 1214 and ff.
  2. Chalkous of Antigonos Gonatas, 277/276–239 BC. AE, 3h, D 18 mm, w. 5.5 g. ΑΜΑ, no. AN 60. Obv. Head of Heracles in lionskin r. Rev. Rider on horse walking, r.; he is raising r. hand in salute and holding reins in l. Notes-Bibliography: The coin is worn. Under the horse no monogram or other symbol is visible. For the coin see SNG Alpha Bank, nos 995-996. For the type see also SNG Copenhagen, nos. 1214 and ff.
  3. Chalkous of Antigonos Gonatas, 277/276–239 BC. AE, 3h, D 18 mm, w. 5.5 g. ΑΜΑ, no. AN 61. Obv. Head of Heracles in lionskin r. Rev. Rider on horse walking, r.; he is raising r. hand in salute and holding reins in l.; under horse (between legs) double axe. Notes-Bibliography: The coin is worn. For the coin see SNG Alpha Bank, nos. 995-996 but without the symbol. For the type see also SNG Copenhagen, nos. 1214 and ff.
  4. Chalkous of Antigonos Gonatas, 277/276–239 BC. AE, 4h, D 19 mm, w. 5.4 g. ΑΜΑ, no. AN 62. Obv. Head of Heracles in lionskin r. Rev. Rider on horse walking, r.; he is raising r. hand in salute and holding reins in l. Notes-Bibliography: The coin is worn. Under the horse no monogram or other symbol is visible. For the coin see SNG Alpha Bank, nos. 995-996. For the type see also SNG Copenhagen, nos. 1214 and ff.
  5. Chalkous of Kassandros, 316–297 BC. AE, 7h, D 20 mm, w. 7 g. ΑΜΑ, no. AN 63. Obv. Head of Heracles in lionskin r. Rev. Rider on horse walking, r.; he is raising r. hand in salute and holding reins in l.; under the horse AI. On the r. of the field a star; between horse’s forelegs [ΚΑΣΣΑΝΔΡΟ]Υ. Notes-Bibliography: The coin is worn, especially on the obverse. On the reverse are traces of a circle of dots. For the coin see SNG Alpha Bank, nos. 900-901. For the type see also SNG Copenhagen, nos. 1214 and ff.
  6. Chalkous of Antigonos Gonatas, 277/276–239 BC. AE, –h, D 19 mm, w. 5.3 g. ΑΜΑ, no. AN 64. Obv. Illegible. Rev. Rider on horse walking, r.; he is raising r. hand in salute and holding reins in l.; under the horse an indistinct symbol; in front the letter N (?). Notes-Bibliography: The coin is worn, especially on the obverse. For the coin see SNG Alpha Bank, nos. 992-993. For the type see also SNG Copenhagen, nos. 1214 and ff.
  7. Chalkous of Kassandros, c. 306–297 BC. AE, 6h, D 20 mm, w. 6.2 g. ΑΜΑ, no. AN 65. Obv. Head of Heracles in lionskin r. Rev. Rider on horse walking, r.; he is raising r. hand in salute and holding reins in l. Notes-Bibliography: the coin is worn, especially on the reverse. For the type see SNG Copenhagen, nos. 1147 and ff.
  8. Chalkous of Kassandros, c. 306–297 BC. AE, 3h, D 18 mm, w. 6.7 g. ΑΜΑ, no. AN 66. Obv. Head of Heracles in lion’s skin r. Rev. [ΚΑΣΣΑΝΔΡΟΥ] Rider on horse walking, r.; he is raising r. hand in salute and holding reins in l.; no symbol or monograms are visible. Notes-Bibliography: The coin is worn, especially on the reverse. For the type see SNG Copenhagen, nos. 1147 and ff.
  9. Chalkous of Kassandros (?). AE, –h, D 20 mm, w. 5.6 g. ΑΜΑ, no. AN 67. Obv. Illegible. Rev. Rider on horse walking, r.; he is raising r. hand in salute and holding reins in l.; no symbols or monograms are visible. Notes-Bibliography: The coin is very worn. For the type see SNG Copenhagen, nos. 1147 and ff.
  10. Chalkous of Kassandros (?). AE, 9h, D 21 mm, w. 5.5 g. ΑΜΑ, no. AN 68. Obv. Head of Heracles in lion’s skin r. Rev. Rider on horse walking, r.; he is raising r. hand in salute and holding reins in l.; no symbol or monograms are visible. Notes-Bibliography: The coin is very worn. For the type see SNG Copenhagen, nos. 1147 and ff.
  • 6 J. J. Gabbert, Antigonus II Gonatas. A Political Biography (1997), pp. 45-53; see also W. Tarn, Ant (...)
  • 7 B. D. Poulios, “Contribution to the Study of the Bronze Coinage of the Antigonids, from Gonatas to (...)
  • 8 For a summary of the state of the problem see S. Psoma, Olynthe et les Chalcidiens de Trace. Études (...)
  • 9 Ps. Arist., Econ. 2.1.350a, 23-29, 23 a.
  • 10 B. D. Poulios (n. 7), p. 279.
  • 11 Cf. E. Kosmidou, “Excavation Coins. Greek Coins from the Eastern Cemetery of Amphipolis”, NC 166 (2 (...)
  • 12 IGCH 159 = P. R. Franke, “Zur Geschichte des Antigonos Gonatas und der Oitaioi. Ein Schatzfund grie (...)
  • 13 E. Kosmidou (n. 11), p. 428.
  • 14 CH 10, 76 = B. D. Poulios (n. 7), pp. 239-241.
  • 15 J. H. Kroll, The Athenian Agora XXVI. The Greek Coins (1993), p. 189.
  • 16 O. Mørkholm, “The Attic Coin Standard in the Levant during the Hellenistic Period”, in S. Scheers ( (...)

8The period to which this hoard is dated is identified with the trouble that followed the Chremonidean war6, and from a numismatic point of view the coins reveal a considerable stylistic homogeneity with the Kassandros Herakles/Horseman series and, for the Antinogos Gonatas specimens, it is possible to attribute them to the third period (267/6–262/1 BC) of Poulios classification7. None of these coins bear countermarks or graffiti and some of them are very worn, which suggests long circulation. They are chalkoi or better tetartemoria of the “Attic” system, which was in use in Macedonia,8 and we know from ancient sources of the use of bronze coins for soldiers’ payments.9 Now, new research on the Antigonos Gonatas bronze coinage states that the average weight of the Herakles/Horseman series is about 4.55 g, but although the number of coins available in our hoard is not large, nevertheless a frequency table of the weights shows an average weight of 5.77 g, which is a little higher than the presumed standard of c. 5/6 g for the late 4th-century bronze coins of Macedonia10 and is generally consistent with other 3rd-century hoards of Macedonian coins11. For example, the average weight for the Phayttos hoard12 of 50 coins, of which 4 are AE of Antigonos, is 6.43 g, while the average weight of the bronze coins found in Amphipolis is 4.97 g for 6 coins13; in the Drama hoard it is 4.32 g for 11 coins14 and in Athens it is 4.00 g for 19 coins15. From these considerations we can suggest a reduced standard in 3rd-century Macedonian coin production, just as Mørkholm noted, for the silver, a reduction in the Attic standard in the east in the 3rd century16.

Fig. 3. Bronze hoard of Antigonos Gonatas (1-10).

  • 17 J. H. Kroll (n. 15), p. 36.
  • 18 Ibid., p. 190.
  • 19 J. J. Gabbert (n. 6), pp. 45-53.
  • 20 P. R. Franke (n. 12), p. 60.

9Particularly noteworthy in our hoard is the fact that all these bronze coins, like those in the Phayttos hoard found in 1957 and in the Karditsa hoard, are of Poulios’ type III, which must have circulated widely in Athens17 and in Boeotia, where they were overstruck18, and in the Peloponnese after the Chremonidean war. Since the terminus post quem for group III types of the Herakles/Horseman series has been plausibly put at 267/6–262/1 BC by Poulios, and since few issues of Gonatas from after the Chremonidean war (262 BC) have been found in the Peloponnese region19, our hoard may have been interred between c. 262 and 260 BC. The good condition of the Antigonos coins of our hoard supports such a chronology. So the date of deposit should be the same as for the Phayttos hoard20.

  • 21 The western evidence, restricted to burials and single finds, has been deliberately left aside (fou (...)

10Now, if we look at the several hoards with bronze coins of Antigonos found in Greece and in Levant21 we have the following series, in roughly chronological order:

  • CH 10, 63: Amphipolis tomb 45, 293–277 BC, 12 bronze specimens (5 of Kassandros; 1 of Antigonos Gonatas; 6 of Demetrios Poliorketes/Antigonos Gonatas).
  • CH 10, 74: Vergina, Macedonia, 274/3 BC, 1 AR, 22 AE (15 bronze specimens of Antigonos Gonatas).
  • CH 10, 75: Makriyalos, Pieria, 274/3 BC, 1 AR, 39 AE (10 bronze specimens of Antigonos Gonatas).
  • CH 10, 76: Drama, Greece, 260–239 BC, 19 AE (14 bronze specimens of Antigonos Gonatas).
  • CH 10, 77: Ophrynio, Greece, 260–239 BC, 107 AE (93 bronze specimens of Antigonos Gonatas).
  • CH 10, 78: Rhodolivos, Greece, 260–239 BC, 13 bronze specimens (1 of Antigonos Gonatas) .
  • CH 10, 79: Nea Phyle, Greece, 260–239 BC, 13 bronze specimens of Antigonos Gonatas.
  • IGCH 159: Phayttus, near Tricca, Thessaly, 264 BC (4 bronze specimens of Antigonos Gonatas).
  • IGCH 162: Karditsa (Palaiokastro), Thessaly, 250 BC (1 bronze specimen of Antigonos Gonatas).
  • IGCH 168: Neighbourhood of Larissa, Thessaly, after 250 BC, silver coins.
  • IGCH 455: Pergi, near Serres, Macedonia, 250–230 BC, silver coins.
  • IGCH 456: Metalla, 15km from Serres, Macedonia, mid. 3rd century BC or later, 207 bronze specimens (1 of Antigonos Gonatas).
  • IGCH 175: Eretria, Euboea, 235 BC, silver coins.
  • IGCH 179: Sophikon, north of Epidaurus, Argolis, 230/20 BC, silver coins.
  • CH 10, 272: Levant?, 225–224 BC, 6500 silver coins.
  • IGCH 1299: Lydia, 220–221 BC, silver coins.
  • IGCH 1301: Lydia, 220–221 BC, silver coins.
  • IGCH 1302: Lydia, 220–221 BC, silver coins.
  • IGCH 1405: Lydia, 220–221 BC, silver coins.
  • IGCH 1406: Lydia, 220–221 BC, silver coins.
  • IGCH 1410: Lydia, 220–221 BC, silver coins.
  • IGCH 1411: Lydia, 220–221 BC, silver coins.
  • IGCH 1426: Lydia, 220–221 BC, silver coins.
  • IGCH 1528: Lydia, 220–221 BC, silver coins.
  • IGCH 1562: Lydia, 220–221 BC, silver coins.
  • IGCH 184: Kato Kleitoria, near Tripolis, Arcadia, 220 BC, 14 bronze specimens (1 of Antigonos Gonatas).
  • CH 10, 98: Nea Zichne, Greece, 219-218 BC, 42 AE (40 bronze specimens of Antigonos Gonatas).
  • IGCH 187: Corinth environs, 215 BC, silver coins.
  • IGCH 2230: Sicily, 215–212 BC, silver coins.
  • IGCH 2232: Sicily, 212 BC, silver coins.
  • IGCH 208: Aetolia?, end of the 3rd century BC, 11 bronze specimens (2 of Antigonos Gonatas).
  • IGCH 1533: Syria, 210 BC, silver coins.
  • IGCH 214: Makrokomi, W of Lamia, Thessaly, late 3rd century – early 2nd century BC, 13 bronze specimens (2 of Antigonos Gonatas).
  • IGCH 469: Macedonia?, 200–180 BC, silver coins.
  • IGCH 1701: Egypt, 200–180 BC, silver coins.
  • CH 10, 469: Spain, 200 BC, hundreds of silver coins.
  • CH 10, 288: Levant?, 194/195 BC, 90 silver coins.
  • IGCH 1539: Cyrrhestica, 190 BC, silver coins.
  • IGCH 1772: Mesopotamia, 185–160 BC, silver coins.
  • IGCH 473: Grammenitsa, near Drama, Macedonia, 175–165 BC, 12 bronze specimens (1 of Antigonos Gonatas).
  • IGCH 237: Sitochoro, near Pharsalus, Thessaly, 168 BC, silver coins.
  • CH 10, 119: Amphissa, 167 BC, 1 AV, 12 AR, 975 AE (2 bronze specimens of Antigonos Gonatas).
  • IGCH 263: Corinth, c. 146 BC, 16 bronze specimens (1 of Antigonos Gonatas).
  • IGCH 483: Philippi environs, Macedonia, c. 140 BC, 25 bronze specimens (1 of Antigonos Gonatas).
  • CH 10, 105: Amphipolis, E. Cemetery tomb, 2nd century BC, 13 AE, 3 bronze specimens (1 of Antigonos Gonatas).
  • CH 10, 107: Psélalonia I, first quarter of 2nd century BC, 1 AR, 56 AE (14 bronze specimens of Antigonos Gonatas).
  • CH 10, 187: Bulgaria, late 1st century BC, 145 AE (1 bronze specimen of Antigonos Gonatas).
  • 22 K. Grinder-Hansen, “Charon’s Fee in Ancient Greece? Some Remarks on a Well-Known Death Rite”, ActaH (...)
  • 23 P. Launey, Recherches sur les armées hellénistiques I (1949), p. 56; II (1950), pp. 758-759; K. Lia (...)
  • 24 G. Gorini, M. Asolati (eds), I ritrovamenti monetali e i processi inflativi nel mondo antico e medi (...)
  • 25 For the annual pay of mercenaries, cf. Fr. de Callataÿ, L’histoire des guerres mithridatiques vue p (...)

11What is remarkable in this conspectus is the presence of many hoards with 10/15 bronze coins, which are linked with military garrisons all over Greece, and this is particularly the case for Aigion in the Peloponnese. Normally these coins were found in burials in a necropolis22, and not in ancient buildings, so it is possible to assume a connection with the normal life of a garrison. We know that in the Hellenistic period the soldiers and also the mercenaries were paid with bronze fractional coins, which probably served as provision money (siteresion or sitarchia)23. So we can conclude that these are the poor savings of a soldier of Gonatas. In fact, inflation in the 3rd century BC was not very high24, and 10 tetartemoria may have been two and half obols in silver25; it makes sense that many soldiers would have stored their savings in this way.

Notes

1 On the region’s topography, the ancient road and the new archaeological research, see: A.G. Vordos, “Τοπογραφικά δεδομένα μετά από επιφανειακή έρευνα στον αρχαιολογικό χώρο Τραπεζάς Αιγίου”, in Α΄ Αρχαιολογική Σύνοδος Νότιας και Δυτικής Ελλάδος (2006), pp. 61-72; id., “Τραπεζά Αιγίου. Επιφανειακή έρευνα του αρχαιολογικού χώρου, τα πρώτα συμπεράσματα”, in V. Mitsopoulos-Leon (ed.), Forschungen in der Peloponnes, Akten des Symposions anlasslich der Feier “100 Jahre Osterreichisches Archaologisches Institut Athen” (2001), pp. 47-54; id., “Rhypes: À la recherche de la métropole achéenne”, in E. Greco (ed.), Gli Achei e l’identità etnica degli Achei d’Occidente, Atti del Convegno Internazionale di Studi (2002), pp. 217-234; id., “Ο ναός στην Τραπεζά Αιγίου”, ΑΑΑ 32-34 (1999-2001), pp. 149-160; id., “Ο ναός στην Τραπεζά Αιγίου. Δεδομένα της πρώτης ανασκαφικής περιόδου 2007”, in Neue Forschungen zur Architektur in Heiligtümer der Nordwest-Peloponnes (forthcoming).

2 A. G. Vordos, AD (2010), Χρονικά, Β´ 1β, pp. 907-910.

3 For the rescue excavation of the “lower town”, see A. G. Vordos, “Συστηματική ανασκαφή Τραπεζάς”, AD (2006), Χρονικά, Β´ 1, p. 451; AD (2010), Χρονικά, Β´ 1β, pp. 907-910.

4 A. D. Rizakis, Achaïe III. Les cites achéennes: Épigraphie et histoire (2008), pp. 160-162.

5 Diod. 19.66.1-6.

6 J. J. Gabbert, Antigonus II Gonatas. A Political Biography (1997), pp. 45-53; see also W. Tarn, Antigonos Gonatas (19692), pp. 160 ff.

7 B. D. Poulios, “Contribution to the Study of the Bronze Coinage of the Antigonids, from Gonatas to the Early Years of Philip V”, AD 56 (2001) [2006], pp. 237-295.

8 For a summary of the state of the problem see S. Psoma, Olynthe et les Chalcidiens de Trace. Études de numismatique et d’histoire (2001), p. 137, n. 264.

9 Ps. Arist., Econ. 2.1.350a, 23-29, 23 a.

10 B. D. Poulios (n. 7), p. 279.

11 Cf. E. Kosmidou, “Excavation Coins. Greek Coins from the Eastern Cemetery of Amphipolis”, NC 166 (2006), pp. 415-431; B. D. Poulios (n. 7), pp. 237-296.

12 IGCH 159 = P. R. Franke, “Zur Geschichte des Antigonos Gonatas und der Oitaioi. Ein Schatzfund griechischer Münzen von Phayttos”, JDAI 73 (1958) [1959], coll. 38-62.

13 E. Kosmidou (n. 11), p. 428.

14 CH 10, 76 = B. D. Poulios (n. 7), pp. 239-241.

15 J. H. Kroll, The Athenian Agora XXVI. The Greek Coins (1993), p. 189.

16 O. Mørkholm, “The Attic Coin Standard in the Levant during the Hellenistic Period”, in S. Scheers (ed.), Studia Paulo Naster olbata I. Numismatica antiqua (1982), pp. 139-149.

17 J. H. Kroll (n. 15), p. 36.

18 Ibid., p. 190.

19 J. J. Gabbert (n. 6), pp. 45-53.

20 P. R. Franke (n. 12), p. 60.

21 The western evidence, restricted to burials and single finds, has been deliberately left aside (four coins of Antigonos found in North Italy and on the shores of the Adriatic, for which cf. G. Gorini, “La presenza greca in Italia settentrionale: la documentazione numismatica”, in F. Chaves Tristán [ed.], Griegos en Occidente [1992], p. 101; two coins in a grave in Magna Graecia, see finally V. G. Camilleri, P. D’Angela, “Presenze e circolazione monetaria”, in Atti del 3° Congresso Nazionale di Numismatica [2011], p. 233).

22 K. Grinder-Hansen, “Charon’s Fee in Ancient Greece? Some Remarks on a Well-Known Death Rite”, ActaHyp 3 (1991), pp. 207-218.

23 P. Launey, Recherches sur les armées hellénistiques I (1949), p. 56; II (1950), pp. 758-759; K. Liampi, “The Circulation of Bronze Macedonian Royal Coins in Thessaly”, in C. C. Mattusch, A. Brauer, S. E. Knudsen (eds), From the Parts to the Whole. Acta of the 13th International Bronze Congress held at Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1996 (2000), p. 225; A. E. Furtwängler, “Beobachtung zur Chronologie Antigonidischer Kupfermünzen im 3. Jh. v. Chr.”, in Coins in the Thessalian Region (2004), p. 277, n. 2. On the forms of military pay, G. T. Griffith, The Mercenaries of the Hellenistic World (1935), pp. 264-294, is always helpful.

24 G. Gorini, M. Asolati (eds), I ritrovamenti monetali e i processi inflativi nel mondo antico e medievale: atti del IV Congresso internazionale di numismatica e di storia monetaria, Padova, 12-13 ottobre 2007 (2008); see also L. Gallo, “Salari ed inflazione: Atene tra V e IV sec. a. C.”, ASNP s. III, 17/1 (1987), pp. 19-63; W. T. Loomis, Wages, Welfare Cost and Inflation in Classical Athens (1998), esp. pp. 240-250.

25 For the annual pay of mercenaries, cf. Fr. de Callataÿ, L’histoire des guerres mithridatiques vue par les monnaies (1987), pp. 389-407.

Table des illustrations

Légende Fig. 1. Southern view of Trapeza plateau.
URL http://books.openedition.org/efa/docannexe/image/8007/img-1.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 65k
Légende Fig. 2. View of the excavations of the public buildings of the “lower town”, to the North of Trapeza.
URL http://books.openedition.org/efa/docannexe/image/8007/img-2.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 19k
Légende Fig. 3. Bronze hoard of Antigonos Gonatas (1-10).
URL http://books.openedition.org/efa/docannexe/image/8007/img-3.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 56k

Auteurs

Archaeologist, Ephorate of Antiquities of Achaia, ex ΣΤ´ ΕΠΚΑ (Patras).

Professor of numismatics, University of Padova (Italy).

© École française d’Athènes, 2018

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