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Dossier : Des vases pour les Athéniens

Dossier : Des vases pour les Athéniens (vie-ive siècles avant notre ère)

Plastic vases related to Eleusinian cult from the Athenian Kerameikos

Jutta Stroszeck

Résumé

Cet article présente trois vases plastiques trouvés à Athènes, au départ de la voie Sacrée en direction d’Éleusis. Deux d’entre eux et une statuette de terre cuite sont issus du même moule. Ils représentent un jeune homme assis qui tient d’une main un porcelet par une patte arrière. La figure est certainement celle d’un initié et représente le plus probablement un initié issu du foyer (Παῖς ἀφ’ἑστίας μυηθείς). On se propose ici de démontrer que les figurines proviennent d’un atelier situé à proximité de la voie Sacrée et travaillant pour la clientèle qui l’emprunte : voyageurs, participants à une procession ou même à des funérailles.

Texte intégral

  • 1 Isler-Kerényi 2009, p. 16. – I am grateful to Christina Mitsopoulou for valuable help and to Marie- (...)

Vases found on a specific site can tell us about the history and the social reality of a place”.1

THE KERAMEIKOS2

  • 2 Unless stated explicitely, by “Kerameikos” I mean the visible archaeological park.
  • 3 Costaki 2006, p. 455-459; Ficuciello 2008.

1The streets on both sides of the river Eridanos are a distinctive feature of the Kerameikos excavation site. The Sacred Street, connecting Athens and Eleusis, as well as the Kerameikos street leading from the Agora to the Academy, both played an important role in Athenian cult rituals: they were used for processions that the Athenians performed regularly and as the setting for ritual contests.3 In this presentation, I will concentrate on one case of potters production related to these activities.

Potters in the Kerameikos

2Part of the Kerameikos area belonged to the Demos Kerameis or Kerameon, the potter’s district of Athens, during the Classical period. Since the beginning of the excavations, it was a scope to investigate the potter’s production on the site. But until today, an overview over the kinds of pottery produced here is missing.

3The potters established their workshops in the area between the rivers Eridanos and Kephissos because of the benevolent conditions provided by the abundance of water, the natural deposits of clay here and maybe also because their kilns were best situated outside the inhabited area of the ἄστυ to avoid the risk of fire. In addition, a major advantage for their business was the position of their workshops along the main trade routes leading to the Peloponnesus and towards the harbours of Athens.

  • 4 Monaco 2000, p. 70-80.
  • 5 Monaco 2000, p. 70-80, 206-211 no. C pl. 24-36; Hasaki 2002, p. 82, 152, 153, 156, 233, 266, 271, 3 (...)

4The production of pottery on a site is best declared by potter’s kilns and workshops, but on the other hand, various artefacts, such as production tools or production waste also indicate workshop activities. Around the kilns and workshops, usually a lot of this kind of pottery is found. The first potter’s workshop we know of in the Kerameikos area was a large site along the south western border of the Academy street, today immediately north of the Aghia Triada church.4 Production during the fourth century continued in the area south of the burial of the Lacedaimonians and the bathhouse in front of the Dipylon. Another large workshop was situated on the hill below the Kerameikos Museum, it was active in the late fourth and early third century BC. In the Early Roman period, a workshop was built within the ruins of the Pompeion courtyard, and from the last third of the 3rd until the sixth century AD, numerous kilns and workshops continuously produced clay lamps, pots and terracotta statuettes on the site, mainly within the city walls. Both Maria Chiara Monaco and Eleni Hasaki gave overviews of workshops in the Kerameikos.5

Kind of production on the site

5Red-figure pottery found in the Kerameikos is only occasionally production waste, a few misfired pieces and try pieces may represent scanty evidence for the activities of such production on the very site or nearby. Therefore, we can assume that the main centers of this production were not situated on the site itself, but somewhere close by as well as at a greater distance from the city, within the Demos Kerameon.

  • 6 Cf. the vases and plastic vases in the form of sea shells signed by Phintias as a potter and his si (...)

6A characteristic feature of the diachronic Kerameikos area production is the cooperation between potters and koroplasts.6 Proof for this can be found from the classical to late Roman-Early Christian period. As an example for this, I will briefly treat a small group of Athenian figure vases here, because they relate to the topic of the conference, the production in the Kerameikos area for local use. Although it may not be possible to identify product groups that do not occur in non-Athenian contexts at all, this specific local product is only attested in Athens until today.

PROCESSIONS TO THE ELEUSINIAN MYSTERIES AND RELATED POTTERY

  • 7 Graf 2000.

7The Sacred Street passes the homonymous gate in the Kerameikos site and it continues immediately along the southwest bank of the river Eridanos. It connected Athens with the mysteries’sanctuary and the ancient settlement of Eleusis. On the street, on several occasions during the year, processions took place. Most important of all was the yearly procession from Athens to the sanctuary of Eleusis on the 19th Boedromion, performed by all initiated citizens including women and even slaves.7 These processions were integral part of the cult of the Eleusinian mysteries. At least two main categories of pots can be related to these activities:

Eleusinian kernoi

  • 8 Mitsopoulou 2010, p. 145-178.
  • 9 Athens, National Archaeological Museum, inv. 11036 discovered in Eleusis in 1895 (ca. 370 BC). Mits (...)

8The Eleusinian kernoi were used during the processions to Eleusis: In these vessels, the participants kept the wheat mixture (κυκεών) they were eating at the end of the long walk to the sanctuary at Eleusis.8 The kernoi were carried on the head as represented on the Ninnion tablet in the National Archaeological Museum in Athens.9

  • 10 Orfanou 2000, p. 382.
  • 11 Knigge 2005, p. 190 nos. 594. 595 and p. 193 no. 622 pl. 114; p. 201 no. 701 pl. 121; p. 212 no. 81 (...)
  • 12 Willemsen 1977, p. 137 pl. 57,1. – The kernoi from the Kerameikos site are currently under publicat (...)

9A workshop for these kernoi has been excavated during the Metro works just outside the Kerameikos site, to the southwest of the Sacred Street.10 The debris of this and maybe also other workshops have been scattered around in the whole area. In particular, kernos fragments have been found in the layers around the Sacred Street, while several complete specimens were found in the Bau Z building behind the Sacred Gate11 and in a building along the southwestern border of the Kerameikos street.12

Figure vases with the representation of a youth holding a piglet

  • 13 Trumpf-Lyritzaki 1969, p. 106, 125.
  • 14 Trumpf-Lyritzaki 1969, p. 124 sq. – According to a recent proposal, one group of figure vases, for (...)

10Figure vases have been found both in graves and in sanctuaries in Athens and Attica, as well as in the northern Black Sea region.13 Therefore, for these and for certain groups of plastic vases in general, a function in cult, especially in chthonic cult, has been assumed.14

  • 15 Trumpf-Lyritzaki 1969 passim. Large collections of attic pieces are kept in the Louvre, in the Brit (...)

11Production of plastic vases on or very close to the excavation site is indicated by a relatively large number of pieces that have been found in the Kerameikos, almost exclusively along the Sacred Street (approximately 70 pieces so far). Among these, some are taken from the same mould, while others show clear signs of overfiring that characterizes them as misfired potter’s debris. Active in the first half of the fourth century BC, the workshop produced mainly small lekythoi, oinochoai jugs, but also rhyta or kantharoi.15

12Two small figure vessels (complete height approximately 12-15 cm) dated to the early fourth century by Maria Trumpf-Lyritzaki, can be connected with Eleusinian cult (cat. no. 1.2, fig. 1. 2): they show the figure of a naked and winged youth with a mantle draped around his back, more leaning than sitting relaxedly on a rock. With his left hand he holds the border of a mantle over his left thigh in a puff, while in his lowered right hand, he carries a piglet head down, grasping the hind leg of the animal. While the figure in both cases is taken out of the same mould, the vessels differ in shape: In cat. no. 2 (fig. 2), the body of the vessel in part is constituted by the body of the youth. The rest of the vertical handle on the back of the figure-vase had originally been unevenly covered by a vertical brush of black glaze, as it is characteristic for the whole group. In contrary, the body of the youth in cat. no. 1 (fig. 1, 1.4) is a solid statuette. Below the feet of the youth, the rest of a wheel-thrown base is preserved. The vase container was reduced to a small neck and mouth behind the head of the youth, both missing today.

13A fragment of a misfired juglet from another, probably standing figure, taken from a different mould, preserves the upper half of the body of a youth with the head sporting long curly locks adorned by a fillet covering part of the curls (cat. no. 4, fig. 4). All three pieces were originally provided with wings that are broken away. Finally, there is a third copy taken from the same mould as cat. nos. 1 and 2, but instead of a plastic vase, it is a plain terracotta statuette (cat. no. 3, fig. 3).

  • 16 . Trumpf-Lyritzaki 1969, p. 129 sq.
  • 17 . Trumpf-Lyritzaki 1969, p. 137 sq.
  • 18 . Cf. Thomsen 2011.

14On first sight, winged, naked youths like the ones on our figure vases (cat. 1, 2 figs. 1.2), with curly long hair look much like Erotes. There are several Athenian figure vases representing Eros during an offering of liquids or incense.16 But within the group, wings are not restricted to the representations of Eros. For instance, also children playing ball or the boys in abduction scenes or dionysiac dancers were equipped with wings. The wings, therefore, have been explained as being merely decorative, or they were seen as concealing device for the roughly worked backside of the figures. But more likely is the explanation given by Trumpf-Lyritzaki:17 the wings bestow on the figure a supernatural atmosphere, or they may even characterize the figures as god-like beings.18

  • 19 . Scholion Aristophanes, ad Pac. 374, 5.
  • 20 . The rites were carried out on the second day of the yearly festival in autumn near the sea at Pha (...)

15The connection to Eleusis is established by the piglet (χοιρίδιον19) the youth holds. The piglet was the main sacrifice animal used as an offering to the deities at Eleusis. During the purgatory rites in preparation for the participation in the cult at Eleusis,20 a piglet was carried to the sea (near Phaleron, at the Kantharos harbour or at the Rheitoi salt lake) on the 16th of the month Boedromion. Participants in the mysteries washed themselves there and they also cleaned the piglet in the water. It was to be sacrificed later, after their return to Athens. Obviously, the figures cat. 1. 2. and 3 (figs. 1-3) are representations of a young initiate preparing such an offering.

ICONOGRAPHY

  • 21 Cf. Clinton 1974, p. 98-114. – Marble statuettes: Eleusis, Museum: Furtwängler 1895, p. 357-359 fig (...)
  • 22 The finest representation is on the gilded hydria called “Regina vasorum” in the St. Petersburg Her (...)
  • 23 Kroll 1993, p. 95 no. 116.

16The boy carrying a piglet is reminiscent of an iconographic type21 that is represented by late Classical and Hellenistic marble statuettes found in Eleusis (figs. 6-7), in Roman versions from Rome (figs. 8-9), in classical and hellenistic terracotta figurines (figs. 1. 2. 3. 5) and on relief vases.22 The boy also occurs again on so-called Eleusinian festival coins from 86 BC.23 This youth wears a mantle draped around the lower body and carries a bakchos (a stick made out of myrtle leaves, bound together as symbol of the μύστης) in one hand, while in the other he holds the piglet, symbol of the purgatory rites performed in Eleusinian cult.

  • 24 Berlin, Antikensammlungen inv. 8293. – Furtwängler 1892, p. 106 no. 19; Trumpf-Lyritzaki 1969, p. 1 (...)
  • 25 Fröhner 1891, no. 462, pl. 40. H: 11, 4. – Trumpf-Lyritzaki 1969, p. 17 note 65.

17Two figure vases show this second type, but both are lost today (fig. 5): One has initially been initially interpreted as Eubuleus. It is an attic lekythos-statuette said to have come from Tanagra, formerly in the Piot collection.24 A standing youth wears a mantle around the hips and over the left shoulder. In his lowered right hand, he holds the right hind-leg of a piglet, while his left hand holds the bakchos, symbol of the participant in Eleusinian cult. He has long, curly hair, crowned by a kind of polos and a wreath, much like cat. no. 4 (fig. 4). On both sides there are three added rosettes. A more fragmentary, second lekythos that reproduced this statue has been kept in the Gréau collection, showing the youth without a wreath25, it is said to have come from Cyprus. As our pieces, both can be dated to the 4th century BC.

  • 26 Clinton 1974, p. 98-114; Esdale 1909, p. 2-3; Bianchi 1976, p. 27 no. 43-46.

18This iconographic type has been identified as “Παῖς ἀφἑστίας μυηθείς” as mentioned in inscriptions from Eleusis from the 5th century BC to the Roman Imperial period26. Most likely, the type characterizes boys from noble Eupatrid Athenian families who were yearly selected to represent the other mystai in performing purgatory rites. In preparation to that, they were initiated at the hearth of Hestia (in the Prytaneion on the Agora). After they had fulfilled their duties, their proud parents sometimes dedicated statuettes in commemoration of this honour.

19It will not be coincidence, that our plastic vases and the figurine (cat. no. 1-3 fig. 1-3) representing a youth with a piglet, but without the bakchos, were found close to the fork of the Sacred Way and the street leading to the harbours. They seem to be products of a workshop in the vicinity that had adjusted part of its production to the needs of the immediate neighbourhood, just like the kernoi. Due to their findspots, it seems that both the plastic vases and the statuette were produced for the use of the passers-by: initiates, participants in processions or participants in funeral corteges along the streets. Thus, the locally produced small objects might have been dedications, souvenirs of the participation in Eleusinian cult or grave gifts.

CATALOGUE

20Cat. no. 1.

21Kerameikos, inv. no. T 496. Fragment of a small jug with plastic decoration; Seated youth with piglet.

22Exact findspot unknown.

23H: 10,1 cm; Clay: ochre, mica. (Munsell 7, 5 YR 6/4).

24Fragment of a massive figure of a winged youth with long curly hair. The head is missing. The youth sits on a rock, he wears a cloak covering his back. With his left hand he grasps the border of the cloak on his left thigh. In the lowered right hand he holds a piglet at the hind legs. On the backside there is a vertical stretch of black glaze that also covers the backside of the wings. Between the wings, the rest of the attached handle is preserved. The round base is wheel-thrown, the vase had only a small neck and mouth.

25Lit.: Trumpf-Lyritzaki 1969, 28 sq. no. 75.

26Cat. no. 2.

27Kerameikos, inv. no. T 497. Fragment of a small jug with plastic decoration; Seated youth with piglet.

28Found on the 24.4.1910 near grave precinct XX on the north side of the “street of the tombs”.

29H: 8,8 cm; Clay: ochre, mica. (Munsell 7,5 YR 6/4).

30Fragment of a juglet in the form of a winged youth with long, curly hair. The youth sits on a rock, he wears a cloak covering his back. With his left hand he grasps the border of the cloak on his left thigh. In the lowered right hand he holds the hind legs of a piglet. On the backside there is the rest of a vertical handle. The hollow body of the figure was used as the body of the vase. From the same mould as the previous piece.

31Lit.: Trumpf-Lyritzaki 1969, 29 no. 76.

32Cat. no. 3.

33Kerameikos, inv. no. T 498. Fragment of a terracotta statuette. Seated youth with piglet.

34Found in the Sacred Street in 1961/1962 in the fill of tomb HS 49 SK.

35H: 9,4 cm; Clay: ochre, mica. (Munsell 7,5 YR 6/4). Head, part of the arms and the feet are missing.

36Fragmentary statuette of a youth. The youth sits on a rock, wearing a cloak covering his back. With his left hand he grasps the border of the cloak on his left thigh. In the lowered right hand he holds the hind legs of a piglet. Back side closed and slightly rounded. No wings.

37From the same mould as the previous cat. nos.

38Lit.: Vierneisel-Schlörb 1997, 64 cat. 191 pl. 36, 3.4. – comp. Besques 1973, 625 note 35 pl. 188 fig. 18.

39Cat. no. 4.

40Kerameikos, inv. no. T 717. Fragment of a misfired small jug with plastic decoration; Seated youth with long curly hair.

41Found on the 25.10.1982 in sandy layer of the path near grave precinct IX on the corner terrace.

42H: 7 cm; Misfired, hard, dark brown clay (Munsell 7,5 YR 6/5-4).

43Fragment of a juglet representing a naked, winged youth with long curly hair. The head turned slightly to his left shoulder. Rest of white colour in the hair.

44Same type as the previous ones but from a different mould.

Fig. 1, 1-4: Cat. no. 1 Athens, Kerameikos, inv. T 496. Fragment of a plastic vase. Youth carrying a piglet (early 4th cent. BC). (Drawing R. Docsan)

Fig. 2, 1-3: Cat. no 2 Athens, Kerameikos, inv. T 497. Fragment of a plastic vase. Youth carrying a piglet (early 4th cent. BC). (Drawing R. Docsan)

Fig. 3, 1-3: Cat. no. 3 Athens, Kerameikos, inv. T 498. Terracotta figurine. Youth carrying a piglet (early 4th cent. BC). (Drawing R. Docsan)

45

Fig. 4, 1-3: Cat. no. 4 Athens, Kerameikos, inv. T 717. Fragment of a misfired plastic vase torso of a youth (early 4th cent. BC). (Drawing R. Docsan)

Fig. 5: Formerly Collection Piot. Plastic vase. Youth holding a piglet and the bakchos.
1. after
BIANCHI 1976, fig. 46 (the piglet has been interpreted as a hare)
2. after
FURTWÄNGLER 1892, p. 106 no. 19

Fig. 6: Eleusis, Museum inv. 5051. Fragment of a marble statue of a youth holding the bakchos and a piglet (4th cent. BC). (after LEVENTI 2010, p. 121, 136 fig. 12).

Fig. 7: Eleusis, Museum, inv. 5162. Fragment of a marble statue of a youth holding the bakchos and a piglet (late 4th – early 3rd cent. BC). (after LEVENTI 2010, p. 133 fig. 5)

Fig. 8: Rome, Palazzo dei Conservatori, inv. 1871. Marble statue of a youth, (27 BC – 14 AD). (after Bianchi 1976, fig. 44)
Fig. 9: Rome, Palazzo dei Conservatori, Marble statue of a youth holding a piglet (2nd cent. AD). (after
BIANCHI 1976, fig. 43)

46Credits for the figures

47Figs. 1,1; 2,1; 3,1; 4,1: Drawing R. Docsan;
fig. 5: after
Furtwängler 1892, p. 106 no. 19;
fig. 6: after L
eventi 2010, p. 121, 136 fig. 12;
fig. 7: after
Leventi 2010, p. 133 fig. 5;
fig. 8: after
Bianchi 1976, fig. 44;
fig. 9: after
Bianchi 1976, fig. 43;

48All other figs. Photo Jutta Stroszeck.

Bibliographie

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Ambrosini 2010: Laura Ambrosini, “Sui vasi plastici configurati a prua di nave (trireme) in ceramic argentata e a figure rosse”, MEFRA 122, 2010, p. 73-115.

Andrén 1948: Arvid Andrén, “Classical Antiquities in the Zorn Collection”, OpArch 5, 1948, p. 1-90, pl. 1-40.

Besques 1973: Simone Besques, « Le commerce des figurines en terre cuite au IVe siècle av. J. -C. entre les ateliers ioniens et l’Attique », in Proceedings of the Xth International Congress of Classical Archaeology 3, Ankara, 1973, p. 617-626, pl. 183-188.

Bianchi 1976: Ugo Bianchi, The Greek Mysteries, Leiden, 1976.

Blinkenberg 1931: Christian Blinkenberg, Lindos. Fouilles de l’acropole 1902-14, vol. 1. Les petits objets, Berlin, 1931.

Breitenstein 1941: Niels Breitenstein, Catalogue of Terracottas, Cypriot, Greek, Etrusco-Italian, and Roman, Danish National Museum, Copenhagen, 1941.

Clinton 1974: Kevin Clinton, The Sacred Officials of the Eleusinian Mysteries, Philadelphia, 1974 (Transactions of the American Philosophical Society 64).

Clinton 1992: Kevin Clinton, Myth and Cult. The Iconography of the Eleusinian Mysteries, Göteborg, 1992.

Cohen 2006: Beth Cohen, The Colors of Clay: Special Techniques in Athenian Vases, Los Angeles, 2006.

Costaki 2006: Leda Costaki, The intra muros road system of ancient Athens, Diss. Toronto, 2006.

Esdale 1909: Katharine Esdale, “ἀφἑστίας. Two statues of a boy celebrating the Eleusinian Mysteries”, JHS 29, 1909, p. 1-5, pl. 1.

Ficuciello 2008: Laura Ficuciello, Le strade di Atene, Athens-Paestum, 2008 (SATAA 4).

Frel 1984: Jirí Frel, “A view into Phintias’ Private Life”, in A. Houghton et alii (ed.), Festschrift für Leo Mildenberg, Wetteren, 1984, p. 57-60, fig. 8.9.

Fröhner 1891: Wilhelm Fröhner, Collection J. Gréau. Catalogue des terres cuites grecques, Paris, 1891.

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Furtwängler 1895: Adolf Furtwängler, “Eleusinische Skulpturen”, AM 20, 1895, p. 357-359.

Graf 2000: Fritz Graf, s. v. Mysteria, in Der Neue Pauly. Enzyklopädie der Antike, vol. 8, Stuttgart, 2000, p. 611-615.

Hasaki 2002: Eleni Hasaki, Ceramic Kilns in Ancient Greece: Technology and Organization of Ceramic Workshops, Diss. Cincinnati, 2002.

Higgins 1959: Reynold A. Higgins, Catalogue of the Terracottas in the Department of Greek and Roman Antiquities, British Museum II, London, 1959.

Isler-Kerényi 2009: Cornelia Isler-Kerényi, “The Study of Figured Pottery Today”, in Vinnie Nørskov, Lise Hannestad, Cornelia Isler-Kerényi, Sian Lewis (ed.), The world of Greek Vases, Roma, 2009, p. 13-21 (Analecta Romana Instituti Danici, 41).

Knigge 2005: Ursula Knigge, Der Bau Z, Kerameikos, München, 2005 (Ergebnisse der Ausgrabungen, 17).

Kourouniotis 1923: Κonstantinos Kourouniotis, Ἐλευσινιακά, ADelt 8, 1923, p. 155-174.

Kroll 1993: John H. Kroll, The Greek Coins, Princeton, 1993 (The Athenian Agora, 26).

Leventi 2010: Iphigeneia Leventi, «Η ελευσινιακή λατρεία στην περιφέρεια του Ελληνικού Κόσμου. Το αναθηματικό ανάγλυφο από το Παντικάπειο», in Leventi, Mitsopoulou 2010, p. 111-136.

Leventi, Mitsopoulou 2010: Iphigeneia Leventi, Christina Mitsopoulou (ed.), Sanctuaries and Cults of Demeter in the Ancient Greek World, Proceedings of a Scientific Symposium, University of Thessaly, Dept. of History, Archaeology and Social Anthropology, Volos, 4-5 June 2005, Volos, 2010.

Mitsopoulou 2010: Christina Mitsopoulou, «Des nouveaux Kernoi pour Kernos… Réévaluation et mise à jour de la recherche sur les vases de culte éleusiniens», Kernos 23, 2010, p. 145-178.

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Mylonas 1961: George E. Mylonas, Eleusis and the Eleusinian Mysteries, Princeton, 1961.

Orfanou 2000: Vassiliki Orfanou, “Κέρνοι”, in Liana Parlama, Nicholas C. Stampolidis (ed.), The City beneath the City. Antiquity from the Metropolitan Railway Excavations, cat. exp. Athens, Goulandris Foundation, Athens, 2000, p. 382.

Papangeli 2002: Kalliopi Papangeli, Ελευσίνα. Ο αρχαιολογικός χώρος και το Μουσείο, Athens, 2002.

Reeder-Williams 1978: Ellen Reeder-Williams, “Figurine Vases from the Athenian Agora”, Hesperia 47, 1978, p. 356-401, pl. 90-103.

Rubensohn 1899: Otto Rubensohn, “Eleusinische Beiträge”, AM 24, 1899, p. 46-71, pl. 7. 8.

Ruggeri 2013: Claudia Ruggeri, Die antiken Schriftzeugnisse über den Kerameikos von Athen, Teil 2. Das Dipylongebiet und der äußere Kerameikos, Wien, 2013 (Tyche Sonderband 5/2).

Ruggeri, Siewert, Steffelbauer 2007: Claudia Ruggeri, Peter Siewert, Ilja Steffelbauer (ed.), Die antiken Schriftzeugnisse über den Kerameikos von Athen Teil 1: Der innere Kerameikos, Wien, 2007 (Tyche Sonderband 5/1).

Stroszeck 2002: Jutta Stroszeck, “Spätklassische Töpferproduktion im Kerameikos”, in W. -D. Heilmeyer, M. Maischberger (ed.), Die griechische Klassik - Idee oder Wirklichkeit. Ausstellungskatalog, Berlin, 2002, p. 475-480.

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Tiverios 1997: Michalis Τiverios, “Eleusinian Iconography”, in Greek Offerings. Essays on Greek Art in Honour of J. Boardman, Oxford, 1997, p. 167-175.

Trumpf-Lyritzaki 1969: Maria Trumpf-Lyritzaki, Griechische Figurenvasen des reichen Stils und der späten Klassik, Bonn, 1969.

Vierneisel-Schlörb 1997: Barbara Vierneisel-Schlörb, Die figürlichen Terrakotten I. Spätmykenisch bis späthellenistisch, München, 1997 (Kerameikos 15).

von Steuben 1966: Hans von Steuben, in Wolfgang Helbig, Führer durch die öffentlichen Sammlungen klassischer Altertümer in Rom, vol. II, [Leipzig, 1891] réédition Tübingen, 1966.

Willemsen 1977: Franz Willemsen, “Zu den Lakedaimoniergräbern im Kerameikos”, AM 92, 1977, p. 117-157, pl. 51-70.

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Notes

1 Isler-Kerényi 2009, p. 16. – I am grateful to Christina Mitsopoulou for valuable help and to Marie-Christine Villanueva Puig for organizing the conference and for her patience. For a broader background concerning the treatment of the subject in more general terms: Clinton 1992; Leventi, Mitsopoulou 2010; Mylonas 1961; Ruggeri 2013; Ruggeri, Siewert, Steffelbauer 2007; Stroszeck 2002; Tiverios 1997.

2 Unless stated explicitely, by “Kerameikos” I mean the visible archaeological park.

3 Costaki 2006, p. 455-459; Ficuciello 2008.

4 Monaco 2000, p. 70-80.

5 Monaco 2000, p. 70-80, 206-211 no. C pl. 24-36; Hasaki 2002, p. 82, 152, 153, 156, 233, 266, 271, 343-344 no. 40-49; p. 418 no. 259-273 pl. II 5 a; V 15.

6 Cf. the vases and plastic vases in the form of sea shells signed by Phintias as a potter and his signatures as a painter: Frel 1984, p. 57-60, pl. 8. It is often assumed that these plastic vases reproduce metal prototypes. Ambrosini 2010, p. 91, 100 and in this volume, the contribution of V. Jeammet «Des vases plastiques pour les Athéniens du IVe siècle».

7 Graf 2000.

8 Mitsopoulou 2010, p. 145-178.

9 Athens, National Archaeological Museum, inv. 11036 discovered in Eleusis in 1895 (ca. 370 BC). Mitsopoulou 2010, p. 164 note 106; p. 165 fig. 6.

10 Orfanou 2000, p. 382.

11 Knigge 2005, p. 190 nos. 594. 595 and p. 193 no. 622 pl. 114; p. 201 no. 701 pl. 121; p. 212 no. 814; p. 222 no. 914 pl. 134; p. 227 no. 968 fig. 50 (all from Bau Z 3).

12 Willemsen 1977, p. 137 pl. 57,1. – The kernoi from the Kerameikos site are currently under publication by Christina Mitsopoulos.

13 Trumpf-Lyritzaki 1969, p. 106, 125.

14 Trumpf-Lyritzaki 1969, p. 124 sq. – According to a recent proposal, one group of figure vases, for instance, was used for the ritual bath (lavatio) of the silver cult statue of the goddess in the river Almone on the occasion of the festival of the goddess on March, 27th every year: Prudentios, Peristephanon 10, 154-160. – cf. Ambrosini 2010, p. 75, 91.

15 Trumpf-Lyritzaki 1969 passim. Large collections of attic pieces are kept in the Louvre, in the British Museum: Higgins 1959, p. 57; and in the Metropolitan Museum in New York: Reeder-Williams 1978, p. 356 sq. – For the whole group compare recently: Ambrosini 2010, p. 100 sq.

16 . Trumpf-Lyritzaki 1969, p. 129 sq.

17 . Trumpf-Lyritzaki 1969, p. 137 sq.

18 . Cf. Thomsen 2011.

19 . Scholion Aristophanes, ad Pac. 374, 5.

20 . The rites were carried out on the second day of the yearly festival in autumn near the sea at Phaleron in Attika, where the participants cleaned themselves and finished the rites by offering a piglet upon their return to Athens. A piglet is also represented on Eleusinian coins: Kroll 1993, p. 95 no. 116.

21 Cf. Clinton 1974, p. 98-114. – Marble statuettes: Eleusis, Museum: Furtwängler 1895, p. 357-359 fig. on p. 357; Kourouniotis 1923, p. 166-167 fig. 9-10; Papangeli 2002, p. 32 and fig.; Leventi 2010, p. 121, 136 fig. 12 A; – Roman marbles statuettes: Rome, Palazzo dei Conservatori, inv. 1871: Two statues and the fragment of a third. Esdale 1909, p. 1-5 pl. 1 a; von Steuben 1966, p. 318-319 no. 1503; Bianchi 1976, p. 27 nos. 43. 44. – Terracotta statuettes: Breitenstein 1941, no. 427 pl. 53; Andrén 1948, no. 121 pl. 25; Blinkenberg 1931, p. 711 sq. nos. 3031. 3033. 3034 pl. 141; Trumpf-Lyritzaki 1969, p. 17 sq. no. 41, 145 note 66. – Relief Vases: Rubensohn 1899, p. 55-59 pl. 7. 8; Zervoudaki 1968, p. 36 sq. no. 77; Bianchi 1976, p. 24 fig. 32.

22 The finest representation is on the gilded hydria called “Regina vasorum” in the St. Petersburg Hermitage Museum, found in Cumae (Italy): Cohen 2006, p. 115 fig 9; a seated youth with a piglet is represented on a relief Lekythos with Eleusinian scenes in London, British Museum inv. G 20: Zervoudaki 1968, p. 17 no. 11 pl. 14, 4; Andrén 1948, p. 58 no. 121 pl. 25.

23 Kroll 1993, p. 95 no. 116.

24 Berlin, Antikensammlungen inv. 8293. – Furtwängler 1892, p. 106 no. 19; Trumpf-Lyritzaki 1969, p. 17 sq. no. 41; Clinton 1974, p. 108 note 62.

25 Fröhner 1891, no. 462, pl. 40. H: 11, 4. – Trumpf-Lyritzaki 1969, p. 17 note 65.

26 Clinton 1974, p. 98-114; Esdale 1909, p. 2-3; Bianchi 1976, p. 27 no. 43-46.

Table des illustrations

Légende Fig. 1, 1-4: Cat. no. 1 Athens, Kerameikos, inv. T 496. Fragment of a plastic vase. Youth carrying a piglet (early 4th cent. BC). (Drawing R. Docsan)
URL http://books.openedition.org/editionsehess/docannexe/image/3170/img-1.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 276k
Légende Fig. 2, 1-3: Cat. no 2 Athens, Kerameikos, inv. T 497. Fragment of a plastic vase. Youth carrying a piglet (early 4th cent. BC). (Drawing R. Docsan)
URL http://books.openedition.org/editionsehess/docannexe/image/3170/img-2.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 408k
Légende Fig. 3, 1-3: Cat. no. 3 Athens, Kerameikos, inv. T 498. Terracotta figurine. Youth carrying a piglet (early 4th cent. BC). (Drawing R. Docsan)
URL http://books.openedition.org/editionsehess/docannexe/image/3170/img-3.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 412k
Légende Fig. 4, 1-3: Cat. no. 4 Athens, Kerameikos, inv. T 717. Fragment of a misfired plastic vase torso of a youth (early 4th cent. BC). (Drawing R. Docsan)
URL http://books.openedition.org/editionsehess/docannexe/image/3170/img-4.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 520k
Légende Fig. 5: Formerly Collection Piot. Plastic vase. Youth holding a piglet and the bakchos.1. after BIANCHI 1976, fig. 46 (the piglet has been interpreted as a hare)2. after FURTWÄNGLER 1892, p. 106 no. 19
URL http://books.openedition.org/editionsehess/docannexe/image/3170/img-5.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 384k
Légende Fig. 6: Eleusis, Museum inv. 5051. Fragment of a marble statue of a youth holding the bakchos and a piglet (4th cent. BC). (after LEVENTI 2010, p. 121, 136 fig. 12).
URL http://books.openedition.org/editionsehess/docannexe/image/3170/img-6.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 224k
Légende Fig. 7: Eleusis, Museum, inv. 5162. Fragment of a marble statue of a youth holding the bakchos and a piglet (late 4th – early 3rd cent. BC). (after LEVENTI 2010, p. 133 fig. 5)
URL http://books.openedition.org/editionsehess/docannexe/image/3170/img-7.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 368k
Légende Fig. 8: Rome, Palazzo dei Conservatori, inv. 1871. Marble statue of a youth, (27 BC – 14 AD). (after Bianchi 1976, fig. 44)Fig. 9: Rome, Palazzo dei Conservatori, Marble statue of a youth holding a piglet (2nd cent. AD). (after BIANCHI 1976, fig. 43)
URL http://books.openedition.org/editionsehess/docannexe/image/3170/img-8.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 571k

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