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La géoarchéologie française au xxie siècle

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Nathalie Carcaud
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Gilles Arnaud-Fassetta

Partie V. De la mobilité du trait de côte à la contrainte portuaire/Section 5. From coastline mobility to port constrain

Chapter 19. Coastal changes in the Baie des Anges in the terminal phases of the main Pleistocene and Holocene transgressive episodes (Côte d’Azur, France)

The contribution of rescue archaeology

Olivier Sivan, Nicolas Weydert, Catherine Barra, Marc Bouiron, Romuald Mercurin, Florence Parent, Nadine Scherrer, Franck Sumera et Robert Thernot

Texte intégral

Introduction

1The offshore bars in the Baie des Anges have been well documented through the work of Anthony et al. (1998), who not only clarified the environmental and stratigraphic history of the deposits since 3000 years BP, but also their recent morphodynamic evolution as a result of coastal development. The authors describe bars made up mostly of gravels and explain that they belong to the prism of the high Holocene sea level. Thus, the sharp slowdown in the marine transgression from 4000 years BP onwards, associated with the erosion of the hinterland slopes, favoured the filling up of the low-lying alluvial plains, where channels transported gravels towards the sea during flood events. These gravels were then redistributed by coastal drift on the shores of the bay, thus maintaining a landscape of beaches and shingle bars. Recent work carried out by the National Institute of Rescue Archaeology (Institut National de Recherches Archéologiques Préventives; Barra et al., 2005; Parent et al., 2005; Scherrer et al., 2005; Thernot, 2005; Sivan and Dubar, 2006; Thernot and Sivan, 2006; Thernot et al., 2006; Sivan et al., 2008; Thernot, 2008; Thernot and Montaru, 2009; Sivan et al., 2010a; Bouiron et al., 2011; Thernot et al., in press) completes this sketch of coastal morphogenesis by specifying the nature of these bars before 3000 years BP. At that time, a sandy shoreline preceded the shingle bars and the beaches still visible today.

2The organisation of the Nice coastal fringe in a system of stepped shore terraces (Dubar, 1988; Dubar and Guglielmi, 1996) has allowed for the conservation, and consequently, the study of the earlier Pleistocene bars. A comparison of the latter with more recent Holocene bars shows the marked similarity of the sedimentary successions, and notably the abrupt transition from a sandy sequence to a sequence with pebbles. This raises the question of what are the causal factors driving geomorphological coastal evolution, particularly as climatic fluctuations and anthropogenic impacts are clearly different for these two periods.

3The sedimentary reference-complex presented in this article is from Val Claret, an area in Antibes that underwent six successive archaeological excavations between 2005 and 2011. Five other sites, distributed along the Baie des Anges, allow us to identify the spatial extension of this complex and to demonstrate the similarities between the facies during the different periods (Fig. 1). The analyses of the causes of coastal geomorphological evolution will provide an opportunity to discuss the fluvial evolution of the low-lying valleys and the role of fluvial processes in littoral morphosedimentary change.

Methods

4One of the strengths of rescue archaeology in the Maritime Alps, which is supported by Government, is to develop systematic geoarchaeological and palaeoenvironmental expertise in new and developing territories. The systemisation of these methodologies over the past six years has made it possible to identify specific local geomorphological eco-facts, which are part of wider processes concerning regional, extra-regional or even global environmental events. Thus, our expertise and contribution relies more on a high frequency of field-observations than on laboratory analyses, as the time necessary for the latter is not always available given the time limits imposed for rescue archaeology excavations and projects.

Fig. 1. The Baie des Anges, Côted’Azur, France. Simplified geology and wave approach window. 1: normal fault; 2: overlap; 3: marine terrace at 8-10 m NGF (isotopic stage 5.5); 4: marine terrace at 15 m NGF (isotopic stage 9 or 11); 5: marine terrace at 30 m NGF (Middle Pleistocene); 6: marine terraces at more than 30 m NGF (Middle Pleistocene); 7: gneiss; 8: subalpine Mesozoic limestones; 9: Mesozoic Provençal limestones; 10: Oligocene flyschs; 11: Miocene molasses; 12: Pliocene marls and conglomerates; 13: Holocene fillings.

5Many archaeological sections distributed over a total of eleven archaeological excavations have made it possible to explain the causes of an abrupt change of sand/gravel facies and to describe the internal structures of the bars and their spatial distribution along the coastal zone and grain-size analyses yielded details of the statistics of variations in modal grain sizes. The similarities between the sedimentary facies from different bars, and the temporal coincidence between the main evolution of the bars and the filling of the rias support the postulated model.

6The dating of the bars and the alluvial sequences during the Holocene comes from 18 radiocarbon dates calibrated (Fig. 2) using the software Calib 6.0. and calibration curves intcal09.14c or marine09.14c, depending on the nature (continental or marine) of the samples (Reimer et al., 2009). U/h analyses carried out on shells or coral have made it possible to date the Pleistocene bars preserved as marine terraces.

Environmental context

Morphology

7Under the scope of this study, we distinguish two main geographical units: the axis of the main valleys, characterised by the major sedimentary ills during the Lateglacial and the Holocene, and the coastal fringe (excluding the river mouths), where sand and shingle bars, as well as dunes of part-aeolian origin, accumulated during the Holocene, and were reworked by littoral drift currents. The extension of these superficial formations towards the sea is limited by a very narrow continental platform, with a steep talus slope and notched by canyons. For the Pleistocene, as a result of the succession of glacioeustatic cycles, identical deposits remained perched as terraces following the uplift of the subalpine Nice arc. The well-identified terrace located at 30 m NGF (a.s.l.), stretches along the seafront for more than 10 km. It has been dated to the Middle Pleistocene by the identification of a rodent and large mammal fauna (Dubar et al., 1981). The terrace at 15 m NGF is only represented by a few strips between Antibes

8and Cagnes-sur-Mer. A U/Th analysis conducted on coral yielded an age of 367±110 ka (Dubar and Guglielmi, 1996). The terrace at 8-10 m NGF is well preserved from Cagnes-sur-Mer to Nice. U/Th analyses on Retinella herculeus shells (Dubar et al., 2008) produced an age of 129± 30 ka and an attribution to isotopic stage 5e (5.5, Tyrrhenian pro parte). The very steep hinterland is of this part of the coast is part of the southern front of the southern Alps and is drained by the Brague, Loup, Malvan, Cagne, Var and Paillon rivers, from the southwest towards the northeast (Fig. 1). These rivers have a Mediterranean hydrological regime, with sudden flash floods, reminiscent of torrential and fluvionival action characterised by an abundant, coarse bed load. The clast lithological outputs, from catchments of varying sizes (2822 km2 for the Var, 236 km2 for the Paillon, and 70 km2 for the Brague), are very varied being made up of basal complex rocks (gneiss, granite…), Pliocene marls and conglomerates, Miocene molasses, Oligocene flyschs and andesites, and Mesozoic limestones and Triassic gypsums (Fig. 1). The Var and the Paillon, with slopes of 4.3 m/km and 14.5 m/km respectively in the last ten kilometres of their course, are the main suppliers of coarse matter to the littoral bars (Anthony et al., 1998).

Fig. 2. Chronological calibration of the Holocene sedimentary sequences, 14C datings.

Marine current patterns

9The sediments of the littoral bars are supplied by a bidirectional littoral driftresulting from waves from the sector 60% of the time, even if, generally speaking, they sweep an east to southwest quadrant (Fig. 1). The waves are quite short (periods from 3-6 s), with limited fetch, and with average and significant heights oscillating between 0.6 m and 0.96 m (Anthony, 1993; Anthony et al., 1998). In this low-energy regime, it is only possible to mobilise coarse sediment a few days of the year, but especially during extreme barometric conditions, during storms or strong waves with a surf height of over 1.5 m (Sage, 1976).

Fig. 3. The morphosedimentary reference complex at Val Claret site in Antibes. Identification of the sand/pebbles combination for the Pleistocene or Holocene deposits.

Coastal beach and bar stratigraphy

The morpho-sedimentary reference complex from the Val Claret area in Antibes

10The downstream part of the Val Claret morphosedimentary complex includes a 1-2 m thick layer of pebbles, lying on a sequence of coarse sands (Fig. 3). The dating of a fragment of Cardium sampled at-0.5 m NGF, at the summit of the sands, yields a date of 3665-3884 cal. BP for this sudden facies change. The pebbles are characterised by their relative similarity of shape, their very marked latness and the quasi-systematic absence of a matrix (open or frame-work gravels).

11In the upstream part of the catchment, the Holocene deposits lie on the Pleistocene terrace at 15 m NGF (Fig. 3). They begin with a silty-stony colluvium with charcoal ages of 6574-6830 cal. BP. Overlying this is an original sandy sequence made up of light-grey loose sands, with a thickness varying from 0.2 to 1.5 m, depending on the sector. The grain-size of the sands and the presence of rounded mat-coloured grains indicates an elevated beach where fine particles have been reworked by the wind over a short distance (Fig. 3). This sequence appears to be evidence of an ancient aeolian dune, located at the transition of the elevated beach and the foot of the slope modelled in the terrace at 15 m NGF. The sands located in the upstream part of the morpho-sedimentary complex probably contributed to supplying the dune during the remobilisation of the fine fraction during strong eastern winds. Two bioturbated silty-sandy units, rich in organic matter, are also part of the sequence. These indications of pedogenesis are evidence of a temporary reduction of sandy inputs on one hand, and the slowing down of colluvial activity on the other. The upper horizon (sample number 2) was dated with charcoal from 6020-6292 cal. BP and from 5991-6265 cal. BP.

12The geometric organisation of these two levels (Thernot et al., 2009) is evidence of a retro-gradation of the slope sands (Fig. 4). The progressive enlargement of the dune was thus accompanied by a migration of sand inland. This process was a response to the progressive elevation of the sea level, which went from-3 m NGF towards 6500 cal. BP, (an approximate date for the first sand dune accumulations), to-1 m NGF between 4157 and 4414 cal. BP (date of the colluvial episode fossilising the dune). This colluvium is made up of a succession of clayey-silty, more or less sandy or stony, dark brown, homogeneous and compact layers. These levels yielded 514 unturned pottery fragments, 9 flints and charcoal, which was used for 14C dating. Pits and postholes are attributed to the Bronze Age. These dating elements propose a terminus ante quem for the formation of the dune. It is important to underline the unusual nature of this dune structure in the Baie des Anges, which is incomparable to other sand accumulations and sand beaches.

Fig. 4. Internal sedimentary organisation of the Val Claret dune in Antibes.

Fig. 5. The transition from sand/pebbles facies in the Middle Pleistocene marine terrace “15 m NGF” in the Val Claret area in Antibes.

Spatial extension of the bars

13In Villeneuve-Loubet, the site of Logis de Bonneau (Thernot, 2008) displays an identical sedimentary architecture to that observed on the top of the “15 m” terrace in the Val Claret area. From the base to the summit were identified: a “15 m” Pleistocene terrace, a colluvium level in which frequent traces of human presence were trapped, unfortunately too diffuse to be dated (an isolated posthole, hearth-pit, fragments of powdery terracotta), the sequence of sand-dune systems and, lastly, a new colluvial deposit characterised by undated traces of orchard and vine cultivation. The morpho-sedimentary complexes in the sectors of Antibes and Villeneuve-Loubet are remarkably similar, which enables us to transpose confidently the chronological framework established in the Val Claret area to the site of Logis de Bonneau.

Fig. 6. The transition from sand/pebbles facies in the Tyrrhenian marine terrace “8-15 m NGF” in the Eucalyptus-Barla dales in Nice.

Fig. 7. The transition from sand/pebbles facies in the Middle Pleistocene marine terrace “20-28 m NGF” in the Grinda area in Nice.

Pleistocene beaches and bars

14The geomorphological organisation of the coastline of the Baie des Anges in stepped marine terraces makes it possible to observe and describe the Pleistocene of shore bars today.

15The marine terrace at 15 m NGF, with a visible thickness of over fifteen metres, has yielded a sedimentary sequences of littoral deposits in two distinct sectors of the Antibes agglomeration: in the Val Claret area, where this terrace forms a support for the Holocene deposits described above (Figs. 3 and 5), and the avenues Pasteur and Dugommier. In both cases, the deposits are organised into two main sedimentary sequences, a sandy sequence with an average thickness of 2 m, covered by a second sequence made up of decimetric pebbles in a silty-sandy matrix. By analogy with the coral level at the same altitude in the rocky foothills of Belaye head, dated by U/h to 367± 110 ka (Dubar et al., 1996), these deposits should be attributed to the Middle Pleistocene (i.e., marine isotopic stages 9 or 11). In Nice, the marine terrace discovered between the Eucalyptus neighbourhood and the Barla valley at comparable altitudes (8-15 m NGF), has been dated by U/h on Retinella herculeus shells to 129±30 ka, or marine isotopic stage 5e/5.5 (Fig. 6). This age difference for terraces at similar altitudes results from the Nice arc activity, which led to an uplift from the west to the east and the correlative deformation of the terraces (Dubar et al., 2008). Whatever their ages, the sedimentary successions show once again the sand/pebble combination, developed here over a distance of more than a kilometre (Bouiron et al., 2011). The sandy sequence is over 2 m thick and is characterised by marked grain-size uniformity (absence of inclusion) and parallel stratifications inclined at 5° towards the sea. The directly overlying 3.5 m thick pebble sequence begins with a level of blocks bearing Ostrea lamellosa shells. The U/h date confirms a Tyrrhenian MIS 5e age (Dubar et al., 2008). This sequence then presents smaller sized, well-sorted, rounded rock waste, organised in a series of layers of 20 to 40 cm thick, with varied grain size (gravel, fine gravel; Fig. 6). Once again, here the different layers are inclined at 5° towards the sea.

16In Nice, the marine terrace between 20 and 28 m NGF (Middle Pleistocene) in the Grinda area, has also yielded a sedimentary succession made up of a sandy sequence with a thickness of about 1 m, with a thicker, overlying accumulation of pebbles, which is over 3 m thick in places (Fig. 7).The sand is fine to coarse bedded, and well sorted with more gravelly phases in places. They display oblique stratifications formed by current ripples characteristic of an environment with turbulent luxes. The west-east orientation of the ripples evokes the direct influence of the Var River. The sand contains Cardium debris, probably confirming a deposit in an upper supralittoral zone. Within the gravel sequence, the tilt of the elements, at about 10° towards the sea, evokes the internal organisation of the emerged coastal bars studied in other sectors of the Baie des Anges (Cailleux, 1948).

17In sum, the data clearly show that the Baie des Anges coastlines have not only recorded a biphasic evolution for the Holocene, but also for the Pleistocene: a first stage is characterised by the spreading of sand along the coastal fringe. The remobilisation of the fine fraction by the wind has resulted in the construction of dune systems in places. A second stage intervenes diachronically in the different sectors of the Baie des Anges near river mouths and corresponds to the definitive burial of the sand beaches under the shingle bars. At the Val Claret and Logis de Bonneau sites, this phenomenon occurs towards 3665-3884 cal. BP, from which date there are massive and continuous pebble inputs. The silting up which included the burial of the dune shows that the source of the sand dune system probably failed from 4157-4414 cal. BP onwards. Given the chronological uncertainties inherent in the dating method (possible “old wood” effect and possible reservoir effect for the Cardium date), we will use 4000 cal. BP as the approximate age for the arrival of gravels in the Val Claret area.

18The bi-phasic organisation of the Holocene and Pleistocene morpho-sedimentary complexes raises questions concerning the process-drivers, which drove the original geomorphological evolution of the system.

Interpretations: Fluvial evolution of the low-lying valleys and variations of the littoral sedimentary facies

19The fills of the low valleys of the Var, the Paillon and the Brague rivers are characterised by considerable thicknesses (80-100 m at the river mouths) and inland extensions of several kilometres (Fig. 8). The sedimentary sequences display a grain-size downstream fining effect, with pebbles upstream, sand, silt, and mud spread out downstream (Dubar, 1987). Vertically, the filling shows a tripartite organisation with coarse alluviums at the base, fine deposits (marine mud, deltaic sand or floodplain silt) in the middle and coarse alluvial units in the channel axis or finer alluvial deposits in floodplains for the upper part (Dubar and Anthony, 1995). Numerous radiocarbon analyses have made it possible to date these deposits to the Lateglacial and the Holocene.

20The coarse alluvial units at the base of the sequences studied are later that the regressive maximum of the Upper Pleniglaciary, during which the level of the Mediterranean was at about-120 m NGF. After this period, the elevation of the sea level was rapid. Marine mud and deltaic deposits from the middle of the fill are the result of the flooding of fluvial valleys by the sea, transformed them into rias from about 13500 cal. BP onwards (Fig. 9A). As a consequence of the rapid elevation of Postglacial sea level, these deposits are organised in downgradedon-lapping units. The latter units expanded until the maximum flooding of the valleys, which occurred towards 7800 cal. BP for the Var River and 7400 cal. BP for the Brague River. In the Var River, the shoreline was located 6 km inland at that time. From this time onwards, the rate of rise in sea level falters, favouring deposit progradation downstream and the correlative development of fluvio-deltaic plains, which corresponds to the deposition of the upper part of the fill. In the early progradation stages, the coarse deposits remain trapped at the bottom of the rias, whereas the fine deposits, transported by the currents, are deposited in the marine domain (Fig. 9B). Their mobilisation by marine drift contributes to supplying and expanding a sandy coastline, organised in bars, beaches and dune systems. The fill deposits continue their progradation and attain the present day river mouths in a diachronous manner, depending on the river discharge, the slopes (Fig. 9C), the topographic surfaces and the lithostructural characteristics of the catchments and especially the scale of the rias. The coarse bed load of the Paillon, a torrential river, reached the river mouth around 6000 cal. BP, that of the Brague River, soon after 5500-5000 cal. BP, and the Var River around 3200 cal. BP (Fig. 9). From then onwards, the coarse debris are, in turn, reworked by littoral drift. Around the Val Claret site, the marked flatness of the pebbles (4.7 using the Cailleux method, 1948) is evidence of their significant longitudinal mobility, a consequence of an 11 km linear beach between the Var River and Belaye Head and a more favourable exposure to obliquely incident waves (Anthony et al., 1998). It is thus legitimate to envisage a cause and effect link between the arrival of the coarse alluviums in the Brague river mouth from 5500-5000 cal. BP onwards and the disappearance of the sand from the Val Claret dune complex towards 4000 cal. BP. According to this view, the chronological difference between the arrival of the coarse bed load and the disappearance of the sand would correspond to the time required for the migration of the pebbles from the river mouth to their sedimentation point on the Val Claret site. Taking account of the median temporal ranges, the maximum rates of pebble displacement would be approximately 1.2 m yr-1. After 3200 cal. BP, the Var alluvium gain large quantities of coarse debris available for littoral drift and this favours the formation and maintenance of pebble beaches on all the shorelines of the Baie des Anges.

Fig. 8. Sedimentary characteristics of the main filling sequences from the postglacial river valleys of the Var, the Paillon and the Brague; Baie des Anges (after Dubar and Anthony, 1995).

Conclusion

21The fundamental features of this littoral morphogenesis are dictated by the succession of glacio-eustatic cycles, where parameters internal to the Baie des Anges, and notably the initial size of the rias, control the main facies changes in the morpho-sedimentary complexes of the coastal fringe since 7800-7400 cal. BP. Through modulating the quantity of detrital inputs, climatic and anthropogenic parameters influenced the rate of filling of the rias. However, they alone cannot explain the similarities in the main facies variations, which occurred at the end of the Holocene and Pleistocene transgressive episodes. However, the hypothesis of the repeated renewal of climatic fluctuations conducive to the deposition of identical sedimentary sequences is much too uncertain and problematic to be put forward as the main explanatory element. As for the influence of human societies on this morphogenesis, it is feasible for the later Holocene but considered negligible for earlier periods, and therefore cannot explain the similarity between the Pleistocene and Holocene facies.

Fig. 9. Evolution of the Baie des Anges littoral landscapes at the end of the main Pleistocene and Holocene transgressive episodes. A: Maximal flooding point of the valleys during the postglacial marine rise (7800-7400 cal. BP). B: Development of alluvial fluvial-deltaic plains and mobilisation of the fine fraction by littoral drift, which maintains a sand beach and dune landscape. C: Definitive filling of the rias and redistribution of the coarse load along the coastal fringe at the expense of the sand beaches and dunes.

22The only parameters common to the different Pleistocene and Holocene periods of high levels are the lithological context of the hinterland (which supplies a significant coarse load to the rivers), the magnitude of the rias and coastal drift currents. Climatic fluctuations, and for the Holocene the influence of human societies, only appear to be secondary factors, which influence the progradation of fill deposits but which do not affect the change of coastal facies of sand towards pebbles. At most, these parameters may have some influence on the dates of change of the facies, in that they modify the rate of infilling of the rias.

23For the Holocene, the transition from a sandy coastline to a pebble coastline thus occurs diachronically depending on the magnitude of the rias, even if after the major event of the terminal filling of the Var ria, the coastlines are entirely composed of pebble beaches.

24In summary, two successive stages can be distinguished regardless of the period: (i) Containment of the coarse alluvial sediments in the rias and reworking of the sand by coastal drift, which maintains a sandy coastline. In places, the winds remobilise fine sands and build up dune structures; (ii) Progradation of the fill deposits, improvement of the fluvio-deltaic plains, arrival of coarse debris at the level of the present-day seafront and correlative formation of pebble beaches following their remobilisation by coastal drift.

25This evolutionary model minimises the influence of exogenous parameters (climate, societies) on the main changes of the littoral sedimentary facies and privileges lithological and geomorphological parameters within the river basin and the littoral/continental transition zone. These results echo studies of Holocene sedimentation rates, which demonstrated, at the scale of low-lying alluvial and fluvio-deltaic plains, that their variation was a response to internal parameters such as the initial canyon morphology, the sigmoid geometry of the prograding sedimentary bodies (with artificial modification of the sedimentation rate depending on the location of the samples in the progradation levels) and the straightening of alluvial profiles, rather than climatic changes and the first anthropogenic impacts (Sivan et al., 2010a; Sivan and Miramont, 2012). These studies do not refute the impact of Neolithic communities on morphogenesis, but show that the anthropogenic signal in sedimentary records is often masked by much more significant and determinant internal parameters. In the web of complex and often interconnected factors, which govern detrital sediment transport and, consequently, alluvial morphogenesis, the synchronism of several factors may presage the possible influence of human communities. This is the case for the Middle Neolithic, where a strong increase in sedimentation rates in the Nice fluvio-deltaic plains is synchronous with the first pollen indicators of human impact, with alluvial soils containing fragments of hand-made pottery and charcoal (Sivan and Miramont, 2012). However, it is not possible to generalise this observation and to affirm that all the phases of environmental opening or deforestation identified in the local pollen diagrams (Lopez-Saez, 2000; Guillon et al., 2010; Sivan et al., 2010 a and b) were systematically followed by an erosive crisis and a correlative rise in sedimentation rates in the low-lying alluvial plains under construction at that time.

26Thus, unlike pollen analyses, which can clearly reveal changes in the vegetational cover by human communities, evidence of human impact on morphogenesis is much harder to perceive. It is easier to imagine the strategies that humans must have developed in order to adapt to the major landscape changes such as the formation of fluvio-deltaic plains and the disappearance of sand beaches in favour of expanses of pebbles. The buried alluvial soils associated with hand-made pottery fragments presage the opportunistic behaviour of Middle Neolithic communities, who quickly moved into these new areas (Sivan et al., 2010 a and b). Cade (1995) notes that the expansion of agriculture and livestock farming at the Neolithic site of Giribaldi in Nice did not slow down the consumption of marine molluscs (Binder, 1991). We wish to add that this food resource remained available well after the change from sand to pebbles facies at the deltaic river mouths and along the littoral fringe, as it is largely dependent on rocky coasts. If the filling of the rias, and consequently, the emergence of new territories, may have facilitated the expansion of agro-pastoral practices (rare flat lands in mountainous zones, easy irrigation, soil with strong agricultural potential frequently renewed by alluviation), the change from sand to pebbles facies at the deltaic river mouths and along the coastal fringe only seems to have had a moderate influence of the consumption of marine malacofauna.

27New studies of the evolution of malacological and/or ichtyological assemblages found in archaeological contexts will make it possible to expound on this theme regarding the influence of landscape change on consumption patterns. This is particularly pertinent as ongoing archaeological evaluations in the Nice city (Quai des Douanes, Tramway) will no doubt underline the diversity of the different ecosystems throughout time (shallow coves and bays opening out to the sea, fresh, brackish or salt-water lagoons, wetlands, deltaic zones, etc.). In this particularly changeable context, humans did not have any choice but to adapt to these transformations. Now we must find the archaeological traces of these adaptations to these changing perimarine systems.

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Reimer, P.J., Baillie M.G.L., Bard, E., Bayliss, A., Beck, J.W., Blackwell, PG., Bronk Ramsey, C., Buck, C.E., Burr, G., Edwards R.L., Friedrich, M., Grootes P.M., Guilderson, T.P., Hajdas I., Heaton T.J., Hogg, A.G., Hughen, K.A., Kaiser, K.F., Kromer, B., McCormac, F.G., Manning, S., Reimer, R.W., Richards D.A., Southon, J.R., Talamo, S., Turney, C.S. M., van der Plicht, J. et Weyhenmeyer, C.E., «IntCal09 and Marine09 Radiocarbon Age Calibration curves, 0 – 50,000 YEARS CAL BP», Radiocarbon, vol. 51, no 4, 2009, p. 1111– 1150.

Sage, L., La sédimentation à l’embouchure d’un fleuve côtier méditerranéen : Le Var, Nice, Université de Nice, 1976.

Scherrer N., Maurin M., Sivan O., Val Claret Section AV parcelle 0002 à Antibes (Alpes-Maritimes), Nîmes, Inrap Méditerranée, 2005.

Sivan O. et Miramont C., « L’évolution des paysages face aux changements climatiques depuis la dernière glaciation dans les Alpes du Sud (Moyenne Durance, Alpes-Maritimes). Quels impacts sur les societies ? » in Berger J.-F., Des climats et des hommes, Paris, la Découverte, 2012.

Sivan O., Dubar M., Court-Picon M., « Les variations postglaciaires des taux de sédimentation dans les basses plaines alluviales niçoises (Alpes-Maritimes). Modalités et paramètres de l’évolution », Quaternaire, 21, (1), 2010a, p. 61-69.

Sivan O., Guillon S., Gueriel F., « Une histoire des paysages littoraux de la Baie des Anges depuis la fin de la dernière glaciation », Archéopages, no 30, 2010b, p. 6-13.

Sivan O., Dubar M., Barra C., Parent F., Scherrer N., « Organisation géométrique et modalités d’occupation des terrasses marines quaternaires au nord d’Antibes », Archéam, no 13, 2006, p. 18-25.

Sivan O., Bouiron M., Suméra F., Vecchione M., Barra C., Boutterin C., Court-Picon M., Daveau I., Dubar M., Khatib S., Monteil K., Parent F., Scherrer N., «Salvage Archeology and Geoarcheology: The example of the coastal margin between Antibes and Nice (France)», in Wilson L., Dickinson P. et Jeandron J., Reconstructing Human-Landscape Interactions, Newcastle, Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2007, p. 177-201.

Thernot R., Le Logis de Bonneau à Villeneuve-Loubet (Alpes-Maritimes), Rapport de fouille. Nîmes, Inrap Méditerranée, 2008.

Thernot R., Montaru D., Denis R., Richarte C., Sivan O., 64 avenue de Nice à Antibes (Alpes-Maritimes), Nîmes, Inrap Méditerranée, 2009.

Thernot R., Weydert N., Sivan O., Coutelas A., Dubar M., Duval L., Goslar T., Hasler A., Maurin M., Sargiano J.-P., Thinon M., Verdin P., Val Claret 2005, Fouille des parcelles AV 116/119/135. Evolution en anthropisation du littoral durant la Préhistoire; L’aqueduc romain de la Font Vieille et sa réhabilitation au xviiie siècle, Nîmes, Inrap Méditerranée, 2006.

Thernot R., 2 à 6 avenue Dugommier Angle Tourré à Antibes (Alpes-Maritimes), Nîmes, Inrap Méditerranée, 2005.

Thernot R., Sivan O., 7/9 Avenue Pasteur à Antibes (Alpes-Maritimes), Nîmes, Inrap Méditerranée, 2006.

Thernot R., Montaru D., Sivan O., 64 avenue de Nice à Antibes (Alpes-Maritimes), Nîmes, Inrap Méditerranée, in presse.

Table des illustrations

Légende Fig. 1. The Baie des Anges, Côted’Azur, France. Simplified geology and wave approach window. 1: normal fault; 2: overlap; 3: marine terrace at 8-10 m NGF (isotopic stage 5.5); 4: marine terrace at 15 m NGF (isotopic stage 9 or 11); 5: marine terrace at 30 m NGF (Middle Pleistocene); 6: marine terraces at more than 30 m NGF (Middle Pleistocene); 7: gneiss; 8: subalpine Mesozoic limestones; 9: Mesozoic Provençal limestones; 10: Oligocene flyschs; 11: Miocene molasses; 12: Pliocene marls and conglomerates; 13: Holocene fillings.
URL http://books.openedition.org/editionscnrs/docannexe/image/22245/img-1.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 309k
Légende Fig. 2. Chronological calibration of the Holocene sedimentary sequences, 14C datings.
URL http://books.openedition.org/editionscnrs/docannexe/image/22245/img-2.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 440k
Légende Fig. 3. The morphosedimentary reference complex at Val Claret site in Antibes. Identification of the sand/pebbles combination for the Pleistocene or Holocene deposits.
URL http://books.openedition.org/editionscnrs/docannexe/image/22245/img-3.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 237k
Légende Fig. 4. Internal sedimentary organisation of the Val Claret dune in Antibes.
URL http://books.openedition.org/editionscnrs/docannexe/image/22245/img-4.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 154k
Légende Fig. 5. The transition from sand/pebbles facies in the Middle Pleistocene marine terrace “15 m NGF” in the Val Claret area in Antibes.
URL http://books.openedition.org/editionscnrs/docannexe/image/22245/img-5.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 229k
Légende Fig. 6. The transition from sand/pebbles facies in the Tyrrhenian marine terrace “8-15 m NGF” in the Eucalyptus-Barla dales in Nice.
URL http://books.openedition.org/editionscnrs/docannexe/image/22245/img-6.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 116k
Légende Fig. 7. The transition from sand/pebbles facies in the Middle Pleistocene marine terrace “20-28 m NGF” in the Grinda area in Nice.
URL http://books.openedition.org/editionscnrs/docannexe/image/22245/img-7.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 175k
Légende Fig. 8. Sedimentary characteristics of the main filling sequences from the postglacial river valleys of the Var, the Paillon and the Brague; Baie des Anges (after Dubar and Anthony, 1995).
URL http://books.openedition.org/editionscnrs/docannexe/image/22245/img-8.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 325k
Légende Fig. 9. Evolution of the Baie des Anges littoral landscapes at the end of the main Pleistocene and Holocene transgressive episodes. A: Maximal flooding point of the valleys during the postglacial marine rise (7800-7400 cal. BP). B: Development of alluvial fluvial-deltaic plains and mobilisation of the fine fraction by littoral drift, which maintains a sand beach and dune landscape. C: Definitive filling of the rias and redistribution of the coarse load along the coastal fringe at the expense of the sand beaches and dunes.
URL http://books.openedition.org/editionscnrs/docannexe/image/22245/img-9.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 349k

Auteurs

Research Engineer, National Institute for Preventive Archaeological Research (INRAP Méditerranée), Mixed Research Unit (UMR 7264) CNRS/Universities of Nice & Sophia Antipolis (Cultures and Environments. Prehistory, Antiquity, Middle Ages – CEPAM), Nice, France (Olivier.sivan@inrap.fr).

Heritage Curator, Director of Archaeology of the City of Nice, Mixed Research Unit (UMR 7264) CNRS/Universities of Nice & Sophia Antipolis (Cultures and Environments. Prehistory, Antiquity, Middle Ages – CEPAM), Nice, France (marc.bouiron@ville-nice.fr).

Heritage Conservation Officer, Archaeology of the city of Nice, Mixed Research Unit (UMR 7264) CNRS/Universities of Nice & Sophia Antipolis (Cultures and Environments. Prehistory, Antiquity, Middle Ages – CEPAM), Nice, France (romuald.mercurin@villenice.fr).

Heritage Curator in charge of the Alpes Maritimes, Regional Archaeology Service, Regional Directorate of Cultural Affairs (Provence-Alpes-Côte d’Azur), Mixed Research Unit (UMR 7299) CNRS/Aix-Marseille University/Ministry of Culture and Communication (Centre Camille Jullian – CCJ), Aix-en-Provence, France (franck.sumera@culture.gouv.fr).

© CNRS Éditions, 2015

Conditions d’utilisation : http://www.openedition.org/6540