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La géoarchéologie française au xxie siècle

 | 
Nathalie Carcaud
, 
Gilles Arnaud-Fassetta

Partie I. Paléoenvironnements, biogéographie et paysages/Section I. Palaeoenvironments, biogeography and landscapes

Chapter 1. Geoarchaeology during Late Glacial in northern France

The Dourges marsh example (Deûle catchment)

Laurent Deschodt, Éric Teheux, Jennifer Lantoine, Patrick Auguste et Nicole Limondin-Lozouët

Texte intégral

The context

1Between the Gohelle chalky ‘glacis’ land and the low, sandy and clay hills of the Pévèle region, the Dourges area forms a low interfluve between the Deûle river-valley bottom and the Scarp plain (Escaut catchment). The relief is gentle and the topography of low areas subdued (Fig. 1). In spite of extensive urbanisation and industrialisation, the Quaternary stratigraphy of the area was unknown before the archaeological investigations, which were conducted prior the creation of a multimodal platform. A preliminary study of the sediments was performed by an approximate grid of back-hoe test pits (Deschodt and Blancquaert, 2000; Deschodt and Sauvage, 2008). They revealed peat and travertine, archaeological, and palaeontological remains in a shallow depression of the Deûle catchment. This knowledge of the stratigraphy and the associated archaeological potential assisted with the subsequent archaeological borings (Deschodt and Sauvage 2008). Two sites from the upper Palaeolithic were discovered and excavated (Teheux and Deschodt, 2000; Fig. 1). Radiocarbon dating provided a chronology of the alluvia and the associated sites, which date to the Weichselian Late Glacial. The sedimentology, mammalian, malacological and ichthyo-faunal (B. Clavel/CRAVO) studies allowed reconstruction of local environmental variation during the period (Deschodt et al., 2005, 2009).

The stratigraphic data

2The stratigraphy is synthesised in Figs. 1 and 2. The alluvia lay on a loessic deposit with an irregular upper surface. This topography and the closed character of the depression are an inheritance of the fluvialaeolian dynamics of the Weichselian/Pleniglacial. Indeed aeolian inputs to sediments are abundant in the valley bottoms during the late Weichselian/upper Pleniglacial. These include in the vicinity: sandy-silt deposits (Scarpe plain; Deschodt et al., 2012), or a loessic cover in continuity with the loess slope deposits (Deûle valley; Praud et al., 2007; Deschodt, 2012). In a dryer climatic context with less fluvial activity, they led to channel planform modifications in the upper catchment similar to those observed in the Reuvel catchment in the southern Netherlands (Van Huissteden et al., 1986). The alluvia are thin (max. 1.2 m) and restricted to the lower zones. Three dark organic layers are used as key units (lower, medium and upper peaty horizons, LPH, MPH and UPH; Fig. 1). The thicker part of the deposits is subdivided by 12 sedimentary units, from the bottom upwards (Figs. 1 to 3):

3Unit 1 – Loessic silt: valley-bottom facies, with sparse chalk gravels. Pale green-gley silt in the lower area of the marsh to weathered loess on the slope. The grain-size distribution is loess-like, the unit includes some glauconitic sandy beds, a few chalk gravel deposits and occasional flint nodules (an indicator of water reworking).

4Unit 2 – Lower peaty horizon (“LPH” level marker): thin (<10 cm), only found in a small zone of the lower part of the marsh, it includes a large malacofauna and some chalk gravels. Its boundaries are often diffused and deformed by load casts.

5Unit 3 – Lower calcareous tufaceous silt: pale greenish grey with small rusty spots (max. thick: 10 cm). Apart from a few chalk gravels at its limits, it is difficult to draw a distinction between Unit 1 and Unit 3 where Unit 2 is absent. In the thickest part a few beds of highly calcareous silt can be observed.

6Unit 4 – Travertine: the sediment is very calcareous (>75% dry weight CaCO3), pale yellowish-white with numerous, large malacofauna (sometimes several centimetres long). In the thicker part (about 15 cm), some of the beds abruptly turn organic, brown-grey, become very softand deformed by load casts. Unit 4 covers a wide area which thins to about one or two centimetres in the upper part of the marsh.

Fig. 1. Location. A: Regional context. B: Morphological context (1: relief according the IGN 1:25,000 maps, elevation in m NGF Lallemand survey; 2: human reworked topography, industrial area, quarry, slag heap). C: Dourges Marsh, elevation in m NGF IGN 69 (a: north site; b: south site; 1: manually excavated Ferdermesser level; 2: sampling location; 3: elk; 4: wild ox; 5: south manual excavation).

Fig. 2. Lithostratigraphy. 1: loessic silt; 2: peat; 3: calcareous peaty silt; 4: brown peaty silt; 5: calcareous and organic silt with malacofauna, transition from calcareous tufa; 6: calcareous tufa; 7: lithic industry; 8: barbed and assagai points; 9: bone with anthropogenic cut marks; 10: mammalian fauna; 11: ichtyofauna; 12: abundant malacofauna. A: Sampling cross-section (inset: location in the northern site); B: Lithostratigraphic synthesis; C: Unit geometry in the deepest part of the marsh, along a-b crosssection (Fig. 1C).

7Unit 5 – Medium peaty horizon (“MPH” marker level): peaty brown silt undistinguishable laterally from Unit 8 (br. UPH). In a small area, in the thicker part, the unit is peat sensu stricto (about 15 cm thick).

8Unit 6 – Medium calcareous tufa silt: light brownish grey silt with a few difused rusty spots, inely laminated (10 cm thick max.). This facies is very similar to the base of Unit 7 and its limit is marked by a sot silt with ish remains.

9Unit 7 – Upper calcareous tufa silt: light brownish grey loam (max. thick: 15 cm) with a few difuse rusty spots, very calcareous (CaCO 3 up to 40% of dry weight in the upper part). The facies is very similar to the base of Unit 6 and its upper limit is marked by a sot loam with ish remains.

10Unit 8 – Brown upper peaty horizon (“br. UPH” level marker). This thin unit (max. thick: 8 cm) is similar to the base of Unit 5 (MPH), laterally undistinguishable in the absence of Unit 6 and Unit 7. In the lower zone its upper portion includes a very thin horizon similar to the one in Unit 9. The Ferdermesser archaeological level is located in the upper part of Unit 8.

11Unit 9 – Black upper organic horizon (“bl. UPH” level marker). This thin black soil horizon (2 to 3 cm thick), non-calcareous, extends all the way up to the upper parts of the marsh with no facies change.

12Unit 10 – Oxidised silt. This bright orangey-yellow to rusty coloured silt, non-calcareous, is of variable thickness from a few centimetres to a few decimetres. Unit 10 is only found on the lateral margins of the marsh. The lower boundary is convex and the unit systematically encroaches upon Unit 9 (bl. UPH). It is sometimes overlain by a ine black layer, similar to and covering Unit 9 (Figs. 1 and 2).

13Unit 11 – Grey silt, i.e. heterogeneous stratum almost entirely inilling the depression. The oxidation front passes through it irregularly. Lighter coloured beds oten meet and run on top of each other. In some test pits, there is evidence of erosion cutting into the underlying calcareous silts.

14Unit 12 – Plough soil horizon.

The radiocarbon dates

15Systematic dating of the diferent stratigraphic units indicated ive stages in the sedimentary inilling of the palaeo-depression (three deposits separated by two hiatus; Figs. 4 and 5): (i) The lower part (Unit 2 to Unit 6) is dated to the Bølling (giving a sedimentation rate of about 0.7 to 0.8 mm yr-1 calculated using the 1-sigma calibration); (ii) The first chronological hiatus, at the contact between Unit 6 and Unit 7 is inferred to date to the Older Dryas (the lower part of unit 7 was not dated); (iii) Unit 7 and Unit 8 are dated to the Allerød with a relatively rapid sedimentation rate in Unit 7 (0.4 to 0.5 mm yr-1) decreasing to about 0.15 mm yr-1 in Unit 8; (iv) A second hiatus, inferred from the radiocarbon dates, at the contact between Unit 8 and Unit 9, can be attributed to the Intra Allerød Cold Period. (v) Finally, Unit 9 is dated to the end of the Allerød, with a very slow sedimentation rate (<0.1 mm yr-1). Note that the 14 C dating does not provide a detailed Bølling-Allerød chronology, which is probably more complex.

Fig. 3. Northern marsh stratigraphy. Unit description: see Fig. 2.

Fig. 4. Calibrated radiocarbon date scheme and location in the section. OxCal v3.9. Atmospheric data from Stuiver et al. (1998).

Fig. 5. Table of 14C dates. Calibration according CalCurve _ 2007_ HULU (Weninger and Jöris, 2008).

The palaeontological data

The ichthyofauna

16Remains of pike (Esox lucius) and perch (Perca fluviatilis) were abundant in units 4, 6, and 7. Both are shallow freshwater species and have a preference for clear waters with plenty of vegetation.

The malacofauna

17Shell conservation is good but abundance is variable. The maximum count found amongst twelve samples was of approximately a hundred shells (the ideal statistical threshold is 250; Evans, 1972). Eight samples contained less than 50 shells each. However, whether sparse or plentiful, the Dourges malacological populations are primarily aquatic molluscs. Among the rare terrestrial species, the most common is Oxyloma elegans, a paludal taxon associated with the margins of fresh-water habitats (Kerney et al., 1983). The shell counts appear to be directly linked to the surface area of standing water in the marsh. Three phases of freshwater biotope were indicated by samples 16, 18 and 22 (from the upper part of Unit 1, Unit 4 tufa, and upper part of Unit 7, respectively; Fig. 6). Two species dominate in sample 16: Planorbis planorbis and Armiger crista. The former is characteristic of the presence of silty bottom sand, the latter of aquatic vegetation (Adam, 1960). Both are able to endure seasonal drying. The drought hypothesis in the Dourges marsh is supported by the low diversity and abundance of their associated species, which numbered only few individuals. This phase pre-dated the lower peaty horizon (12590± 150 BP), which shows a sharp decline in the malacofauna. It can thus be deduced that the environment of the first Bølling peat was less favourable to the development and expansion of an aquatic environment. Furthermore, sample 18 (Unit 4, travertine) is the richest in its malacofauna. The assemblage is marked by a strong presence of bivalvia (Pisidium genus), an increase in the number of Lymnaeidae (Radix, Lymnaea stagnalis) and P. Planorbis remains, which are abundant. This suggests quiet or stagnant water, with a muddy bed and no evidence of drought. The near absence of the malacofauna in samples 19 to 21 (Unit 5, MPH, and Unit 6) indicates a drying phase (end of the Bølling – Older Dryas). Sample 22 (upper part of Unit 7) contrasts sharply with sample 18 in that it contains over 400 individuals. The assemblage of this early Allerød silty unit is as diverse as sample 18 and shows an indisputably aquatic environment. The last four samples (23 to 26, Unit 8 to Unit 11) contain few snails and show the return of dryer conditions. The malacological chronology of the Late Glacial has been well studied (Limondin, 1995; Limondin-Lozouët and Antoine, 2001; Limondin-Lozouët, 2002), however, the Dourges malacofauna do not allow the construction of a biochronology of the sedimentary formations due to the essentially aquatic nature of the assemblage, which is less sensitive than the land malacofauna to climatic variation. In the present case, the malacological data indicate alternating aquatic and dry environments.

Fig. 6. Distribution of mollusc species expressed in absolute values.

The mammalian fauna

18Unlike most other palaeontological sites, the Dourges samples were of low density and not confined to one particular location. Anatomical analysis and species attributions of most of the fauna proved possible. The remains (n = 121) came from several strata and six species were identified (Fig. 7). Three specimens merit discussion: firstly the wild ox (Bos primigenius) bones are particularly large, with the most spectacular being an-unfortunately incomplete-skull (the lower part is missing) with a 1x1 m span. Secondly a massive femur was also discovered in the Bølling unit and its dimensions confirm the particularly large size of the animal (about 2 m to the withers), comparable with the Pleistocene examples from Biache-Saint-Vaast (Auguste, 1995), and are even bigger than the largest Holocene examples from Denmark (Degerbøl and Fredskild, 1970). Thirdly, the elk (Alces alces) skull from Unit 11 is a rare find in an archaeological and palaeontological context. This animal was present in North-Western Europe during the Late Glacial. It then moved away to higher latitudes at the start of the Holocene (Street and Baales, 1999).

19The Dourges mammalia assemblages allow comparisons with other Late Glacial faunas in North-West Europe. The Bølling levels, with a wild ox (Bos primigenius)/red deer (Cervus elaphus)/roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) assemblage, indicates an open forest environment and temperate climate. The same fauna has been found in England and Belgium (Cordy, 1992; Charles, 1998). Coupled with the horse bone fragments found in the Allerød levels, it makes up a classical lateglacial assemblage (Street and Baales, 1999). In turn the Dourges Allerød mammalian fauna can be compared with the assemblage from Conty in the Somme valley (excavated by P. Coudret and J.-P. Fagnart: Antoine et al., 2012; Auguste, 2012). Both are very similar, especially when taking into account the presence of a large wild ox and a horse similar to the last known Pleistocene form, Equus arcelini. This suggests a mosaic environment, with woods and meadows, and a temperate climate although not necessarily as mild as the Bølling (Auguste, 2012). The fauna from the problematic Unit 11 includes wild ox together with roe deer, elk and a Suidae. It could be in a reworked position and might have come from Allerød levels during the Younger Dryas. The elk is in its proper place in this context with a testified presence in the Allerød in the Rhineland (Street and Baales, 1999).

Fig. 7. List and counts of mammalian taxa from Dourges by stratigraphic location. a: adult; y: youth/j: juvenile.

20The Dourges mammalian assemblage is the last known fauna from northern France prior to the onset of the Holocene woodland ecosystem and its associated fauna (Auguste, 2009).

The archaeological remains

21The northern border of the marsh has yielded worked bone and antler tools (a barbed point and assagai fragments) and examples of the Federmesser lithic industry in the Allerød levels.

The late Bølling barbed bone point

22A barbed bone point (Fig. 8) was found in the late Bølling levels (Unit 4), testifying to the appeal of this river bank, with it is easy access to deep water, in contrast to the other banks. Its date (11950± 50 BP) fits with those of the stratigraphic units. A large herbivore long bone, probably from a wild ox was used to make the barbed point. It is in an exceptionally good state of preservation and the craft/tool marks are still visible to the naked eye. The proximal part is notched. The hafting element encroaches on the proximal part of the barbed shaft. It is quite rough and appears to be a repair, probably carried out following an accidental break at the lashing point. Although rare this type of base has been observed elsewhere (Julien, 1982). The barbs are cut in a ridge or wing along the sub-circular shaft. The first barb is smaller than the others and could have been part of the repaired lashing element. A rough but deep cut between it and the second barb strengthens this hypothesis. This broken weapon has an unusual length of 144 mm, much bigger than the average length of all intact harpoons known (130 mm; Julien, 1982). The proximal part type/form, the barb style and the spacing along the shafthelp to identify the point as a harpoon sensu stricto (Julien A2 type). The weapon’s use for fishing seems reasonable since numerous fish remains were found in this level. However, it could also have been used to hunt large herbivores in the marsh (Fagnart, 1997).

A Federmesser hunting site

23A 1112 m2 manual excavation (#1, Fig. 1) and a further 2434 m ² of mechanical excavation were carried out on the north bank. The archaeological remains were rare but exceptional in nature. They include a nearly complete panoply of hunting weapons (angular backed arrow points, an assegai and its barbed bone point). Their association together with bones of large mammals, including a burned bone, and the location of the finds on a slight rise above the marsh shore suggest a site used for the killing of large herbivores. The cultural attribution is given by the angled backed point and a bladelet with marginal retouch, both characteristic of the Federmesser, a northern variation of the Azilian. This technological complex appeared in Northern Europe a little before the Allerød interstadial (Fagnart, 1997). In addition this attribution fits with the radiocarbon dates: 13820 to 13480 cal. BP, 1 sigma (small charcoal fragments in the archaeological levels) and 13820 to 13460 cal. BP (1 sigma), 13410 to 13130 cal. BP (1 sigma) in the sampling column.

Fig. 8. Barbed point in situ at the top of Bølling calcareous tufa.

24The barbed point is a 50 mm long shaftsegment. It has been worked from a wild ox metatarsal diaphysis. The craftmarks are still visible to the naked eye. The barbs are made by incision and unilateral removal of waste. The barbs are broken but two bases are still visible. This bone point was much more massive than the Bølling one. The type is unusual. Its width (11 mm) is greater than the 7 mm threshold below which barbed points are propelled by bows (Weniger, 1992). The characteristics of the marsh at that time, with little standing water and no fish, strengthens the hypothesis of a hunting site. The two assagai pieces found close to each other (2 to 3 m apart) fit together into a 183 mm long, and almost complete piece (the base is missing). It was made from red deer antler and the craftmarks are still visible to the naked eye. Its profile is almost straight and its section sub-circular. Polishing has almost removed the spongiosa in places. The two edges show flint burin cutmarks, they are nearly straight and were made by grooving and splitting. The distal part was sharpened by thinning the convex shaftface. The middle portion is slightly bent and twisted preserving the original antler shape. The external face has a fairly thick spongiosa layer while the internal face is in compacta. The assagai lacks a base and thus cannot be classified. The low density and the nature of the artefacts imply this is the location of a short-lived settlement, perhaps from a single hunt. The geographical situation of this site is also exceptional within North-Western Europe, situated as it is between areas where Federmesser or contemporary technological complexes are well documented, such as the Paris basin, Picardie, Great Britain, Belgium, the Netherlands, and the Rhine lands. It also gives a new perspective on the issues concerning reported barbed points and harpoons in the Scheld basin (Bostyn and Vallin, 1986; Fagnart, 1997). About fifteen of these points were discovered in the 19th c. between Isbergues and Antwerp (Doize, 1952). Unfortunately, the contexts and conditions of those ancient discoveries are unknown.

Comparing the data: The Late Glacial evolution of the marsh and humidity changes

25The data presented here allow reconstruction of the evolution of the marsh during the Late Glacial (Fig. 9):

  • Phase 1: In the start of the Bølling (14922± 367 cal. BP, calibration CalCurve_ 2007_ HULU) a peaty horizon formed in the centre of the depression. The wetland was supplied by ground water.
  • Phase 2: In the early Bølling (from 14670± 356 cal. BP to 14296± 260 cal. BP) a large, shallow lake developed in the depression and travertine was deposited over an area of about 10 ha (Fig. 1). The topography implies interconnection with the hydrographical network and other lakes in the vicinity (Fig. 1). This fits well with the well-developed malacofauna, both in numbers and diversity and the environment was ideal for Pike and perch. The lacustrine shore was frequented by wild ox, upper Palaeolithic hunters, and perhaps fishermen as well.
  • Phase 3: During the Bølling (14462± 345 cal. BP), the lake disappeared and a second non-calcareous peaty horizon was formed over the tufa unit. Only the deepest part (a few squared metres) was wet enough to develop fibrous peat. This could be explained by (seasonal?) ground water fluctuation with constant wetness only in the inner part of the depression.
  • Phase 4: In the late Bølling (14321± 277 cal. BP), a silt deposit (Unit 6) formed over the earlier peaty horizon. The mostly non-calcareous compound level and the fish species found show that the depression was connected to a larger hydrographical network. The poor shell development suggests short-lived flood events. We interpret these units as repeated but shortlived flood deposits. This can be explained by three different climatic shifts: (i) an increase in annual precipitation with winter or spring flooding fed by groundwater supplies (this process is the current dynamic regional water system under an oceanic climate, when flows depend on groundwater and its recharge: Duchesne et al., 2000); (ii) a climatic shift towards continental conditions, with snow storage and an abrupt spring thaw; (iii) an increase in the frequency of high-intensity storms (indeed the area is sensitive to this phenomenon; Duchesne et al., 2000). The subsequent return of a very similar conditions (Phase 6) and especially the evolution of the systems towards a more persistent lake as indicated by the sedimentological analyses (Phase 7, see below) allows the interpretation of the Phase 4 environment as a spawning area under the influence of winter/spring floods.
  • Phase 5: The radiocarbon dates reveal a hiatus between Unit 6 and Unit 7, coincident with the Older Dryas climatic phase. The depression is dry, without significant erosion, sedimentation or pedogenesis.
  • Phase 6: In the early Allerød (13603± 136 cal. BP, Unit 7) sedimentation is similar to that of the late Bølling (short period of floods).
  • Phase 7: The deposits in the depression (top of Unit 7, between 13603± 136 cal. BP and 13529± 138 cal. BP) become progressively more calcareous whilst the aquatic shells increase. The associated icthtyofauna and malacofauna imply longer flooding periods than during Phase 4 and Phase 6 (fish only, no shells, implying short floods). Flooding becomes progressively longer during the year up to the point where a new calcareous deposit forms, indicating persistent or permanent standing water. By contrast with the early Bølling, the Allerød lake remains restricted to the bottom of deepest part of the marsh. Furthermore, as indicated by the systematic progression in the sedimentary data, its extension remains linked to the flood regime observed following the late Bølling (Phase 4).
  • Phase 8: The thin brown upper peaty horizon (Unit 8) spans an important period of the Allerød (13820± 149 cal. BP – 13151± 109 cal. BP). Once again the depression was supplied by groundwater. Only the inner and deepest part of the marsh was wet throughout the year. This is the environment of the Federmesser kill site (13567± 151 cal. BP).
  • Phase 9: No sedimentation occurred during the Intra Allerød Cold Period (as in the Older Dryas). We interpret this hiatus as a drying out of the marsh.
  • Phase 10: During the Late Allerød (12933± 109 cal. BP) a very fine, black soil horizon extended over the entire test area, up to the highest margins. This is interpreted as grassland, humic topsoil formed in a dry environment. A similar stratum near the top of the Unit 8 suggests the same kind of environment for a brief period prior to the onset of the Intra Allerød Cold Period.
  • Phase 11: Although not dated, Unit 11 is attributed to the Younger Dryas (with a possible intrusive Holocene colluvium in the upper part). Contact with underlying units are marked by local linear erosion features (gullies with reworking of Unit 8, Unit 9, and underlying calcareous silt) and very locally on the somewhat steeper slopes along the edge of the marsh, by solifluction flows. This follows from the interpretation of Unit 10 as solifluction flows over Unit 9 and lifting of the rootmat – a horizon similar to Unit 9 underlying Unit 10 – , which is associated with frostcracks (Bertran and Coutard, 2004).
  • Phase 12 (the current state): The lowest part of the depression appears as a flood zone on the topographic map. The marsh has been ploughed, levelling the surface topography.

26The sedimentological and palaeontological data taken together, allow reconstruction of changes in the local hydrological regime within the Dourges marsh depression (Fig. 10). Cold periods (Older Dryas, Intra Allerød Cold Period) are dry, though warm periods are not systematically wet, the early Bølling seems to have been particularly wet, with a lacustrine phase. We must be careful, however, not to necessarily interpret this as a period of heavy rainfall. The rise in the water table could have been favoured by the delay between the formation of tree cover and rapid climatic change and therefore lower rates of evapotranspiration (Limondin et al., 2002).

27The lacustrine phase was contemporaneous with the onset of palaeochannel inilling (Antoine et al., 2002; Limondin et al., 2002; Antoine et al., 2003; Pastre et al., 2003; Deschodt et al., 2004), immediately ater the morphogenesis of the hydrographical network in the early Late Glacial, in a context of imbalance between water level luctuation and vegetation cover (Bogaart et al., 2003). In contrast, the late Allerød is dry. The groundwater was so low than no peat formed in the depression instead a meadow covered the area. Between these two extremes, we observe a series of intermediate situations with the depression being sometimes fed by the water table (with peat formation, Phase 3 and Phase 8), and sometimes a flood-plain environment (with deposition of alluvial silt, Phase 4 and Phase 6). The duration of flood periods increases during the Allerød, eventually leading to the development of a lake (Phase 7). The trends observed in the Dourges marsh are similar to those deduced from other studies in continental environments, in particular in the Netherlands (Bohncke and Vandenberghe, 1991).

Fig. 9. Late Glacial Dourges marsh evolution.

Conclusions

28The Dourges marsh study illustrates well the geoarchaeological approach. The comparison of diverse data in a stratigraphic framework promotes the full comprehension of the complexity, and sometimes the subtlety, of past human environments. In the present case, sedimentary and palaeontological data made it possible to reconstruct changes in hydrology and hydrography during the Late Glacial. The cold phases (Older Dryas and the Intra-Allerød Cold Period) are dry and the wetness recorded during the warm phases varies. The water table is particularly high in the early Bølling. Delay in the establishment of tree cover and low evapotranspiration could amplify this climatic phenomenon. A regime of short, seasonal looding dominates the late Bølling and the beginning of the Allerød. The end of the Allerød was particularly dry.

Fig. 10. Late Glacial humidity evolution in Dourges marsh diagram. 0: dry, morphological stability; 1: dry, soil horizon development; 2: peat development in low area; 3: marsh subject to flooding, spawing area, no fresh-water molluscs; 4: marsh subject to long flooding, spawing area, fresh water mollusc, tufa deposition; 5: lacustrine phase, mainly travertine deposition. Phases: see Fig. 9.

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Table des illustrations

Légende Fig. 1. Location. A: Regional context. B: Morphological context (1: relief according the IGN 1:25,000 maps, elevation in m NGF Lallemand survey; 2: human reworked topography, industrial area, quarry, slag heap). C: Dourges Marsh, elevation in m NGF IGN 69 (a: north site; b: south site; 1: manually excavated Ferdermesser level; 2: sampling location; 3: elk; 4: wild ox; 5: south manual excavation).
URL http://books.openedition.org/editionscnrs/docannexe/image/21870/img-1.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 1,1M
Légende Fig. 2. Lithostratigraphy. 1: loessic silt; 2: peat; 3: calcareous peaty silt; 4: brown peaty silt; 5: calcareous and organic silt with malacofauna, transition from calcareous tufa; 6: calcareous tufa; 7: lithic industry; 8: barbed and assagai points; 9: bone with anthropogenic cut marks; 10: mammalian fauna; 11: ichtyofauna; 12: abundant malacofauna. A: Sampling cross-section (inset: location in the northern site); B: Lithostratigraphic synthesis; C: Unit geometry in the deepest part of the marsh, along a-b crosssection (Fig. 1C).
URL http://books.openedition.org/editionscnrs/docannexe/image/21870/img-2.jpg
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Légende Fig. 3. Northern marsh stratigraphy. Unit description: see Fig. 2.
URL http://books.openedition.org/editionscnrs/docannexe/image/21870/img-3.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 569k
Légende Fig. 4. Calibrated radiocarbon date scheme and location in the section. OxCal v3.9. Atmospheric data from Stuiver et al. (1998).
URL http://books.openedition.org/editionscnrs/docannexe/image/21870/img-4.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 243k
Légende Fig. 5. Table of 14C dates. Calibration according CalCurve _ 2007_ HULU (Weninger and Jöris, 2008).
URL http://books.openedition.org/editionscnrs/docannexe/image/21870/img-5.jpg
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Légende Fig. 6. Distribution of mollusc species expressed in absolute values.
URL http://books.openedition.org/editionscnrs/docannexe/image/21870/img-6.jpg
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Légende Fig. 7. List and counts of mammalian taxa from Dourges by stratigraphic location. a: adult; y: youth/j: juvenile.
URL http://books.openedition.org/editionscnrs/docannexe/image/21870/img-7.jpg
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Légende Fig. 8. Barbed point in situ at the top of Bølling calcareous tufa.
URL http://books.openedition.org/editionscnrs/docannexe/image/21870/img-8.jpg
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Légende Fig. 9. Late Glacial Dourges marsh evolution.
URL http://books.openedition.org/editionscnrs/docannexe/image/21870/img-9.jpg
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Légende Fig. 10. Late Glacial humidity evolution in Dourges marsh diagram. 0: dry, morphological stability; 1: dry, soil horizon development; 2: peat development in low area; 3: marsh subject to flooding, spawing area, no fresh-water molluscs; 4: marsh subject to long flooding, spawing area, fresh water mollusc, tufa deposition; 5: lacustrine phase, mainly travertine deposition. Phases: see Fig. 9.
URL http://books.openedition.org/editionscnrs/docannexe/image/21870/img-10.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 64k

Auteurs

Research Engineer, National Institute for Preventive Archaeological Research (INRAP Nord-Picardie), Amiens, France (eric.teheux@inrap.fr).

Research Engineer, National Institute for Preventive Archaeological Research (INRAP Nord-Picardie), Amiens, France (jennifer.lantoine@inrap.fr).

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