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Les intraduisibles du patrimoine en Afrique subsaharienne

 | 
Danièle Wozny
, 
Barbara Cassin

E Fulfulde. Kelmiije ndonaandi ɗe pirotaako ender afrik les-saharaa

3. Ndonaandi

Volltext

aanglais.: heritage, patrimony
bamanakan: forobaciyen
français: patrimoine
sukuma: bulisi
swahili: urithi
tsonga: ndhazaka, pfindla

1Hono no ɗemɗe farayse e engele nii, ɗeen jogiiɗe caɗeele to batte ganndingol kelme, ɗemɗe Afrik ɗee na caɗtiraa dañde helmere ngam firde «patrimoine/ patrimony», helmere yummaare ruttinoore ndee e anndinoore jaɓaande ndee to Unesco. Waɗi ɗum noon ko «ndonaandi» wonaa gootum, ko ɗum geɗe keewɗe: tawaandi, ndi pinal, ndi memotaako/ndonaagu, memotoondi, cuuɗiindi walla ndenndaandi, ndi leñol, diiwaniiri, ngenndiiri, adunankeeri…

2Ɗee ɗoo caɗeele ganndingol kolliri ko fayiida gonɗo oo e «ndonaandi» ngam fahmude, ɓeta, duysa, kadi aditoo waylowaylooji jolooji ɗii e nder won dingiral leydi.

3So wonii miijnoore «ndonaandi» suwaa tawa laaɓtude e nder renndooji fof ne, haɗaani kam nde fuɗɗiima feeñde, gila duuɓi han capanɗe, e ayaaawo jatol nii: ina darii darnde ɗaminaawu keɓe kese e/walla teeŋtingol ngenndinkaagal, walla boom keɓtugol heɓtinirde mum.

4Ɗum ɓuri toɗɗaade ko ndonaandi tawaandi, sabu keewal geɗe peɗinaanɗe heen ɗee, ɗe mbaɗaa geɗe ndonaandi, kam e geɗe deentaaɗe/kaɗanaaɗe ɗee; tawa kadi njaru njulaagu na fawaa e ngaluuji leydeele, ɗi kuulle guurɗe, ɗi iwdiiji maaje, ɗi diheele ɗi nganndu-ɗaa ɗi meeɗaa yeeyeede walla sodeede haa hannde. Oon sahaa, casi kesi njola. Ko noon kadi ndanaandi pinal ne yahri, hono no jattiiji sulu’en, peññinɗi ɗii mbaadiiji turismo kesi, toon to Afrik Worgo; walla kadi nokkuuji e ñemmbe maccungaagu ɗi nganndu-ɗaa ɗii, ko jiidaa koo e keɓtugol keɓtinirɗe, ina naamnitoo daartol/taarik, iɗi naamnitoo kadi jotondire e leyɗe Hirnaange ɗee.

e farayse, e engele

Ganndinooje ɗee

5Saggitorde Larousse [Larus, saggitorde farayse] tottiri ko ɗii ɗoo maanaaji:

6Ngalu donaaɗo e mawɓe (jiɓnaaɓe walla taaniiɓe) mum

7Ko jaggiraa jawdi keeriindi, ngalu: woni ngalu mum, ko hakkille mum.

8Ko jaggira ndonu yimɓe ndenndaangu: ndonaandi leydi.

9Denndaangal jawdeele, hakkeeji, e ñamliraaɗe, jogiiɗe njaru to batte ngalu-e-faggudu, ɗe neɗɗo gooto waawi wonande joom walla jogiiɗo.

10Denndaangal geɗe baawɗe wayleede walla ɓennineede e goɗɗo, ɗe nganndu-ɗaa, eɗe mbaawi wonde njeyaari, e won sahaa, wonande neɗɗo keeriiɗo, galle (ɓesngu), antampiriis walla dental renndo.

Miijnoore ndonaandi to batte sariya

11Lasli miijnoore ndonaandi to sariya feeñri e [durwaa piriwee] laawol keeringol ko wonde «denndaangal ngaluuji e pawiiɗe wonande neɗɗo gooto e hoore mum […], gila e ko dañaa haa e ko waasaa, tawa ina ƴeewraa laawol kuuɓtidinngol, maanaa fofof coomɗo gila e jawdi mu’en hannde haa e paandi arde kala» (Gérard Cornu, Vocabulaire juridique, PUF, 2011, p. 738).

12Ndee ɗoo miijnoore to sariya – ko ɗum mahngo laawol tan noon – ende jogii nafoore kuutoragol; sifaa «ndonaandiyankeejum» oo, maa sifoya hakkeeji yimɓe to ngalu. E nder feccere ɗimmere teemedannde XXe nde ne, miijnoore ndonaandi pinal to sariya kadi feeñii, na roondii faamamuya goɗɗo. Nde fiɓondiri hakkunde nafoore joom walla tamɗo oo, e nafoore renndo ngoo, waawde jogaade sañana pinal mum. Ndonaandi pinal toɗɗii ko ngaluuji ɗi nganndu-ɗaa, ko jiidaa koo e nafoore ɗoret ɗoret, walla lilnde, nde joom walla tamɗo oo heɓata heen ndee, eɗi peññini pinal ngenndi walla leñol, ɗi ngenndi ndii walla leñol ngol ɓuri horsinde, tee kadi ɗi ŋakkere majji waawaaka jaɓeede.

13Gaadondiral-hurum ngal Batu Orop, jowitiingal e njaru ndonaandi pinal wonande renndo ngal, jaɓangal to Faro ñande 27 oktoobar 2005, ngal wi’i e taƴre maggal 2 ndee wonde ndonaandi pinal ko «dental ngaluuje donaaɗe e ko yawti, tawa yimɓe na njaggiri ɗe, ko jidaa koo e batte njeyaari, wonde daarorgal e peññinirgal ɓure maɓɓe, gooŋɗine maɓɓe, gannde e aadaaji maɓɓe, ngonɗi e ƴellitaade e kala sahaa. Ɗuum ɗoon na nawoori kala mbaadiiji taariindi jaltuɗi e jotondiral, e nder yahdu jamaanu, hakkunde yimɓe ɓee e nokkuuji ɗii».

Peɗingol e leƴƴi1

  • 1 Peɗingol: peccugol, naatnugol e pelle.

14Gaadondiral jowitiingal ngal e ndonaandi aduna, pinal e tawaandi, ngal UNESCO jaɓi ngal e hitaande 1972, tee ngal anndiraa «Gaadondiral ndonaandi aduna», haali tan ko haala ndonaandi mahaandi, e nder geɗe mayri jowitiiɗe e pinal/walla tawaaɗe ɗee.

15Anndinoore ndonaandi pinal ndee (taƴre 1o), e nde ndonaandi tawaandi ndee (taƴ. 2), mbeñondiraani. Ngaluuji baɗduɗi ɗii mbaadiiji pinal e tawaaɗi kala, ɗi ciforaa ko ndonaandi njillondirndi pinal e tawaandi.

16Ko ɗum waasi koo laaɓtude e nder binndol taƴre adande ndee fof, miijnoore «wiiwo [walla dingiral] pinal», tafaande ndee ummoraade e paamal jajjitaangal wonande «baɗle neɗɗo e tagoore tippondirɗe», toɗɗii ko ngaluuji binnditaaɗi e doggol ndonaandi aduna, ɓeydotooɗi heewde.

17Wiiwooji pinal ɗii – ngaluuji pinal – waɗi anndinoore majji ko Joopale potɗe ɗee ɗowde tabitingol Gaadondiral ndonaandi aduna ngal: «eɗi paamina jahgol renndo aadeeɓe ngoo, kam e koɗgol mum, e nder yiilo jamanuuji, ngol nganndu-ɗaa waɗi ngol ko batte caɗeele geɗe nguurndam e/walla fartaŋŋeeji baawɗi dañeede e taariindi majji tawaandi, kam e doole renndo, ngalu e pinal dewondirɗe, gila to boowal haa to ndeer».

18Ko goonga noon, ɗee ɗoo ganndinooje ngasnaani toɓɓere kuuɓtidingol ɓaarondiral hakkunde tawaandi e pinal ngal – ko nganndu-ɗaa koo, ko ko joortaa tan boom -; ɗe ngasnaani kdi toɓɓere hol njaru heɓtinantee leƴƴi ciliraaɗi to batte ganndal too: ɓural to batte daartol, to ŋari, to ganndal leƴƴi aadeeɓe, to ganndal neɗɗanke.

Kelmeendi ndaɗɗudi, wonande binnditgol ngalu

Daartol Gaadondiral 1972 ngal

  • 2 To leydi Misira/Esipta

19Miijo deentugol jattiiji ngoo, sosaa ko caggal Wolde Aduna Adande ndee (Première Guerre mondiale [Puramyeer Geer Monnjaal]), kam e pusgol/mahtugol ngol nde saabiinoo ngol. Gootal e golwole puɗɗiiɗe ɗum ɗee, ko mahgol uddo [baaraas] Assouan [Aswaŋ]2 ngol: ngol jogornoo ko yoolde, e ilam, caanngol ɗo juulirde Abuu Simmbel wonnoo ɗoo. Ngam haɗde ɗuum ɗoon, UNESCO udditi, e hitaande 1959, kammpaañ hakkundeleyɗe ngam daɗndude ngaluuje caanngol ngol – juulirɗe ɗee peŋtaa, ngegginaa [toknaa], mbaɗtitaa. Ngal ɗoo gollal ngal alaa wano, waɗtoyaa to jattiiji goɗɗi, ngal fuɗɗii noon ɓenndinde miijo cosgol kuutorgal hakkunde-leyɗe laawɗinoowal. Peeje keewɗe mbattindi ƴettaa, to Dowlaaji e to pelle ɗe ngonaa laamuyankooje ɗee, haa ɗum joofoyi, e les kalifaandi UNESCO, e winndannde nde nganndu-ɗaa, maa nde jaɓoye e Batu Kuuɓtidinɗo UNESCO, mbo 16 noowammbar 1972, nde wi’aa «Gaadondiral jowitiingal e deentugol ndonaandi aduna ndi pinal e tawaandi».

Ganndinooje ɗee

20Taƴre 1 nde Gaadondiral ngal jaggiri «ndonaandi pinal» ko:

  • monimaaji ɗii: baɗle kowki, sehngo, walla pentuur [goobu] mawɗi, ceedtorɗi, geɗe walla juɓɓule jowitiiɗe e ganni leyɗi, binndanteeje, gasɗe kaaƴe, e goomuuji geɗe, jogiiɗe njaru winndere ngu alaa wano to batte daartol [taarik jamaanu], ñeeñal walla ganndal,

  • dente ɗee: goomuuji mahanteeje ceerɗe walla dennduɗe ɗe nganndu-ɗaa, sabaabu nde kowki majje, ngootaagu majje, walla naattugol majje e nder wiiwo [koɗorle walla tagoore], eɗe njogii njaru winndere ngu alaa wano to batte daartol, ñeeñal walla ganndal,

  • jattiiji ɗii: baɗle neɗɗo walla baɗle neɗɗo e tagoore tippondirɗe, kam yoo nokkuuji, haa arti e jttiiji gnaandi leydi, jogiiɗe njaru winndere ngu alaa wano to batte daartol, njooɗeeki, ganndal leƴƴi walla aadeeɓe.

21Taƴre 2 ndee jaggiri ndonaandi tawaandi ko:

  • monimaaji tawaaɗi ɗii, ɗi nganndu-ɗaa waɗi ko diɗɗe geɗe dariiɗe e guurɗe, walla goomuuji hono ɗeen ɗoon ɗiɗɗe, jogiiɗe njaru winndere ngu alaa wano to batte njooɗeeki, walla ganndal,

  • diɗɗe kaaƴe e nguru-leyɗiije, kam e nokkuuji keertaaɗi haa laaɓi, tawa eɗi ngoni hoɗorde kuule walla puɗi jogorɗe suytude, jogiiɗe njaru winndere ngu alaa wano to batte ganndal walla mooftugol,

  • jattiiji tawaaɗi ɗii walla nokkuuji tawaaɗi, keertaaɗi ɗii haa laaɓi, jogiiɗe njaru winndere ngu alaa wano to batte ganndal, mooftugol walla to njooɗeeki (ŋari) tagdaaki.

Cuɓorɗe sappo ngam tabitingol gaadondiral ngal ɗee: jeegoo ɗe pinal, e nayi tawaaɗe

22Cuɓorɗe pinal ɗee, ko ɗee ɗoo:

  • Wonde baɗal-ñeeñal kolliroowal mbaawka cosgol hakkille aadee;

  • Seedtaade gostondiral batte manngal, e nder won dumunna [jamaanu], walla e nder won dingiral pinal keeringal, e dow ƴellitagol kowki, walla karallagal, walla ñeeñe monimaaji, eɓɓugol gure, walla baɗgol wiiwooji;

  • Addude seede bajjo, walla mbo alaa wano, e dow aada pinal, walla finaa-tawaa ngonaaɗo walla jawtuɗo;

  • Wonde yeru teskiniiɗo no feewi, wonande mbaadi mahgol, walla diɗɗal kowki, walla karallagal, walla wiiwo holliroowo sahaa walla sahaaji teskiniiɗi e nder daartol jamaanu;

  • Wonde yeru hoɗorde yimɓe aadanteere teskiniiɗo, walla kuutoragol ngeereendi gaadantewol, walla kuutoragol maayo haaɗngo, tawa ko ko seednata pinal (walla pine), walla tippondiral hakkunde neɗɗo e taariindi, teeŋti noon saanga nde taariindi ndii wonti mbeewndi bonnude, sabu nde waywaylo mbo alaa ruttaare;

  • Jotondirde, e jaati, walla to memgol, e golwole walla aadaaji guurɗi, miijooji, gooŋɗine, walla golle ñeeñal e coñce, jogiiɗe maanaa winndere mbo alaa wano. (Komitee oo hawri ko wonde ngal ɗoo cuɓorgal foti ɓurde huutereede ko saanga nde ngal yahdodinaa e cuɓore goɗɗe).

23Cuɓorɗe tawaaɗe ɗee, ko ɗee ɗoo:

  • Hollirde geɗe tawaaɗe walla dingire (nokkuji, lowe) ɗe ŋari tawaaki (tagdaaki) e fayiida njooɗeeki ɗe ngalaa wano;

  • Wonde yeruuji dowrowi, ceedtotooɗi dawe daartol leydi mawɗe ɗee, haa nawori ceedtagol nguurndam, e baylagol kaaƴe leydi gonangol, e nder ɓamtagol mbaadiiji leydi, walla geɗe mbaadi nguru leydi, walla wertaango leydi, jogiiɗe maanaa teskiniiɗo;

  • Wonde yeruuji dowrowi, ceedtotooɗi ɓosɓose taariindi e nguurndam, gonaaɗe, e nder jahgol e ƴellitagol yuɓɓo-tagooje e renndooji puɗi e kuule njoorndi, diƴƴe, daaɗe-maaje e maaje kaaɗɗe;

  • Soomde koɗorle tawaaɗe ɓurɗe teskinde e ɓurɗe waɗde fayiida ɗee, ngma mooftugol, e nokku mum, keewceeral nguurndam, haa arti e ɗoon ɗo leƴƴi kuule deppuɗi ngoni e wuurde, tawa ko njogiiɗe njaru winndere ngu alaa wano, to batte ganndal e mooftugol.

Wiiwooji walla dingire pinal ɗee

  • 3 Muumɗugol: wonde muum, ko hiɓɓi, timmi, tawa alaa ko ŋakki heen.

24Deentegol, kisnegol, nuunɗugol e muumɗugol3 ngaluuje ɗee, kañum ne koɗum geɗe baɗɗe fayiida. Gile 1992, naatnaattondire ɓurɗe mawnude hakkunde yimɓe e nokku mu’en tawaaɗo ɗee ko ko heɓtiniraa wonde ko ɗum wiiwooji pine.

25«Wiiwooji pine ɗii, ko ɗum ngaluuje pine kollirooji baɗle tippondirɗe hakkunde neɗɗo e tagoore. Eɗi ceedtoo baylagol renndo [e nder jahgol mum] e koɗgol yimɓe, e nder jamanuuji, ko nganndu-ɗaa waɗi ɗum ko batte caɗeele geɗe nguurndam e/walla fartaŋŋeeji baawɗi dañeede e taariindi majji tawaandi, kam e doole renndo, ngalu e pinal dewondirɗe, gila to boowal haa to ndeer

Wiiwooji/dingire pinal: lasli miijnoore
Fawaade e politikaaji laamuuji wonande deentugol jattiiji e monimaaji, ƴellitaaɗi ɗii, teeŋtinaa kadi e naatirde teemedannde xxiire ndee, daɗndugol wiiwooji ɗii ina sinndondiraa e peeje mawningol keɓtinirɗe e pine ngenndiije ɗee. «Wiiwo woni ayaawo suudu baaba yiɗaango ngoo», ko noon John ruskin [Jon Ruskin] winndirnoo. Ko ngaal ɗoon cinndondiral, yantude e golle anndiyankeeɓe leyɗi, ngaddi miijnoore «wiiwo/ayaawo/dingiral pinal» nde Carl o. Sauer [Karlo O. So’eer] tonngiri nde e miijo hono nii: «Wiiwo/ayaawo pinal mahii ko e wiiwo tawaango, tawa ko renndo pinal waĐi Đum. Ko pinal woni baĐo oo, tawaandi/tago woni kuutorgal ngal, ayaawo pinal woni njeñcudi ndii» [Carl O. Sauer, «The Morphology of Landscape», Geography, vol. 2, n° 2, university of California Publications, 1925, p. 46.]. Sarɗiiji hakkunde-leyɗe jaɓaaɗi ɗii e nder teemedannde xxiire ndee, ɗi tabitintaa miijnoore ayaawo pinal ndee; ɓuranta ɗi ko miijnoore njooɗeeki wiiwooji (gaadondiral oea ngal 1940), njooɗeeki e faayiida wiiwooji e jattiiji (wagginannde unesco nde 1962), walla ndeen miijnoore golle baɗdaaɗe hakkunde neɗɗo e tawaandi (gaadondiral unesco ngal 1972, lollirngal gaadondiral ndonaandi aduna).
Konngol «ayaawo pinal» ngol winndaaka e nder winndannde Gaadondiral 1972 ngal. Ngol feeñoyi tan ko e hitaande 1992, e nder joopale potɗe ɗee ɗowde tabitinal maggol. Miijnoore ndee sakkii ko lees anndinoore «jatti» ndee: golle neɗɗo/aadee walla golle ɗe neɗɗo e tawaandi mabɗdi, (…) jogiiɗe njaru winnder ngu alaa wano, to batte daartol jamaanu, ŋari, ganndal leƴƴi yimɓe, walla ganndal neɗɗankooɓe.
Gila nde ɗe ngadii winndeede, e hitaande 19 77, ɗee ɗoo joopale ceeraani e feewtineede e winnditeede, sahaa e sahaa kala. Gonnooɗe taƴe 27 e 19 77, ngontii taƴe 290 e winndannde 2013 ndee. Ngal ɗoo keewal haa ɓurti jamirooje kuƴcinaaɗe, e nde wootere, e Goomu/Komitee ndonaandi aduna oo, e batuuji ɓeto ɗii, e fannuyankooɓe ɓee, e Dowlaaji terɗe ɗii fof, holliri tan, e nder geɗe goɗɗe, ko pooɗtagol miijnoore ndonaandi aduna, nde nganndu-ɗaa ndee, miijnoore ayaawo pinal ndee ko nde maande heen.
Joopale ɗee (winndannde 2013) eɗe pecci ayawooji pinal ɗii e leƴƴi tati: ayaawo laɓɓinaango, ngo aadee miijii sosi e belaaɗe mum, ayaawo wonngo e waylaade, ayaawo pinal ngo dental. Kala heen noon e ɗee ɗoo taƴe miijnooje ko ko laɓɓinaa haa laaɓi, ngam fannuyankooɓe ɓee na mbaawa heɓtinde fedde nde heen kala leñol ayaawo waawi renndineede.
Hade ɗii ɗoo leƴƴi pecce noon, ina woodani yimɓe heɓduɓe ɓee e ɗiiin ayawooji kam saɗeende woɗnde. adotoo anndinde ayaawo (walla wiiwo) fof ko yitere, kam e baawgol renndo innude ko yitere waawi koo sooynodaade; renndo ngoo waawa kadi miijaade ñemmbirɗe ɗemngal jowitiiɗe e ayaawo pinal – ko woni koo miijo ɓolo – haa gasna kadi waawa heertaade ngaal ɗoon dingiral.

26Waɗde noon, ina feeña ɗoo caɗeele gonɗe ɗee e etaade – hay so woni ko ko moƴƴi – waasde seerndude tawaandi e pinal, waɗtorde kadi gollondire hakkunde aadee e taariindi mum; cosgol konngol «ayaawo pinal» ngol, ɗum woodii ko ɗum alɗini e kelmeendi Unesco ndenndaandi ndii, kono mbele eɗum feññina keewal mbaadiiji miijagol pinal e tawaandi ngal, kam e keewceeral mbaadiiji jiirugol dingiral tawangal no wonde «wiiwo/ayaawo»?

27Peeje limlimte etagol firde ayaawo pinal e nder ɗemɗe Afrik ɗee, tonngi ɗe ko ceertugol ji’anɗe e ko yowitii koo e jotondiral hakkunde tawaandi e pinal, nde wonnoo e nder pine Afrik ɗee, tawaandi e pinal ina naatnaattondira no goɗɗum, ɗum yaha boom haa ɗum wonta gootum.

28Konngol «wiiwo/ayaawo pinal» ngol, ina toɗɗi geɗe baɗle tippondirɗe hakkunde neɗɗo e taariindi mum tawaandi keewɗe, ceerɗe. Wiiwooji pinal ɗii, keewi wonde ko daarorgal karalle kuutoragol leydi, e newaare, keeriiɗe ɗe nganndu-ɗaa eɗe mbaɗtori sifaaji e keeri taariindi tawaandi ɗo ɗe ngoni ɗoo, kam e jotondiral diineeji keeringal hakkunde majje e tagoore ndee. Deentugol wiiwooji pine ɗee, ina waawi wallitde e karalle kese ngam kuutoragol newingol e ƴellitgol leydeele, tawa ɓure wiiwo tawaaɗe ɗee na moftaa walla moƴƴitinaa. Duumaare mbaadiiji kuutoragol leydeele gaadantewol ɗii, ina wallita keewceeral nguurndam kuule, e nder yoga e nokkuuji aduna ɗii. Ndekete noon, deentugol wiiwooji pine tawaaɗi ɗii, ina nafa duumaare keewceeral ngurndam kuule.

29Eeraango adana ngoo waɗaa ko to Washington DC [Wasiŋton Dii Sii], e hitaande 1978. Gaadondiral ngal, ngal nganndu-ɗaa ko maggal ɓuri wonde winndereyankeewal e nder Yuɓɓo dowlaaji dennduɗi ɗii kala, ko Dowlaaji 190 nuunɗina ngal.

30Doggol geɗe ndonaandi aduna ngol, waɗi, e ñalaande hannde ndee, ko 981 ngaluuje, gonɗe e nder 160 leydi. Eɗe peccii e 759 pineyanke, e 193 tawaaɗe, e 29 jillondirɗe.

Puuytingol ndonaandi to batte sariya

31Lelnaaɗe laawol Afrik ɗee ngalanaa ndonnaadi anndinoore hawraande. Ɗeen ɗoon lelnaaɗe ko nii keewi waɗde: maa ɗe mbaɗa ganndinooje kuuɓtitinɗe, jaajɗe, pawiiɗe e cuɓorɗe keɓtingol leƴƴi ngaluuje, jeyaaɗe e sato «ndonaandi», maa ndeen ɗe kuutora karallaagal limtugol (hono to leydi Malawi).

32Cuɓorɗe keɓtingol leƴƴi ngaluuji ɗee, ɗe tuugnii ko e yuɓɓooji ɓure pinal, ɗo nafoore to batte daartol, ganndal walla ñeeñal heewi ɓaarondirde e ustugol to batte ñalaaɗe walla jamanuuji ɗi geɗe ɗee mbaɗaa ɗii. Ɗeen ɗoon ganndinooje njowitii ko e karallaagal e/walla bannge politik; to seŋgo politik too, ɗe tuugnii ko e feere keɓtiniregol ngenndinkoowol to batte renndo ɓural, ɗo nganndu-ɗaa ɗoo, jerondirgol e jamaanu koloñaal ngol ina waawi wonande duttorgal teskinoowal. Ɗoon, ko laawol huutortee ngam hettande ndonaandi anndinoore, nde geɗe mum terɗe ngoni tammborde mahgol daarol Dowla-ngenndi oo.

33Hono to leydi Keñaa too, ko ngaluuje pinal gadiiɗe ɗee 1895 – hitannde nde ɗuwal (porotektoraa) engele sosaa ndee – tan mbaawi jaɓaneede, naatnee e peeje deenugol ɗe laawol lelni ɗee (tawa noon Ministe kalfinaaɗo Pinal oo na waawi, fawaade e taƴnal ƴettiranangal geɗal e geɗal, naattinde e nder lowre tabitinal laawol ndee, geɗe ndonaandi jeyaaɗe e caggal ndeen ɗoon hitaande). To leydi Sammbi too, miijnoore relics (no laawol innirta nii ndonaandi e ɗemngal engele) ndee, toɗɗii tan ko won ngaluuje tafaaɗe ko adii koo 1924, hitaande nde Engele’en ɓee puɗɗii ndee joganaade ko’e mu’en laamu leydi ndii, ɓe momti sarɗi bi’etenooɗo oo British South Africa Company joginooɗo oo, e adan, leydi ndii gila e Hawriinde (Komferaas) Berleŋ nde 1885 ndee. Ina woodi yeruuji goɗɗi: lelnannde laawol Gaana jaggi ko ñande hitaande 1900 (duuɓi nayi caggal nde joɗɗingol ɗuwal engele ngal, kono kadi 1900 ɓuri teskoreede ko murtugol baɗnongol ngol, nde wi’aa ndee Engele’en ɓee njiitii jooɗorgel kaŋŋe, gonnongel ñemmbirgal laamu asanehene, ngel rewtiiɓe laamɗo ɓee cuuɗnoo gila e 1896).

34Ko nii woni, daartol jiimgol tuubakiri ngol, ina heewi wonde geɗal teeŋtungal, e nder peeje lelnugol cuɓorɗe gannditgol e keɓtingol ndonaandi pinal to batte jaale laamu.

  • 4 Ɗe alaa ɗe keedi.

35Peeje jaɓɓal carɗingol goɗɗe - ɓurɗe wonde jaambureeje4 walla karalle – eɗe nganndinira ndonaandi pinal fawaade e nafoore pinal (e nder mbaadiiji mum to batte taarik – daartol-, ñeeñal, arkewolosi, hakkilantaagal…) walla fawaade e jillondiral cuɓorɗe. Ko ngaal ɗoon joopal kadi lelnanɗe laawol Lesoto, Malawi walla kadi Uganndaa ƴetti. To Uganndaa too,

36“monimaa daartol” firti ko kala huunde, jatti, nokku, huɓeere walla mahanteeri, jotondirɗum e golwole daartiyankooje”; anndinoore nootitiinde e faandaare t° 25 nde Doosgal ngonka Uganndaa ngal 1995, biingal ngal wonde Dowla oo e ɓiyleydi’en ɓee, maa mbaɗ kaaɗdi baawɗe mumen ngam mooftude ndeenta, kadi ƴellita, gaadoragol mooftugol e deentugol jeyi renndo e ndonaandi Uganndaa.

37Ndeen ɗoon yi’annde ende ƴellitaa kadi e nder ko ɓuri koo heewde e lelnanɗe laawol leyɗeele Afrik haalfarayseejoe joopiiɗe ɗee ndonaandi, ndi nganndu-ɗaa ndii ko diɗɗal nafooje pinal waɗi haa laawol na reeni ndi. Yeru, kuulal Senegaal ngal 1971 ngal lelni, e taƴre mum adande, ko “ina limtiraa wonde monimaaji daartol jamaanu, denndaangal ngaluuje dillooje walla mahaaɗe, ɗe laamu walla keeriiɗe, haa nawori monimaaji tawaaɗi, kam e jattiiji, wondi yoo nokkuuji e oogirɗe kiiɗɗe ɗe nganndu-ɗaa ɗee, deentugol e mooftugol majje ina jogii nafoore to batte daartol, ñeeñal, ganndal, daarol walla jooɗgol e yitere”.

38Hono ngal ɗoo cuɓorgal, ina waawi timmitinireede kiiɗgol, ko famɗi famɗi kala, wano to Afrik Worgo too: toon lelnannde laawol ndee, ngam jaɓegol jattiiji e nokkuuji batteeji arkewolosi, ina naamnii kiiɗgol ko famɗi famɗi kala ko wonata hakke duuɓi 100, gartirangol e duuɓi 75 wonande jattiiji jowitiiɗi ɗii e daartol harbiyankaakal (militeer). Ngol ɗoo ɓaartagol e kiiɗgol jamaanu, elle ko kamngol ɓuri feewtindaade e taƴgol ngol hitaande wootere tan; naamnagol kiiɗeendi famɗi famɗi kala ngol, ko ɗum dumunna dallinirɗo ngam jaɓegol to batte pinal wonnde ngalu oo, kam e lajal tabitingol ɓosɓosal baɗtegol e ndonaandi ngal.

39Feere limtugol ndee, ko ndeen lelnannde laawol Malawi kam huutorto:

«Monimaa» firti ko kala nokku leydi jogiiɗo ayaawo teskiniingo walla yooɗngo, walla baɗɗo puɗi teskiniiɗi walla jooɗɗi, walla kala nokku leydi, mbildi, huɓeere, mahanteeri, gente, kowol kaaƴe darnaaɗe, kaaƴal gootal, juulirde, ƴaaŋgal, mahdi neɗɗo, siftorirde, yenaande, tulde, joowre kaaƴe, nokku ubbirde, gsɗe goɗirɗe, gammbol, tata, ngaska, golle, juɗirde, haaƴre hooseere, ngaska haaƴre, jiɗde, tulel, ngaska ndiyam, ngaska haaƴre, natal haaƴre, pentuur haaƴre, pentuur walla binndol ɓalal, walla kala jatti goɗɗo walla geɗel baangel noon, walla jahdungel heen, jogingel ɓural walla nafoore to batte arkewolosi, sewolosi, ganndal aadeeɓe, ganndal leƴƴi yimɓe, ganndal ganni daartol, daartol, ñeeñal walla ganndal, walla kala batte keddiiɗe e hono ɗuum walla ko jeyaa heen – jatti mbo monimaa walla goomu monimaaji yiitaa walla woni; kadi hono ndeen ɗoon lowre leydi, hikkiinde e hono oon jatti, no zum waawata soklireede nii ngam moɓtude walla reentude oon monimaa walla goomu monimaaji.

40Hono ndee ɗoo anndinoore na waawi addude jiiɓru, walla kadi jejjitgol won e leƴƴi ngaluuje.

41Ndeen noon tan, ɗii ɗoo mbaadiij cifagol ndonaandi pinal, fawaade e lelnanɗe laawol ndonaandi, mbaɗtoraani ko woni koo tigi rigi geɗe nokkuuji ɗee no haanirta nii, ɗi naworaani kadi sifaaji geɗe «ndonaandiyankooje» ɗe renndooji ɗii keɓtini walla nginnani ko’e majji ɗee. Nde wonnoo ɗum fawii tan ko e ñemtingol feere lelnugol laawol – tawi ko laawol jiimiyankooɓe hanke ɓee woni ndaddudi ndii - ganndinooje ndonaandi pinal, e nder lelnanɗe laawol Afrik hannde ɗee, ngoni ko e jokkude, e mbaadi ngoɗndi, hono mahngo keɓtingol ndonaandi ngenndi dariingo, golle nannditingol pinal – hono ñenngegol to hakkille – ngol tuubakooɓe koloñaal ɓee puɗɗinoo ngol.

Tokoraaje e kelme ginnirɗe «patirimuwaan» e nder ɗemɗe Afrik les-sahaaraa ɗee

E kiswahili urithi, e sukuma bulisi

Ndonaandi tawaandi e ndonaandi pinali

42E ko ɓuri heewde, haalooɓe nokkuuji kiswahili e sukuma ɓee mbi’ata ko helmere adande ndee ko ko Alla waɗi, ɗimmere ndee ko ko aadeeɓe mbaɗi.

43Helmere urithi ndee huutortee ko ngam innude ndonu kam e kaake donaaɗe e galle, ɗum wonti noon maanaa ndonaandi. Konngol ngol jiggaa ko e ɗemngal arab, ngal nganndu-ɗaa ngal, nde wonnoo angal haalee e Tansani gila e teemedannde IXe, angal heewi ko battini e ɗemɗe Tansani fof, haa teeŋti noon e kiswahili. Sukumaa’en ɓee, ɓe kuutortoo ko ndeen ɗoon helmere wootere, kono tawa ende waylii seeɗa to wowlaango: bulisi.

44E oo ɗoo jamaanu, ina teskaa wonde helmere ndee na ɓeydii yaajde to kuutoragol, nde toɗɗii hankadi ndonaandi fof’en ndenndaandi: urithi wa Tansaniya (ndonaandi Tansani) et urithi wetu (ndonanndi men ngenndiiri).

45Urithi na nawori lowe ɗiɗi ɗee kala, ndonaandi pinal e ndonaandi tawaandi, tawa noon kiswahili kam waɗi ɗum tan ko gootum.

46So yiɗaama laɓɓitineede haa ɓura laaɓde, wi’ee:

47 Urithi wa kimaumbile ɗum firta ndonaandi tawaandi; konngol ngol ko nii mahorii:

48ki-: «feere no…»

49maumbile: «taggol, tagoore»

50Miijnoore «ndonaandi tawaandi» ndee ruttirta ko e tagoore, ko adii nde aadee waɗata heen junngo mum. Waɗde noon, konngol ngol na woɗɗotiri e helmiire «ndonaandi pinal» ndee.

51 Urithi wa kiutamaduni, ko ngool konngol tigi huutortee ngam innude ndonaandi pinal. Utamaduni ko ɗum jiggaande e arab, ɗum firti mbaadiiji nguurndam, baɗle renndo e pinal, ɗum soomori noon kala ko yowitii e ko aadee waɗi.

52E sukuma, so a yiɗi wiide «ndonaandi tawaandi», kuutortaa ko bulisi wa kasumbile; konngol ngol ko nii mahorii:

53ka: «mbaadi no…»

54sumba: «sosde, tagde».

55Ndeen, e sukuma yoo e kiswahili fof, ndonaandi tawaandi ruttirta ko e miijo tagoore Alla.

56So a yiɗi wiide «ndonaandi pinal», kuutortaa ko bulisi wa kiikalile, helmere taforiinde hono nii:

57ki: «mbaadi no…»

58ikalile, ceekaɗum e baɗal ikala, «jooɗaade, wonde e…».

59E ɗemngal shisukuma, «ndonaandi pinal» soomori ko denndaangal baɗle nguurndam ñande kala, e nguurndam renndo fof.

Ndonaandi ndi memotaako walla ndonaagu

  • 5 Jattiniiɗe: baaɗe no wootere tan, tawa mbaylotaako.

60E ɗemngal kiswahili, ceertugol ndonaandi ndonaandi memotoondi/ndonaandi ndi memotaako alaa ɗo darii, ellee ɗum seertaani. Ko kelme jattiniiɗe5 tan kuutortee: urithi usioonekana/naoonekana («ji’otooɗum/ɗum yi’otaako»).

61Darnde ɗee ɗoo keleme, tafaaɗe tan ngam nootitaade e ngoƴaaji Unesco ɗii, ende yaaji haa ɓuri, kadi ende jilɓi; hannde hannde oo, heewaani ko yimɓe kuutorta ɗe e keewal. Yimɓe ɓee ɓurata yiɗde huutoraade ko helmere sanaa, helmere huuɓtidinnde ngam innude denndaangal ñeeñe baɗetenooɗe gila hanki haa hannde, walla ndeen za zamani, wonande ñeeñe kiiɗɗe ɗee, walla haa jooni za jadi, wonande ñeeñe gaadane, ɗe njidaa ɗee e za kisasa, ñeeñe hannde.

62E sukuma, ina seerndaa ka hakkunde ko yi’otoo e ko yi’otaako, shibonwa e ishitabonwa. Haa jooni, ko ko naamnittee koo e kiswahili tan woni ɗoo ne.

63Ceerndugol hakkunde memotooɗum e ko memotaako koo kam, addi ngol tan ko ngoƴaaji limtagol geɗe ndonaandi, kam e jotondire e renndo hakkunde-leyɗe ngoo, e Unesco.

Wiiwo/ayaawo pinal

64Ina tafaa e kiswahili konngol upeo wa kiutamaduni, ummorngol e upeo: «jiiki», ki: «hono no…» e utamaduni: «pinal».

65Waɗde, daande e dannde, wiiwo pinal wonata tan ko njiireten koo e mbaadi pinal, tawa pinal na soomi ko aadee sosi koo fof (mahaneeje ɗe kala sifaa), ɗum ari naatti e nder wiiwo tawaango ngo Alla waɗi ngoo.

66Ina feeña ɗoo jiiɓru mawndu, so yerondiraama e anndinoore Unesco ndee, sabu ndeen wi’i ko woni «wiiwo pinal» tan ko wiiwo/ayaawo ngo aadee waɗi ngoo, kono wonaa ngo o seedtii ngoo.

67E sukuma, haa jooni, feere mahngo helmere ndee ko wootere tan; kabonele ka wikalile, firti ko «yiirude gite pinal», ɗuum ɗoon noon ko ŋakki laaɓtude, sabu ɗum feññaa e jaati miijo daɗɗiingo ngoo e «wiiwo pinal».

E tsonga [tisonngaa] (Mosammbik, Afrik Worgo, Simmbaabuwe e Siwasilannda): ndhzaka ou pfindla

68Ko ndhzaka walla pfindla kuutortee ngam innude ndonaandi, kono noon tawa ko e ayaawo dowrowo tan, ko laaɓtaani. Dono woni, fawaade e gaajaate renndo, neɗɗo mbo liggotaako, jooɗii tan fadi «ronde» gila e rewɓe haa e jawdeele cankiiɗo oo.

69Rifuwo toɗɗii ngaluuje dariiɗe, kam e ndonaandi mbaawndi waɗteede dañal, kaalis. Helmere afuwile firti neɗɗo jogiiɗo ndonaandi keewndi.

70Ndonaandi tawaandi ndi aadee waɗi walla artiri e jeyal mum ndii, wi’etee ko rifuwo.

71Tumbunuko woni ndonaandi tawaandi maanaa no tagoore Alla woniri nii, tawa aadee alaa heen feere: maaje, ƴooŋe/kaaƴe, kuule ladde, ekn.

Ndonaandi ndi memotaako

72Ngam innude ndonaandi ndi memotaako, huutortee ko konngol ndzhaka leyi nga vonakiki, maanaa «ngaluuje ɗe mbaawaa yi’eede», «ngaluuje ɗe nji’otaako».

73So arti noon e baɗle gabbitiiɗe e magooji/tiyaataar, ngamri, sinema, huutortee ko ndzhaka levi vonakaka («ngaluuje ji’otooɗe», waɗde ɗum arta e kelme kuutorteeɗe ɗee ngam innude ndonaandi memotoondi ndii). Ɗum ɗoo hollirii caɗeele gonɗe ɗee e ganndingol ndonaandi ndi memotaako fawaade e sarɗiiji Unesco ɗii.

Wiiwo/ayaawo pinal

74Konngol «wiiwo pinal» ngol firaaka. Ngol faaminirtee tan ko vukhavisi bya ndhawu kuya hi mfuwo miyako, mimfungho, na swin’wana, maanaa, «ginnugol jatti fawaade e faayiida mum to daartol/taarik, kuɓeeje, nokkuuji ciwtorgol ngenndi, ekn.».

75Ngol ɗoo ginnugol, wa’i tan ko no tiitoonde nde laamu waɗani jatti jogiiɗo nafoore ngenndi to batte daartol, tawa engu yiɗi yoo jatti oo winndite e doggol ndonaandi aduna ngol Unesco ngol.

76So jiiɓru wonndu nduu e ndee ɗoo innde yuurnitaama, maa en pahmu no ɗum fa’i saɗtiroyde ngam yimɓe nokkuuji ɓee mbaawa ɗum heɓindaade no haanirta nii.

E fulfulde: ndonaandi

77Miijnoore ndonaandi ina woodi, ina anndaa, e ɗemngal yoo e pinal fulɓe fof. Helmere nde ɗum innirtee ndee, haawnaaki tawa nde huuraani denndaangal ko soomii koo e helmiire farayse «patirimuwaan» ndee fof, kono ina ɓuri ɓadaade ɗum no feewi.

78Ɗum waawi innireede ko kelme ɗiɗi cinnde, jiiduɗe lasli: helmere ndonaandi (<= ron – aa-ndi), maanaa «ndonaandi memotoondi, nji’otoondi walla ndariindi», keɓaandi e jibnaaɓe e taaniraaɓe, kam e helmere ndonaagu (<= ron – aa – gu) «ndonaandi ndi memotaako».

79Ɗoo, helmere ndee, heewnde huutoreede, ɗoofaa ko e ɗaɗol baɗal Ici, RoN- (innde baɗal RONde) e kuuɓal. Ende seerti noon e helmere ndon, maanaa «ko heɓaa, to batte diine e laawol, e geɗal jawdi ndi cankiiɗo acci caggal mum.

80Ndonaandi ko nii mahori:

81ron – «heɓde e jibnaaɓe walla taaniiɓe» (lomtondiral alkule r/d/nd)

82-aa- [maande PAWEGOL]

83 ndi [fedde inde NDI: geɗe ɗe limotaako, keewal denndungal (hono jawdi), jogingal miijnoore teddeendi, semmbe, ekn.),

84ɗum firti noon «denndanngal jawdi walla geɗe donaaɗe e yawtuɓe, tawa ko ko yi’otoo, ko memotoo».

85Kala ko woni nokku, mahdi, ñemmbirde, kuule, ekn., fof ina jeyaa heen.

86Ndonaagu ne ko nii mahori:

87ron – «heɓde e jibnaaɓe walla taaniiɓe» (lomtondiral alkule r/d/nd)

88-aa- [maande PAWEGOL]

89 gu [fedde innde NGU: geɗe miijaaɗe, mbaadiiji e sifaaji, jotondire, ekn.),

90ɗum firti noon «denndanngal ko ronaa, tawaa, e yawtuɓe to batte miijo, mbaadi, jikku, golle e baɗle, walla sifaa, ekn.).

91Kala ko woni mbaadi miijo, no miijortee, aadaaji, yi’annde aduna e nguurndam, golle e baɗle finaa-tawaaje, ko yimɓe renndo mbaɗdata (diwtuli, jarle, tuppungal, ekn.), fof ina jeyaa heen.

E bambrankoore: forobaciyεn

92E bambarankoore, ndonaandi firirtee ko forobaciyεn, maanaa ndonu ndenndaangu. Nguun ɗoon ndonu noon na waawi jeteede e fannuuji keewɗi. So tawii ko kaake galle, ina firiree «geɗal baawngal eggineede, tokneede, dirneede»: forobadɔnnikofεn tataw; so tawii ɗum wonaa ko dillee, ndonaangu ɓurata toɗɗaade ko ko abbitii e nokku, wonorde, ko wa’i no «nokkere, jatti gannde renndo»: forobadɔnni yɔrɔ.

93Ngoo ɗoo firo holliri ko wonde pahmugol ndonaandi pinal ndi dillaake ko ko waɗi caɗeele e bambarankoore. Ina teskaa wonde helmere «dillinaako» ndee, ɓuri toɗɗaade ko nokku walla joɗnde ɗo ngalu oo woni ɗoo, tawa wonaa miijnoore «ko egginaake», sifiinde ndee ndonaandi ndi dillataa miijaa heen. Geɗe mahaneeri firtaani tan nokku oo, ina toɗɗii kadi ngaluuji ɗi nganndu-ɗaa ɗii, to batte tagoore walla paandale majji, ɗi mbaawaa dirneede tawa tawa ɗum bonnaani ɗi walla bonnaaji taariindi majji ndii. Ɗum ɗoo, yaltaani e ngoo ɗoo firo.

94Helmere «memotaako» ndee noon, e bamabarankoore, wi’etee farinan, maanaa «ko alaa ɓanndu». Ndee ɗoo innde noon na hawri, teeŋti noon nde wonnoo «ko memotaako» koo, waawaa memeede walla tinireede junngo. Ko memotaako ɓuri heewde nanndidineede ko e henndu, walla e ko yi’otaako. Ina wi’ee, heen sahaaji, «jinne ardii henndu», ngam wiide tan, e yeru, wonde tagoore nde yi’otaako arii e nder aadeeɓe. Konngol «ko memotaako» firirtee ko fεn farinan, maanaa «huunde nde alaa ɓanndu», tawa noon ina jaggiraa ko woodi tee yi’otaako.

95Yanti heen, to batte renndo, ndonu na waawi wonande neɗɗo gooto keeriiɗo, galle walla renndo huurngo. E yeru, jawdi neɗɗo cankiiɗo, jeyaaɗo e galle, joom galle walla joom wuro, ko ɗum ndonu wonande ɓiɓɓe ɓee, walla yimɓe galle ɓee, walla yimɓe renndo ngoo. Bambarankooɓe keewaani waɗtude fayiide e nguun ɗoon ndonu, sbu ko ko heɓaa tan «ko aldaa e tammpere», tee ɗum wonaa ko mooftetee haa ɓooya ne; sabu ko heɓraa e «weeɓeende» heewaani hisnireede no haanirta nii. Kono, ndonaandi memotoondi e ndi memotaako ndii kam noon, ko renndo walla goomu yimɓe jeyi koo, ɗuum ko ɗum ndonaandu keɓtinirdi, ndi nganndu-ɗaa ko heen renndo ngoo yi’ata hoore mum, siwtora hanki mum, wura hannde mum, hebla janngo mum.

96Firo helmere «tawaɗum/tawaandi», tawa wonaa e nder haala walla winndannde, ko ko saɗti e bambarankoore. «Tawaɗum» ina waawi firireede kala ko faati e ladde, kungo, maanaa tan ko yalti wuro. Tee, ndonaandi tawaandi ina soomi miijnoore woɗnde. Ina waawi firireede «ndonu renndo taariindiyankeewu»: sigida forobaciyεn. Kadi ɗoo ne, helmere «taariindi» ndee firtaani tan ladde, puɗi e kuule ladde.

97Konngol «[ko jeyaa e] pinal» firti e bambarankoore ko «ko annda walla ko waawi anndeede»: dɔnko. E ngoo ɗoo firo, waɗde pinal toɗɗii ko ganndal, humpito nguurndam, waawwaɗde, wiɗto ganndal kam e jaŋde, geɗe ɗe nganndu-ɗaa kamɗe fof eɗe naatti e pinal, e neɗɗankaagal; eɗe toɗɗii, e nder hakkille renndooji Bambarankooɓe, ɓosɓosal yo timminal gongol neɗɗo renndo.

Wiiwo/ayaawo pinal

98Ko wi’etee ko «peyisaas» e farayse, ɗum firdaa «wiiwo» e fulfulde, ɗum firti e bambarankoore ko «heɗɗaawo ladde»: kungobolo, walla njajardi ladde: kungokεnε. Ngoo ɗoo firo, ina noddi maanaa jaajɗo wonande wiiwo, ko toɗɗaa koo, tee loowdi ndii laaɓtaani sanne. Kono noon, e nder ɗemngal hee haa jooni, helmiire wiiwo pinal ina waawi faameede. Ɗum nanndidintee ko «nokku walla luggere ladde reenaande, heeriinde»: Yɔrɔ kεrεnkεrεnen, tu kεrεnkεrεnen, maanaa nokku walla dunndu baɗdaaɗo e won diineeji e golle e baɗle keeriiɗe.

99Fawaade e ngoon ɗoon miijo, wiiwo pinal ɓuri heewde nanndidineede ko e luggere diine. Ko nii woni, ina seerndaa hakkunde Kɔmɔ Tu, Luggere diine nde Renndo sirru «Kɔmɔ» e Nia Tu, Luggere diine nde Renndo sirru «Nia», ekn. Ko e nder ɗeen ɗoon lugge du’orɗe jinneeji moƴƴi e bonɗi ɗii kala koɗi; ko ɗoon kadi, e dow ɗowgol ardiiɓe mu’en, ɗowooɓe jannginooɓe yonaaji kesi ɗii, annduɓe ngonka renndo e jikkuuji hesɓe ɓee, yeengooji pindingol/janngingol mbaɗetee ngam naattinde ɗumen e renndo, feewnude laawol ngol, kam e kormagol jinneeji jogiiɗi ɗii nokkuuji ɗii. Tuuruuji e ndokke baɗaneeɗe ɗee jinneeji deenooji e doole cuuɗiiɗe, duysooji ɗii janngingol ngol, ko ɗuum takata yimɓe heɓde jamirooje majji newnooje taƴcugol hesɓe ɓee haa ɓe ngona annduɓe, maanaa worɓe heblaaɓe, waawɓe hankadi waɗde juuɗe maɓɓe e nguurndam renndo mu’en.

100Ɗeen ɗoon pelle cuuɗiiɗe/sirruuje, woni darnde majje ko onande renndo ngoo poliis, reenooɓe jikkuuji moƴƴi, deengol yimɓe e jawdeele mu’en, kam e baɗgol maslahaa hakkunde yimɓe renndo ngoo.

Anmerkungen

1 Peɗingol: peccugol, naatnugol e pelle.

2 To leydi Misira/Esipta

3 Muumɗugol: wonde muum, ko hiɓɓi, timmi, tawa alaa ko ŋakki heen.

4 Ɗe alaa ɗe keedi.

5 Jattiniiɗe: baaɗe no wootere tan, tawa mbaylotaako.

© Demopolis, 2014

Nutzungsbedingungen http://www.openedition.org/6540