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Les intraduisibles du patrimoine en Afrique subsaharienne

 | 
Danièle Wozny
, 
Barbara Cassin

E Fulfulde. Kelmiije ndonaandi ɗe pirotaako ender afrik les-saharaa

2. Resorde pinal

Texte intégral

anglais: museum
bamanakan: fεnkɔrɔmarayɔrɔ
sukuma: mashigo/bujora
swahili: makumbusho
tsonga: swikumbusho

  • 1 Daartol, taarik.

1Miisee e miiseyom (miisee e farayse, museum e engele) ko ɗum kelme keewɗe ko coomi e geɗe ganni1. Eɗe nganndiniree sifaaji kuuɓtidinɗi, ko wa’i no «roɓinannde» e «ndonaandi walla jawdi pinal», kam e won nafooje wonande renndo, baawɗe tonngeede e ɗee ɗoo kelme tati: «mooftude, wiɗtude, hollirde».

2Hannde oo, ina teskaa pilñitagol mbaadiiji desorɗe keewɗi; gila e resorde ngenndiire haa e resorde renndankoore, gila e resorde ñeeñal haa e resorde ganndal leƴƴi, gila e resorde arkewolosi haa e resorde daartol tawaandi, haa e ekooresorde, e galle paccirgol firooji, desorɗe na puupa e dow duunde leydi ndee fof. Ko wonnoo hanki juulirde miisuuji, resorde wonti hanti ko sostetee, ko miijtetee. Ganndal desorɗe na soomori hankadi kala ko yowitii e donaaɗi pinal, tawaandi, ndi memotaako, tawa casol ngol ko yiitinde ko yi’otanooka: lowre ganndal desorɗe woni tan ko e yajjitaade.

3E ngoƴaaji mooftugol, janngingol e beltorgol yitere ɗii, ina ɓeydii heen casi kesi, jowitiiɗi e hollirde hoore mum – walla boom mahtagol heɓtinirde mum – kam e dañal to batte kaalis, sabu resorde na jogii mbaawka e semmbitinde diiwanuuji walla nokkuuji ɗi ngalaano dono (ko wa’i no «batte Guggenheim [Guugenhayma]» to Bilbao [Bilbaawo]), kam e fooɗtude kadi leƴƴi turisto’en kesi.

4Ko hannde tan resorde ɓuri wonde kuutorgal politik, maande keshesal e mahgol ngenndiiji, peññinoowal ayaawo Dowla deentoowa, kadi ɗum wallita ɓee ɓe ngalataani ngeereendi walla heɓtinirde renndo heeriinde e fuɗtude ɗaɗi, ɓe mahtoo, e fenaande, ceerseere ɗe hannde oo heewaani jaɓde, kam e wonde kadi jinnditorgal walla ngalu-moggorɗo, ngam fusde ngootaagu ayaawo e guurnugol wiiwooji e gure teeru ɗo nguurndam ɓuri saɗtande yimɓe ɗoo.

5Desorɗe pinal gadiiɗe e Afrik ɗee, njeyanoo ko eɓɓo tuubakooɓe jiimgol leyɗe ngoo. Nder ɗemɗe Afrik ɗee, miijnoore «miisee», no faamirtee nii e tuubakoore, woodiraani noon. Kono noon, fawaade e wiɗto, e naamnondiral e yimɓe ɓee, caggal nde miijnoore ndee faaminaa haa laaɓi, kelme keewɗe, ɗeɓɗe nanndude, pirooje ɗum na mbaawi heɓeede; walla boom feññinde miijooji kesi goɗɗi wonande mbaadiiji desorɗe pinal goɗɗe.

E farayse, e engele

«Ganndinooje laawol» ɗee

6Tuugno-ɗen e ganndinooje laawol, taweteeɗe ɗee e nder gaadondire hakkunde-leyɗe, binndaaɗe e farayse e engele ɗee.

Anndinoore UNESCO

7UNESCO, maanaa Fedde Dowlaaji Dennduɗi ngam jaŋde ganndal e pinal, jaalal cosangal e hitaande 1945, ko ɗum tergal Dowlaaji-Dennduɗi fannuyankeewal. UNESCO na soomi 195 Dowla tergal, kam e Dowlaaji peɗondiraaɗi 8. Golle UNESCO carɗingol ɗee tuugii, e ko ɓuri teeŋtude, ko e bagginaali e gaadondire ɗe nganndu-ɗaa, ɗe taƴnetee ko e saangaaji jooɗagol batuuji kuuɓtidinɗi Dowlaaji terɗe ɗii.

  • 2 Aquariums [akwariyom].

«Wi’etee miisee ko kala mahanteeri, kisniranteendi nafoore fof’en, ngam mooftude, wiɗtude, e naftinirde won e peeje, kadi, e ko ɓuri heewde, hollirde ngam weltaare e pindingol yimɓe, diɗɗal geɗe jogiiɗe ɓural to batte pinal: pottitine geɗe ñeenal, daartol, ganndal e karallaagal, gese leɗɗe e kuule, looɗe liƴƴi2.» (E nder: Wasiyannde UNESCO toɗɗiinde peeje ɓurɗe yumtude ngam waɗde haa yottaade e desorɗe pine newanoo fof’en, jaɓaande ñande 14 noowammbar 1960.)
The term «museum» shall be taken to mean any permanent establishment administered in the general interest for the purpose of preserving, studying, enhancing by various means and, in particular, exhibiting to the public for its delectation and instruction, groups of objects and specimens of cultural value: artistic, historical, scientific and technological collections, botanical and zoological gardens and aquariums. (In Unesco Recommendation concerning the Most Effective Means of Rendering Museums Accessible to Everyone 14 November 1960.)

Anndinoore Batu desorɗe pine hakkunde-leyɗeewo (ICOM)

  • 3 Basiyanɗe
  • 4 Experts [eksepeer]

Batu desorɗe pine hakkunde-leyɗeewo, ko ɗum fedde nde wonaa laamuyankoore sosaande e 1946, feɗondiraande e uNeSCo, toɗɗiinde mooftugol, duumingol, e jottingol hakkunde yontaaji denndaangal ko woni koo donaaɗe aduna tawaaɗe e ɗe pinal, ɗe hannde e ɗe janngo, ɗe ndonaandi e ɗe ndonaagu fof. Batu oo na lelna, e ko ɓuri heewde, sarɗiiji golle e ngonka cihneteeɗi e golle desorɗe pinal, kadi waɗa bagginaali3 jowitiiɗi e toɓɓe deenteteeɗe, paatuɗe e mooftugol donaaɗe (taƴre 1e nde estatiiji ICOM).
So terɗe ɗee – 30.000 fannuyanke
4 geɗe desorɗe pinal, sariiɓe e nder 137 leydi – ngoni hoore ngardiigu ICoM (taƴre 9e nde estatiiji ICOM) ne, mbaadi laamu nguu fawii ko e cuɓagol ngol batu pattamlamu oo waɗata, wonande batu cihnoowo mbo nganndu-ɗaa ombo suɓtoo hooreejo e nder hoore mbo, kam e goomu diisondiral coomɗo, e ɓuri teeŋtude, hooreeɓe Komiteeji ngenndiiji ɓee.
ICOM darii ko darnde renndo golliyankooɓe desorɗe pinal adunayankeewo; ina jogii darnde fedde diisondirteende, e sara Batu ngalu e renndo, mbo Dowlaaji Dennduɗi oo.

«Miisee, [maanaa resorde pinal] ko ɗum jaalal duumingal, ngal faanditaaki keɓal kaalis, gonanngal renndo e ɓamtaare mum, udditanangal yimɓe, ngal nganndu-ɗaa ngal heɓat, moofta, wiɗta, hollira, kadi yottina hakkunde yontaaji ndonaandi e ndonaagu aadeeɓe e taariindi maɓɓe, ngam tan wiɗtooji, jaŋde e pinal, kam e beltingol pittaali mu’en.» (E nder: Estatiiji ICOM, jaɓaaɗi ɗii e Batu kuuɓtidinɗo 21 o mbo Wiyen/Otiriis e hitaande 2007.)
A museum is a non-profit, permanent institution in the service of society and its development, open to the public, which acquires, conserves, researches, communicates and exhibits the tangible and intangible heritage of humanity and its environment for the purposes of education, study and enjoyment. In: ICOM Statutes, adopted during the 21st General Conference in Vienna, Austria, in 2007.

8Anndinoore miisee, nde ICOM ndee, rewi tan ko e laawol anndinoore nde UNESCO 1960 ndee. Nafooje renndo resorde pinal, tuugnii tan ko e paandale goote ɗee, faade e yimɓe: mooftude, wiɗtude, hollirde. Duumagol jotondiral hakkunde mum e yimɓe ngol, ina jeyaa e ko ɓuri teeŋtude e ganndingol resorde pinal; hongol feeña noon, e mbaadiiji keewɗi, fawaade e no nafooje ceertiri, kono haɓɓere «moofude, wiɗtude, hollirde» ndee kam yaltataa yimɓe, e nafoore faade e renndo. Ko oon ɗoon haqiiqa tammbii «winndereyankaagal» anndinoore ICOM e nde UNESCO ndee.

9Dewtagol oon ɗoon haqiiqa, ina ɓaarii e nafooje pindingol e beltingol ɓerɗe ngol, ko ngandu-ɗaa koo ko kamɗum woni ko renndini koo sarɗiiji UNESCO e ɗi ICOM ɗii (anndinoore e ɗemngal engele ndee huutori ko kelme «education» e «enjoyment»; ndeen ɗoon helmere sakkitiinde Adii firireede ko «welamma, mbeleeki», caggal ɗuum, tuggude e 2007, nde firiraa «beltingol ɓerɗe»).

10Dingiral cihnugol e jaati nafooje resorde pinal ɗee, heewaani ko waylotoo hakkunde anndinoore e anndinoore woɗnde; ko goonga, kelmeendi ndii na seerti – «dental geɗe jogiiɗe nafoore to batte pinal» (UNESCO, 1960) e «ndonaandi e ndonaagu aadeeɓe e taariindi mu’en» (ICOM, 2007) -, kono tummbeere ndonaagu innaande ndee e ganndinooje ɗee kala ɗiɗi fof tugnii tan ko e huunde wootere ndee. Anndinoore ICOM ndee na heɓɓitii ko sakkitii koo e ƴellitaare laawol hakkunde-leyɗe, rewri ɗum peccugol hakkunde ndonaandi e ndonaagu. Ɗee ɗoo duttorɗe ɗiɗi fof eɗe ndaɗɗii e les paamgol hannde ngol wonande konngol «dental geɗe jogiiɗe nafoore to batte pinal» ngol.

11Kaalgol ɗee ɗoo ganndinooje ɗiɗi tan, riiwtii naamnal darnde laawol resorde pinal ngal: laamuyankeejum, keeriɗum, renndoyankeejum… Kala no resorde pinal waawi hisnireede to batte sariya, tabitingol nafooje «moofude, wiɗtude, hollirde» ngol kam, alaa e sago ngol naatta e ko yowitii koo e nafoore fof’en, tawa kadi ina yahdi, fawaade e anndinoore ICOM ndee, e fotde waasde laartude dañal kaalis.

12Kono noon, ngol ɗoo konngol na waawi addude jeddii, sabu desorɗe pinal na mbaɗa ɗee ɗoon ɓaɗe fof: in naamnoo hakkeeji jelgal, ngam dañde ngartam kaalis, e dow kuutoragol innde majje resorde ndee wonande goɗɗo; ina njeeya jillagol nokkuuji kollirgol baɗaaɗi haa gasi; ina njeeya golle majje wiɗtooji e silooji; ina keertoo, luwa, dingire majje kollirgol duumingol, wonande yeengooji keeriiɗi, tawa ina yalti sahaaji kollugol yimɓe ɗii. Ndeen noon, konngol «fanndaare waasde laartude kaalis» ngol, na fotnoo rokkeede loowdi ɓurndi laaɓtude, kadi kaaɗdi maggol ndii ne laɓɓitinee.

Daartol helmere ndee e huunde ndee

13«Winndereyankaagal» miijnoore miisee ngal, fawaade e duumaare won e sifaaji kuutoraɗi ngam anndinoore ɗo dow ɗoo ɗii, ina woodi noon daartol kaawningol, puɗɗoringol faameede e helmere gerek muuseyon ndee.

  • 5 Conndi galaas toɓanndi, na muuroo e leydi, haa fof ranwa tal.
  • 6 Filosof mbo ganndu-ɗaa, adii tuugnude miijo mum fof ko e sikkitaare.
  • 7 Jalkitatnoo, tooñatnoo, e fijirde.
  • 8 Inɗe galleeji ganndal e ñeenal, to Faraas e Amerik.
  • 9 Saal silo ɓalli: ɗo annduɓe kuttata kullon ngam ganndal medsin.
  • 10 Kayitol binndangol, morlaa, humaa: ko ɗuum wonnoo defte adan.

Muuseyon: «muses [my:z]» e musées [my:ze]»
Helmere ndee na toɗɗii ngonkaaji ɗi nagnndu-ɗaa, heen sahaaji ko innde tan waɗdi ɗi.
«Miisee» na heewi jokkondireede e ndonaandi, e ko ronaa, ko foti moofteede na holliree.
Muusyon kiiɗɗo oo, alaa fof ko heɓdunoo ɗum e ɗuum ɗoon.
Firo woɗngo na waawi udditeede, fawaade e ɗemngal gerek kiiɗngal.
«
Miisee» ummii ko e «miise», ina anndaa. Muusaaji ko ɓiɓɓe rewɓe Sës ngonnoo, kam e Memuwaar, jom suudu makko; oon dañi, e dow ko Hesiyod haali, «sukaaɓe rewɓe njeenayo jiiduɓe foofaandu» «jejjitgol mette, e gasgol caɗeele». eɓe njogii inɗe jeenayi, jahduɗe e ñeeñe jeenayi – tuggude e daartol haa yottii ganndal koode, gila e ngamri haa e njalniika, njurminiika, kam e sifaaji jime kala; eɓeëndokka miijo yimiyanke, mbo nganndu-ɗaaoo, o alaa daande so wonaa nde maɓɓe, tee eɓe mbaawi haalde «penaale ɗe alaa ɗo ceerti e goongaaji».
«
Miisee», ko adii fof, ko ɗum nokku, jatti, tulde, ɗo ɓe pijata, eɓe njima, eɓe ngama, to Piyeri walla e dow ƴooŋre Elikon, hedde ƴooŋre [Olempa] maagiinde nees5 ndee; ko ɗum juulirde nde ɓe mbaɗanaa, e dow Partenoŋ hee; ngaska haaƴre uddiraaka ko wi’etee «mosayik», kaaƴon, carikon, njalbatkon, ngittukon inɗe makkon e maɓɓe. Eripid na inniri muuseyaa nokku ɗo colli njimata ɗoo.
Ko ɗum kadi, haa jooni, Miisee Misira lolluɗo oo, to aleksanndiri, mbo
Potoleme Sooteer cosnoo oo hedde kitaale 280 ko adii annabi Iisaa; mbo sumtaa e 47, mbo mahtaa, mbo wattindi uddoyeede e hitaande 391 caggal lisaa.
Kono, hay ɗoon ne, wonaa mooftugol ngol tan adinoo toɗɗeede. Sabu, haa ndeen,
Mouseion oo wonnoo tan nokku baɗanaaɗo Miisuuji, ɗo «misik»-maanaa jimri-waɗetee, ñeeñe fof na ƴellitee.«
Timoŋ de Filiyonta, sikkitiyanke6 kawritɗo e jamaanu cosgol Miisee Misira oo, omo fabbotonoo7, omo wi’a: «e nder leydi Misira ndi yimɓe heewɓe ndii, ina toon nehee winndiyankooɓe defte ɓe ganndu-ɗaa, ɓe ñallat soppotir, e nder siŋsiŋ Miisuuji hee.» Kono, teemedanɗe nayi caggal ɗuum, Estaraboŋ, kañum, sifii denndaangal galle oo e geɗe mum kala, e nder sifaa ɓurɗo yooɗde. o wi’i: Miisee oo woni ko e nder hurum galle laamɗo oo; omo yaaji haa ɓurti, «kam e dame mum toowɗe, saal mum batuuji, kam e saal mawɗo oo, ɗo ñaameele ɗee ngaddantee ɗoo anndiyankeeɓe defte – maanaa filolog’en-Miisee oo kawrata ɗoo na ñaamda. Ko ɓe batu timmuɗo, eɓe njogii ngaluuji denndaaɗi, ɗi labbe mbo laamɓe ɓee toɗɗii, tee hannde oo César [Sesaar] toɗɗotoo ɗum, hisnata (Géographie, XVII, 1, 8).
Miisee oo nanndata ko galle wiɗto, hakkunde Mesoŋ de laa Sases, maanaa «Galle Ganndal»,
Silikon Walee e Maksa Palanka8; omo waɗi laartindorde asamaan, sardeŋ leɗɗe, ngesa kuule ladde, cuuɗi wiɗto, saal silo balli9. Deftere Biibal, laa Septante ina firee ɗoon, kam yoo Qur’aan; tee kadi ina hoɗi ɗoon abadan, ngam liggodaade walla waɗde jeewte mawɗe, ko yahata e teemedere ganndo, jeyaaɓe e ɓurɓe dowlude ɓee, ko wa’i no Okilid. Ko ɓuri koo heen wonde njeeɓoogu noon, ko nduu ɗoo defterdu (bibiliyotek) ndu nganndu-ɗaa, ƴellittoo ɗoon ko ñeeñe ciwtonirgol, jahduɗe e politik keɓgol defte cirŋiniiɗo, kam e pentugol feere deggondiral defte newiinde (hakkunde 500.000 e 700.000 piilol10, tawi kala laana ndiyam ndewka e wuro hee, alaa e sago woppa ɗoon binndaaɗe mum, haa ɗe mbaanjitee tawa, nde fuɗɗoo ɓennude). Ko defterdu nduu waɗi haa Miisuuji ɗii ngoni tigi «ɓiɓɓe rewɓe Ciwtonirgol», kono, e nder Miisee oo e hoore mum, ngoƴa oo ko jiitugol, tawa ina tuugnii e hanki, kono wonaano tawa mooftugol.
So rewaama, haa jooni, e firo e ɗemngal gerek ngal, Miisee adana oo wonnoo ko lekkol, hono janngirde: nokku nguurndam, ɗo yimɓe mbaawnoo haaldude, ñaamda, mbiɗtida ganndal, «e weeytaare» (
eskolee), maanaa tawa na keɓii, kadi ngondaani e himme kaalis. Ko enen poti annduude, hankadi, so tawii firo adano helmere ndee ina waawi miijnude haa hannde.

14Hay so neɗɗo naataani e aske dallinoowo lasli ɗii ne, ƴellitaare e sifaaji miisee «resorde pinal» leyɗeele hirnaange hannde oo, ina mbaawi yiitaneede ɗaɗi, e nder jaale pinal ɗe Renesaas maanaa «Pintal» ɗee.

  • 11 Jamaanu teemedannde 18e, mbo tuubakooɓe mbi’ata «Aas de Limiyeer» oo.

15E ko ɓuri teeŋtude, ko lawakeeɓe e hokkirooɓe kaalis (meseneeɓe), fof noon to leydi Itali too, denndinatnoo doɓaaɗe geɗe ganniyankooje – geɗe cehaaɗe, looɗe e mahaaɗe, kontooje (ñaaƴe), buuɗi kaalis e medayuuji – ngam humpitde yiɗde mu’en kiiɗndi ndee, e hollirde ceeɓgol mu’en hakkillaaji to batte neɗɗaagu. Ɗeen ɗoon dente noon, ɗe ngonda e kuule dentingol e ƴellitgol ɗiɗi goɗɗe: go’o go’o, nokku yeeɓirde nate goobu, keewɗo nate laamɗooji walla geɗe nguurndam Biibal; ɗiɗi ɗiɗi, cuurel kaawniiɗe, denndingel e nder nokkuyel tokosel kuule limlimte, tawaaɗe walla baɗaaɗe, ɗe nganndu-ɗaa eɗe noddi njeeɓoogu, eɗe noddi kadi laaɓlaaɓal ganndal. E Jamaanu Pooye11 hee, oon ɗoon aadaa jokkaama e teeŋtineede, ɗum faaraa e miiseum daartol tawaaɗe, keewɗe seedeeji kaaƴe, puɗi e kuule, gummoriiɗe ɗo woni kala e aduna mbo koloñaal’en nganndi oo; kono noon, e naatirde teemedannde XIXe ndee ne, fuɗɗiima heen feeñde ko wi’etee koo miisee «nasiyonaal» - maanaa resorde pinal «ngenndiire»: ɗum holliri noon kesɗitingol jaalal resorde pinal, gila to paandale mum haa to yimɓe mum yeeɓooɓe.

  • 12 Ƴame bi’ooje «ɗum ko e ngeereendi amen jeyaa» hay so wonaa goonga.

16Hankadi noon, paandale gabbitinooɗe ɗee e njooɗeeki, ngoƴaaji goɗɗi ɓeydii heen e ko laaɓti, ko wa’i no anndude hoore mum. Caggal Pintal Faraas manngal ngal, nde laamuuji donetenooɗi ɗii pusi ndee, Orop mbo Nappoleyoŋ oo fuɗɗitii silteede e keeri kesi, oon sahaa, laamanooɓe Resim kiiɗɗo ɓee ngonti ɓiyleydiiɓe Dowla-ngenndi, jeyaaɓe e renndo yiɗaango, yarlitiingo (hono no Renan wiiri nii) ngo ngannduɗaa, ndaɗɗudi kaɓirɗe mum, e ko heddii koo e ciwtorgol mum fof, waɗti hawrude na holliree to resorde pinal. Gila e miisee koloñaal to Copenhague [Koppenaag], ɗo yuɓɓo jamanuuji tati (mbo kaaƴe, mbo kire, e mbo njamndi) ɗii fuɗɗinoo ɗoo ƴelliteede, e kitaale 1820’en hee, e les ɗowdi koɗɗiijo Prusse [Piris] oo, haa yottii e miisee Geɗe ganni ngenndiije cosaaɗo oo e 1862, hedde Pari, e dow yamiroore Nappoleyoŋ III, jiɗnooɗo oo janngude binndaaɗe Sesaar, ɗaɓɓitatnooɗo kadi jatti cosaan Alésia [Alesiyaa] oo, resorde pinal wonti jaalal ngenndi, tuugnorde ciwtorgol denndangol, kam e dewgol laawol wonande kala laamu. Kono ndeen ɗoon ƴellitaare, nde yahdi e ɓurtingol baɗe manngol: ɗum, ko faccirooji daartol (taarik) ɓurtinaaɗi, kam e ciimti leñamleñi; walla ruggooji jawdi e keɓgol geɗe ɓurngol waasde laaɓtude, joopingol dowlinde martaaba ngenndi (marbaraaji Gerees, geɗe ganni Misira e ɗe leyɗeele Funnaange) walla tabitinde ƴamƴame ngeereele12, jowitiiɗe e jajjitagol leydeele kiiɗngol, kam jotondire hakkunde aadaaji.

17Ɗeen ɗoon joopale eɗe mbeeɓnoo tabitinde, nde wonnoo laawol hakkunde – leyɗe fuɗɗii haɗde, e ko laaɓti, yoo harbiyankooɓe iwtuɓe hare teetu jawdeele, ɓe pusa gure, tan ko e hedde teemedannde 20 e ndee; baɗe ɗe nganndu-ɗaa, ko e desorɗe pine hee ɗe njuppoyatnoo geɗe ɗee fof: ɗoon wontani noon leyɗeele poolatnooɗe ɗee, ko wa’i roɓindo manngo wonande jawdi teetaandi ndii e leƴƴi poolaaɗi ɗii (Gaadondiral II jowitiingal e kuule e aadaaji wolde e dow leydi, La Haye [Lahee], 29 suliyee 1899; Gaadondiral IV jowitiingal e kuule e aadaaji wolde e dow leydi, La Haye [Lahee], 18 oktoobar 1907).

  • 13 Teeruyankooɓe ɓe ngonaa lawakeeɓe, kono ko alɗuɓe, joom’en mbaylareeje.
  • 14 Pintal mbaylaari: «Révolution industrielle».

18E yahdude heen, resorde pinal naatani feŋaade e nder gure teeruuje – kuɓeeje mahaaɗe keeriiɗe, ellee juulirɗe, baɗduɗe mawneeki monimaaji e njooɗeeki mahngo (ciwtoren tan Museuminsel [muuseyuminsel] mbo Berlin oo) ngam heewde gite yeeɓooɓe. Ɓeen ɗoon, mbaɗti hankadi ummoraade e yimɓe ɓurɓe yaajde lawekeeɓe joom’en ganndal ɓooyɓe ɓeya: resorde pinal waɗti jaɓɓaade woɗɓe kadi, haa teeŋti noon pelle renndo kakindiiɗe ɗee, e yimɓe bursuwaa’en13 ɓe nganndu-ɗaa ɓee, golle mu’en na ndokki ɗumen heɓre e jiɗgol ɓeydude ganndal mu’en e pinal mu’en, fof noon e ɗiin jamanuuji waywaylooji renndo, karallagal e ngalu, ko inniraa koo, e tonngol, pintal mbaylaari14: e saraaji njooɗeeki e ciwtorgol ɗoo, resorde arti kadi na hollira jahrugol yeeso mbaylaari, kam e kaawisaaji ganndal, ɗum udditi wiiwo ɗaminaawu heso wonande renndooji hirnaange ɗi nganndu-ɗaa ɗii, heen sahaaji, sippiro pelle renndo e fuuyre na dooki ɗi. Tuggude e gasirde teemedannde ndee, ndee ɗoo yi’annde naatti e darɗe resorde hesre ndee ɓurɗe teeŋtude, haa naatgol e mum wonti ko aldaa e njoɓdi, kadi waktuuji naatgol ɗii njuɓɓinaa. Hankadi, ɗum waati hono nii: gila e resorde Pitt-Rivers [Pit-Riwes] nde oxford [Oksofordo], ɗo ngannduɗaa ɗoo, diɗɗe geɗe gannde yimɓe e leƴƴi eɗe teeŋtinana pelle gooliyankooɓe engele’en ɗee wonde tagoore yahrataa diwe diwe, tee kadi jahrugol yeeso jaɓataa pinte, haa yottii e Miisee de l’Homme [Miisee de Lom] mbo kitaale 1930’en oo, mbo nganndu-ɗaa kañum ne, bakane mum weereeje ɗe ganndal leƴƴi ɗee - jowitiiɗe e ganndal karallaagal, kam e karte caragol geɗe pinal – njiɗi ko yeddude miijo ƴellitoowo ngoo fayiida jeyegol e hinde walla leñol, lomtina ɗoon jeydegol jowitiingol e ɓiyleydaagal.

  • 15 Ganndal jowitiingal e ko fuugii, ubbii, e lees nguru leydi koo (gure, mahanteeje jawtuɗe, ƴi’e kuul (...)

19Denndingol won e doɓaaɗe, ngol desorɗe pinal mbaɗata ngol, ina soomori njanu e dow pine ɗe ngonaa Oropnaaje ɗee; nguun njanu woni e jokkeede, wonande won e leƴƴi geɗe – teeŋti noon e geɗe ganni leydi15 e ganndal leƴƴi - haa nde jaɓegol haqiiqaaji nehdi, tuggude e hitaande 1970 ndee, les njiimaandi Batu Desorɗe Hakkunde-leyɗe (ICOM), ari ndee, rewni laawol denndingol doɓaaɗe desorɗe ngol.

Resorde pinal koloñaal

20So artii e miijtaade e janngo desorɗe pinal Afrik ɗee, waasde heen haalde e resorde «koloñaal» ina waawi bonnude ko heewi.

  • 16 Duɗe-jaaɓi-haaɗtirde

21Sabu ɗum, go’o go’o, ko jiidaa koo e loowdiiji majje to batte geɗe, kam e joopale majje to batte gooŋɗinal (ko paa-ɗen yi’oyde lees koo), won e desorɗe pinal ɗo Afrik ɗoo ndañii ko ɓuri duuɓi teemedere: no yahnoo waade fof, ɗe peŋiima e nder wiiwo teeruuje majje, kam e nder nder wiiwo pinal walla ganndal gure walla leydeele ɗo ɗe puɗi ɗoo. Ngool ɗoon puɗgol e duumaare (heen sahaaji boom, e ko ɓuri keewɗi e miiseeji Orop ɗii duumaade e ɓooyde), anndi ndaka ngol accii batte e yimɓe gure ɗee, walla e ɓiyleydiiɓe leyɗe ɗee? Mbele engol waawi jahdodineede e baɗle desorɗe pine keeriiɗe, hono jaalal ngal yimɓe ngarata na laara, ngarta na laara, hono nokku baɗe e joljole pinal (kollirgol, hiirdeeji njimri, ekn.), hono kuutorgal jaŋde wonande janngooɓe lekkolaaji e iniwersiteeji16? Hono kadi ko faati e baawgol heɓindeede resorde pinal, to batte ɗemngal e helmiire, e nder ɗemɗe walla yuɓɓooji miijo yimɓe nokkuuji? Yeru: ko resorde pinal Cape Town [Kep Taawun] woodi koo gila 1825 (tee ina udditanaa yimɓe gila ndeen), mbele ɗum woodi batte – tee hol ɗeen – e dow no yimɓe ɓee njiirata nde nii, e dow cosgol jaale kese, kam e dow ñiɓgol ɗe? E ko ɓuri heewde (aamtude), laamu militeer, e ngu ngardiigu caggal ɗuum, puɗɗiingu nguu njiimaandi koloñaal, rewata heen ko etagol yuɓɓinde ganndal.

22Ɗiɗi ɗiɗi, so artii e loowdiiji e joopale resorde koloñaal, haawnaaki tawa ina waɗi ɗoo jannganɗe baawɗe waɗtoreede. Hakkunde ne’aande meteropool ndee e dingiral kesal jiimangal ngal, hakkunde birooji ɗii e ladde ndee, ngoƴa oo wonatnoo ko: limtude, waɗde e pelle, haa arti noon e iimaade ko waawi koo heɓeede e ngaluuji nokkuuji ɗii. Ndeen noon, ko ɓuri koo heewde, desorɗe koloñaal ɗee, e fuɗɗoode majje, eɗe njogii paandale wiɗto ganndal tawaaɗe e golliyankooje: baɗgol ngol karte, mooftirɗe puɗi (erbiyeeji), e limtugol ngol fof, paanditinoo ko ganndal «ɓolal», kono ina toɗɗii kadi «gaawgol nafoore» wonande yimɓe koloñaal hoɗɓe ɓee, kam yoo yimɓe nokkuuji ɓee – waawde woorde beeli loope, e ñabbuuji toropikaal ɗii, waawde naftorde ooganteeje e puɗi leyɗeele kese ɗee, no ɓuri haanirde nii; kono kadi, waawde jotondirde e yimɓe nokkuuji ɓee, e dow ganndugol geɗe maɓɓe keeriiɗe, aadaaji e neesuji maɓɓe, ɗemɗe mumen e caragol maɓɓe e nder doŋe ɗee, fawaade e calsali politik kam e baɗle ngaluyankooje baawooje jibinde nanondiral walla ndeen murtugol. Waɗde noon, ganndugol Afrik ngol, haa arti noon e waɗande ngool ɗoon ganndugol peeje, kam e tiiɗtinde ngol, ko casol manngol wonande resorde pinal koloñaal.

  • 17 Ganndal ganni-leydi : arkewolosi.

23Ko noon ne woori kadi, ko e nder ndeen ɗoon wonorde, laamuuji koloñaal ɗii ƴelliti peeje mooftugol e deentugol ndonaandi ganndal les-leydi17 e ganndal leƴƴi Afrik. To Afrik hirnaange mbo Faraas too, parti Foroŋ Popileer waɗi feere haa sosaa toon, e hitaande 1938, Galle Faraasnaajo mbo Afrik Ɓaleeri [Institut français d’Afrique noire (IFAN)] gontoyɗo oo hannde Galle wiɗto mbo Afrik Ɓaleeri [Institut fondamental d’Afrique noire]. E nder eɓɓo mum ganndugol e naftingol Afrk ngoo, Galle oo ina waɗi, ko jiidaa koo e departamaa mum gannde oo (ganndal puɗi e leɗɗe, ganndal guurɗe, ganndal kaaƴe leydi), departamaa gooto wonande gannde aadeeɓe e renndooji mbo nganndu-ɗaa ombo duñca e wiɗtude ko yowitii e ganndal les leydi [arkewolosi] e ganndal leƴƴi yimɓe [etnogarafi]; oon ɗoon departamaa ombo wallita e kaɓirɗe gollirɗe e peeje muulgol defte, ina wallira noon e ƴellitde hakkilantaagal jowitiingal e ndonaandi e nder dingiral Afrik Hirnaange ngal fof.

24To Afrik funnaange too, ko e dow ballondiral e resorde Nayrobi (Croyndon Museum [Koroyndon Museyum]) tiiɗngal, Congrès pan-Africain [Konngere panafrikeŋ] arkewolosi sosaa e hitaande 1940; fedde nde nganndu-ɗaa, maa nde wallit no feewi e teeŋtingol wiɗtooji arkewolosi e dow denndaangal duundeeri Afrik ndii, haa arti e bannge mum ndonaandi e mbo desorɗe kala.

Resorde e ndonaandi, e nder Afrik mbo les-saharaa

25Alaa e sago «… mbaadi resorde pinal ndi hirnaange ndii waree e Afrik, nde peeje mooftugol e ƴellitgol ndonaandi kese mbaawa feeñde»: ko Pr Alfaa Umar Konaare wiinoo nii, e nder konngol teskiniingol hannde, nder gostondiral miijooji gartoowal e kala sahaa, jowitiingal e toɓɓere nde yawtaani tawa, hono hol mbaadi resorde pinal wonande Afrik (Batu ICOM, «Quels miisees pour l’Afrique? [Hol desorɗe pine wonande Afrik]», 1991).

26Duuɓi han noogas e jowi, hakke nayɓal teemedannde, caggal ngol ɗoo konngol, toɓɓere ndee na heddii hesre haa jooni, tee kadi warngo fadanoongo ngoo waɗaani tawa. Hono no Phénix [Feniksa] ɗiftirta nii e ndoondi mum, mbaadiiji resorde pinal «hirnaangeere», baylotooɗi ɗii, ceeraani e feeñtirde e ayaawaaji kesi ɓulnaaɗi e ñemmbirɗe jolɗe ɗee. Miisee du Louvre [Miisee di Luuwar] oo, Smithsonian Institution [Esmisonyan Insititusiyoŋ] oo, Miisee du quai Branly [Miise di Kee Baranli] oo, walla British Museum [Biritish Museyum] oo, walla kadi Miisee royal [Miise ruwayal] mbo Afrik worgo to Tervuren [Terwuren] oo, kam yoo ekomiiseeji limlimti, potnooɗi ɗii ɓurde ɓadaade ngonkaaji guuraaɗi ɗii, sahaa fof ɗi peeñata ko e ayaawo heeriingo ngo jaɓataa ñemmbeede.

  • 18 Keewceeral: diversité

27Ndeen noon, alaa e sago paamen wonde, e nder fannu mbo nganndu-ɗaa ummii ko e ko renndo e keewceeral18 baɗle pinal mbaɗi, ñemmbirde naamnii ko keewal e ceeral. Nii no ñemmbirde wootere waasri woodde e fannu desorɗe Orop, ko noon kadi ñemmbirde heeraniinde Afrik waasiri waawde woodde. Ndee ɗoo yi’annde ende soomii boom e eeraango Alfa Umar Konaare ngoo.

28Ko goonga noon, alaa e sago wooda ɗo taƴondiral waɗaa, sabu ko haaletee koo e fannu desorɗe, ummoraade e ndonaagu koloñaal, ko ko ustata, walla boom ɓenna ɗoon. Ko roɓintenoo koo e nder pottitine e kollire koloñaal ɗee, meeɗaa te meeɗataa fooɗtude yimɓe Afrik ɓee. Ndeen noon, sikke alaa, maa ñemmbirgal ngal miijtee, tee kadi ndonaandi Afrik ndii foti haaleede ko e yuɓɓo kelmeendi heeraniingo kala dingiral pinal; ɗuum noon firtaani bargol ko adinoo koo. Resorde pinal ngenndiire, nde wonnoo ko ko teeŋtinta baasgol memeede keeri donaaɗi e njiimaandi ɗii, mbele ɗum haanaani tan sakkoreede ngam ɓenningol pine hakkunde yontaaji, ko nganndu-ɗaa koo, ko kamɗum foti wonde ko mahata ngootaagu, e nder keewceeral mumen, leƴƴi Afrik e ɗi aduna ɗii kala? Resorde hesre wi’eteende ndee Miisee Aadaaji Orop e Mediteranee, hono Miisee des Civilisations de l’Europe et de la Méditerranée (MUCEM), mbele wonaa ari ko teeŋtinde oo ɗoo goonga mbo Fernand Braudel [Fernaa Borodel] joopinoo? Sikke alaa, «ɗoon ɗo barooɗe ngalaa daartiyankeeɓe majje heeriiɓɗe, haala raddo (waaño) artata tan ko e wune waañooɓe». Ndeen noon, Afrik na foti tiiɗnaade fenta haalaaji mum kesi, ngam mawninde ngootaagu mum keewceerngu nguu, pecce mum caccondirɗe ɗee, jaɓa kadi hoore mum, e nder ceeral mum kam e timmondiral mum nderndeeral ngal.

29Resorde pinal afriknaare, kala ko waawi wonde joopannde mum, waawataa majjude joɗnde duundeeri ndii e nder daartol neɗɗanke, walla darnde mum e nder peewnugol ndonaandi ɓiy Aadama to batte karallaagal, renndo e politik kala; waawataa majjude kadi jamanuuji muusɗi, mettuɗi, ɗi Njulaagu ɓaleeɓe e jiimgol leyɗeele mumen ɗii. Daartol politik naane ngol, kam e wunkuƴ-walaƴuuji mum fof, kañum ne ko ko foti jaɓeede haa timma. Afrik hannde oo, foti ko aadoraade yiɗde hoore mum, ngam ƴellitde cukaagu ndeŋiingu e ɓure mumen, mbaawngu kadi waɗde junngo maggu, ko aldaa e kulhuli walla sewde yeeso, e nder pinal aduna ngal.

  • 19 Ko lolliri koo golobalisasiyoŋ walla monnjalisasiyoŋ e tuubakoore.
  • 20 Fetel… heewa-warngo: arme de destruction massive.

30Kuuɓtidinal aduna19 ngal, ko goonga, angal adda fartaŋŋeeji kesi, kono angal soomi «warleñol pinal» mbo nganndu-ɗaa, fetel mum heewa-warngo20 oo wi’etee ko gootiɗingol. Ngam haɓtaade ndeen ɗoon reppere noon, lekki kii ko pinal tan; desorɗe pinal ɗee noon, eɗe to hoore saawo, e nder ndeen ɗoon hare, sabu eɗe poti wonde ɗo ɓuri ɓadtaade e nder ƴellitgol keewceeral baɗle pinal. «Hol no boom, mbaasreten miijaade ngalu-e-faggudu resorde afriknaare kesu, jokkondirngu e ngaluuji yimɓe ɓee? Ko maa njahden e hoohooɓe gure men, renndooji dowri men, waɗɓe ɓee ngaluuji men e aadaaji pinal men, nde puɗɗo-ɗen yiitude piɓtol» [A. U. Konaare, Le Monde, 2 feeburiyee 1993].

Ginnirɗe miisee e museum e nder ɗemɗe Afrik mbo les-saharaa

  • 21 Miijnoore: notion.

31Tafgol helmere hettaande, walla luɓagol (jiggagol) helmere laslinyankoore ndee, ɗum jojjata tan ko saanga nde helmiire ndee, helmere ndee, konngol ngol, walla ndeen huunde fotnde inneede ndee ngoodaani e ɗemngal joofoode ngal. Ko ɗuum woni ko arani koo miijnoore21 e konngol «miisee» ngol, wonande denndaangal ɗemɗe renndooji naamnaaɗi ɗii.

  • 22 Geereele, geereeɗe (tl. ngeereendi): territoire(s)

32So artii e geɗe laawol goodanɗe ɗee Dowlaaji Afrik, konngol miisee [miisee] walla museum [miiseyum] ngol ina lolli no feewi. Kono, nder Afrik mbo les-sahaara oo, dingiral sariyaaji ɗii na yaaji, na seeri, fawaade e yuɓɓo sariya tabitinaango ngoo. Ñemmbirɗe sariya donaaɗe e njiimaandi koloñaal ɗee, eɗe keddii e duumaade haa hannde, e nder mbaadiiji «desorɗe» jaaliyankeeji ɗii. Dowlaaji Afrik ɗi geereele22 majji ngonnoo, e jamaanu koloñaal, e nder Laamnateeri Engele ɗii, tuugnotonoo ko e jahnirgal trust [torosto] ngam yiilde golle desorɗe mumen; kadi ɗi mbaɗana ɗe laawɗinal keeringal (yeru: National Museum and Art Gallery Act, 1967, to Botsuwana; National Museums Act, 1983, to Keññaa; National Commission For Museums and Monuments Act, 1979, to Niseriyaa). Ngol ɗoo ɓaartagol e sariya woodaani e Afrik mbo farayse oo; Dowlaaji Afrik ɗi njiimaandi koloñaal Faraas maandini ɗii, e ko ɓuri heewde koo, ɗi ƴetti tan ko laawɗinal cihnoowal deentugol ndonaagu pinal nguu, tawa desorɗe ɗee mbaɗanaaka lelnaaɗe walla hurum sariya keeriiɗo; haa woori noon leydi Koduwaar: toon kam, kuulal 1987 ngal dottanii desorɗe ɗee darnde mooftugol e kollirgol ndonaagu pinal Koduwaar.

33No waawnoo wonde fof noon, no konngol resorde waawnoo sarɗinireede fof, heerto mum e loowdi mum fof ɓulnaa ko e miijnoore laslinkoore ndee, hono no aadaaji hirnaange mahri ɗum nii. Kuutoragol konngol ngol, njaajeendi mum, keɓtingol mum, kam yoo no yimɓe nokkuuji ɓee keɓindorta ɗum, alaa heen ko sifaa e nder laabi sariya afriknaaji ɗii. Ŋakkere laawol, e nder dingiral keɓindagol miijnoore ndee, wonande renndooji nokkuuji ɗii, ina addi puuytingol resorde to batte sariya, ɗum waɗi kadi yimɓe Afrik ɓee hoolkisaade ndee ɗoo ñemmbirde jiggaande.

34Pirtugol helmere hakkunde ɗemngal e ɗemngal, ɗum heewaani wonde huunde weeɓnde. So ɗemngal ngal won musnangal walla janngangal fof, alaa e sago neɗɗo naamnitoo jeyaaɗo e renndo haalooɓe ɗemngal ngal, walla ndeen fannuyanɓe won ɗemngal, mbele na annda so firo ngoo hawrii walla alaa. Ɗuum ɗoon, ina naamnii, heen sahaaji, biɗtugol duttorɗe tee kadi ina waawi ɓooyde ko ɓuri ko happanoo koo. Kono noon, ko caɗeele ɗee e ceertugol pine ngol keewi koo kala, ina laaɓi kam wonde, kala miijo heso walla huunde hesre, kala helmiire hesre jeyaande e won ɗemngal, so faamaama heɓindaa tigi rigi e anndinoore mum, e sifaaji mum kala, ina foti waawde waɗteede e kala ɗemngal joofoode goɗngal. Diɗɗal kelmeendi UNESCO [YUNESKOO] ndii, ko e ngool laawol rewi, fawaade e kaaldigal e nanondiral, ngam anndinde kelmiije e kelme-teeŋtuɗe gonɗe ɗee e Gaadondire ɗee. Kono ko ɓuri koo waɗde fayiida, ko njeñcudi ndi nganndu-ɗaa ndii, so renndaama no haanirta nii, ina wallita e ƴellitgol ɗemngal ngal, kam yoo kaaldigal hakkunde pine ngal.

35E yeru, helmere patrimoine [patirimuwaan] ndee e farayse, ina soomori heritage [heriteedja](konngol pirtungol ndonaagu e engele) kam e geɗe jawdi goɗɗe ɗe ngonaa tan donaaɗe.

36Nder ɗeen ɗoon golle «pirgol» e/walla «baɗtugol» hakkunde ɗemɗe, jeece ɗiɗi na keewi feeñde heen, so neɗɗo yalti kelmeendi ngoowaandi tawaandi ndii, o naatani lowre fannu keeriiɗo hono mbo Gaadondire UNESCO ɗee.

37Go’o go’o, e won sahaaji, ko ɓuri koo heewde, helmiire soklaande ndee anndaaka e ɗemngal renndooji toɗɗaaɗi ɗii. Ko hono noon konngol/helmiire «miisee» ndee wa’i.

38Ɗoo, neɗɗo na waawi suɓaade hakkunde peeje ɗiɗi: o aama, o luɓoo helmere lasliire ndee, nde arda e niɓre mum, sabu yimɓe renndo ɓee nganndaano hay wowlaango mum; walla ndeen, o tuugnoo e mbaawkaaji tafgol kelme gonɗi ɗii e ɗemngal joofoode ngal, o sosa helmere hettaande, laaɓtunde kaaɗdi laaɓal, tawa na rewtii doosɗe mbildi kelme ɗemngal ngal, o innira konngol toɗɗangol ngol. Ko noon helmere «miisee» nde dañiniraa innde e nder ɗemɗe nayi bi’aaɗe ɗoo ɗee.

39Ɗiɗi, ɗiɗi, helmere ɗeɓnde jiidude firo e helmiire hesre ndee, na woodi e ɗemngal kam e pinal renndo ngoo, hay so kelme ɗiɗi ɗee kuɓondiraani ɓoccet. Ndeen huutoree.

E fulfulde: resorde pinal23

  • 23 Fulɓe Labe, to Gine Konaakiri, na mbi’a ɗum «Suudu martaaba». Ko noon ɓe nginniri Miisee Labe oo.

40Ngam innude konngol «miisee», ngol anndaaka ka ngol e nder renndo ngoo, ko adii fof ko maa yimɓe ɓee pirtanee haa laaɓa ko foti faameede koo e helmiire miisee e ɗemngal lasli ngal, hono farayse. Caggal ɗuum, sifaaji firo ɓurɗi teeŋtude ɗii peññinaa, ngam haa ɓura laaɓtude:

  • miijo nokku walla hurum;

  • miijo mooftugol (mooftude kuule e geɗe);

  • miijo pinal walla aadaaji (neesu, finaa-tawaa, ekn.): geɗe pinal na mooftaa ɗoon ngam laareede, yeeɓee; kadi, neɗɗo oo yajjita heen pinal mum e ganndal mum, so o yi’ii ɗee ɗoo geɗe doɓindaaɗe mooftaa;

  • ɗum sakkitori noon miijo laartindagol, jeeɓgol, kumpitagol, beltingol gite e ɓernde.

41E nder jahnugol golle wiɗto ɗee, kelme keewɗe cosaama, keewɗe heen kadi ngoppaa; tawa ɗee ɗoo kaaɗnoo tan ko e miijo jeeɓgol hee (ɗuum waɗi yeeɓirde riiwtaa), ɗee ɓuraani teskinde, walla na mbaawi huutoreede e miijooji goɗɗi (ɗuum waɗi galle pinal e suudu pinal, ko ñemmbanoo koo e suudu defte defterdu – fof ngoppaa. Miijo jiggagol, luɓagol, helmere farayse ndee ne, ɗum wi’ee miisee, ɗuum ne riiwtaa haa jooni. Nde wonnoo yimɓe ɓee ngoowaani, meeɗaa nande nii, hay wowlaango ngoo tan, luɓangol ngol ne haaytaa.

42Ko nii woni, caggal nde yimɓe tuugnii e mbaawkaaji sosngo kelme fulfulde tawaango ngoo, ɓe pawii kadi e sifaaji firo tati gadani ɓurɗi teeŋtude ɗii - maanaa nokku, mooftugol e pinal – ɓe nanondiri e hettude konngol laaɓtungol sanne, hono resorde pinal.

43Konngol resorde pinal na laaɓti cer, wonande haalooɓe ɗemngal ɓee, fawaade e daliilaaji tati:

  1. maandon (fooɓre helmere, maale ceekooje, maande fedde innde) mahirkon konngol resorde kon fof, okon laaɓi, okon paaminii, e nder firooji makkon, wonande haalooɓe ɓee kala;

  2. mbildi helmere ndee na rewtii tigi, no kelme inɗe mahortoo nii e ɗemngal fulfulde;

  3. yeruuji kelme mahorɗe hono noon na poti na leydi, limotaako, e nder kelmeendi ngoowaandi ɗemngal ngal:

  • hoɗ-=> hoɗorde

  • loot-=> lootorde

  • hen-=> henorde

  • sod-=> sodorde

  • juul-=> juulirde

  • ekn.

44Konngol ngol ɓasaa ko e kelme inɗe ɗiɗi: resorde «nokku ɗo resetee, mooftetee» e pinal «aadaaji, neesu, finaa-tawaa, ekn.».

45Resorde/res-o-r-de/ko nii mahori:

  • Daɗol baɗal RES- (innde baɗal RESde): «moɓtude, ndeenaa, njogo-ɗaa». Yeruuji: resde jawdi, resde debbo, resde sirlu, etc.

  • Maandel – o-: maande daande firlito hakkunde, ruttinoore walla haaɗnoore baɗal e baɗo oo tan. Nii woni, res-o-«mooftaade», hay so baɗɗo ɗum ƴeewaaka.

  • Maandel – r-: kuutorgal/nokku kolliroowel wonde neɗɗo na huutoroo huunde walla nokku.

  • Maande fedde innde – de: maande tolno 2 ° wonande fedde innde NDE, miijnoore nokku, nokku kowaaɗo, dingiral, fofof, murliɗgol, ekn. Ko ɗuum waɗi fedde innde winndere woni NDE, kam yoo deftere NDE, e nokkere NDE; geɗe murle: hoore NDE, horde NDE, duunde NDE, lowre NDE, husre NDE, ekn. Ɗum addi resorde: «nokku ɗo resetee, mooɓtetee/moɓtetee, reenetee…».

46Pinal/fin-al/ko nii mahori:

  • Daɗol baɗal FIN- (innde baɗal FINde): «yaltude e ɗoyngol», ɗum yajjitaa woni «wonde gudditiiɗo, joom ganndal, ceeɓɗo, paamuɗo, kumpitiiɗo, ekn.».

  • Maande fedde – al: maande tolno 3° nde fedde innde NGAL, miijnoore ngonka, walla mbaadi.

  • Ɗum addi pinal «denndaangal ɓure [donaaɗe walla tawaaɗe] ganndal e aadaaji [renndo]». Pinal na seerti ɗoon e ganndal (ɗaɗol ANND-) toɗɗiɗum ganndugol e laaɓal, hono pawingal e defte ngal. Ndeen noon, Resorde pinal hawri ko e «nokku/hurum mooftugol [geɗe jowitiiɗe e] pinal

E bambarankoore: fεnkɔrɔmarayɔrɔ, «nokku resorde geɗe kiiɗɗe»

47Nder aadaaji bammbarankooɓe, nokku mooftirɗo geɗe kiiɗɗe, baɗɗe fayiida no feewi ɗee, heewi wonde ko nokku goɗeteeɗo; mbo mooftat laareeji (sanamuuji), laɓndaaɗe, ekn., kala geɗe jowitiiɗe e deengol neɗɗo, to ɓanndu haa to hakkille, haɗda ɗum e seytaneeji (rabeeji) e yimɓe bonɓe fof. Ɗuum ɗoon ko woɗaa, ina waawi moɓteede e nder suudu, saaku, loonde walla horde; ina waawi wonde jeygal gorko, debbo walla suka. Jottagol heen ko ko heertaa, wonaa neɗɗo fof yi’a ɗum. E ɗemngal bammbara, nduun «suudu gorko» wi’etee ko cεso, (ɓasaande hakkunde cε «gorko» e so «suudu», «galle»).

48Ko hawrata koo e «miisee», to bammbarankooɓe, ina waawnoo wonde nokku mooftirɗo geɗe nattuɗe woɗeede: so won ko reenooɓe ɗum ɓee natti woodde, walla ɗowooɓe ɓee, walla jannginatnooɓe yontaaji kesi ɗii ngam waɗde tuuruuji ɗii (kirsugol kuule, tuuruuji, sadakeeji), walla so won tuuruuji ɗii mbonnaa. Oon sahaa, geɗe «goɗanooɗe» ɗee natta jogaade nafooje majje to batte daartol e renndo-e-pinal, ɗe mbaawa hankadi anndeede e yi’eede yimɓe fof. Helmere hettaande fεnkɔrɔmarayɔrɔ (fεn: huunde, geɗel; kɔrɔ: kiiɗɗum; mara: moɓtude (mooftude); yɔrɔ: nokku), rokkiraande ndee ngam firtde «miisee», firti e jaati, daande e daande, ko «nokku mooftirɗo geɗe kiiɗɗe».

49Naatirde ɗemngal ndee, ina anndina en ko waasetee koo, e nder firo ngoo, walla nii ko heɓetee koo heen ne.

E kiswahili: Makumbusho, «Nokku ciwtorgol denndangol»

50E ɗemngal kiswahili, ina wooɗi konngol gaadanteewol, ɓasangol e kelme ummiiɗe e arab, ginnirgol ko faati e daɗndugol geɗe, memotooɗe yoo ɗe memotaako: hifadhi ya jdi (mooftugol aadaaji).

51Cosgol helmere huuɓtidinnde makumbusho ndee, kamngol e cosgol resorde pinal ngenndiire nde Daar-es-Salaam, to Tansani ndee, njiƴƴi.

52ma – maandel hoore, piratngel ko renndaa;

53kumbuka – firata ko siwtorde, ñelde;

54-o hollirta ko nokku.

55Makumbusho firti, waɗde, ko «nokku siwtorde (ciwtorgol) renndaande (denndangol».

56Ndeen ɗoon resorde ngenndi, e leriinde (hakkunde) wuro hee, siimtata ko daartol leydi Tansani, e nder kawrugol mayri e leƴƴi (jamaaji) gar’ari; nde hollira kadi wonde leydi ndii sabbudu neɗɗanke. E nder ndeen ɗoon resorde pinal, ina yi’ee toon geɗe gummoriiɗe e gostondire hakkunde leydi ndii e jananɓe. Ko ɗum resorde batte hakkunde-leyɗe baɗɗe ɗee muulngo Tansani hannde ngoo.

57Resorde Daar-es-Salaam woɗnde ndee, to seŋgo wuro too, ina hollira, e nder cuuɗi ceerndaaɗi, leƴƴi Tansani ɓurɗi lollude ɗii. Nde wi’etee ko nyumba za makumbusho, «cuuɗi ɗo siwtortee», «cuuɗi ciwtorgol». Kala heen suudu, sifotoo ko aadaaji kowki e pinal heen leñol – haa ɗuum addi fayiida konngol «suudu» ngol, nokku koɗaaɗo.

58Ko nii mbaadiiji makumbusho ɗiɗi ɗii ceerndirtee.

59Kuutoragol yimɓe ngol, ina lollini helmere kiswahili ndee, haa ɗemɗe goɗɗe fof ƴetti nde (sukuma, tsonga, ekn.) e nder leydi hee, kono ende heddi laaɓtude haa jooni, sabu miijo soomiingo heen ngoo siwaa tawa heɓindeede yimɓe ɓee.

Cuuɗi arɗooji: gila e mashigo haa Bujora (Tansani)
Caggal 1966, hitaande jeytaare ndee, ngam yiɗde wootidinde leydi ndii, arɗooji fof ngittaa. Kono geɗe e kuule ñemmbinooje laamu arɗooji ganni ɗee, ɗeen keddii… Hol no ɗe mbaɗtee?
Nder wuro Bujora, labbeeɓe katolik’en mbi’ii yoo ɗe mbaɗe e nder cuuɗi, mashigo e ɗemngal sukuma, ɗe moɓtee ɗoon. Mashigo ruttata ko e doɓaaɗe ɗe nafoore ñemmbal mawnde sanne, tawa ɗum wonaa ko feccetee, so wonaa ñande ñalaande mawnde dawi. Ina yaha tan noon, ina ɓosa, haa: mashigo waɗtaa Bujora, innde wuro ngoo, ngam innitde cuuɗi ɗi yimɓe ɓee ngarata na laaroya ɗii (haa teeŋti noon e leñol sukuma ngol, kam e leƴƴi ɓaariiɗi ɗii, e turista’en – yilliyankooɓe).
Karton kollirgol kon mbinndaa ko e sukuma, caggal ɗuum, e kiswahili. e ɗemngal tsonga [tisonngaa], to Mosammbik, to afrik mbo Worgo, Simmbabuwee e Suwasilannda, kadi ko helmere swikumbuso [suwikummbusoo] huutortee.
Swi-maandel hoore, keewal – fedde innde 8 (fedde kuule e geɗe);
Xikumbuso iwi ko e ku kumbuka, baɗal – waɗnoore – «siwtonirde».
Wonande cuuɗi arɗooji, ɗo geɗe ɗe nafoore ñemmbal mawnde mooftaa ɗoo, wonande renndo ngoo, walla leñol ngol, wi’etee ko «cuurel geɗe goɗaaɗe», yindlo ya swigotso; ngel uddittee tan ko e ñalaaɗe yeengo mawɗe.
Labbeeɓe ɓee ɓadlitini ɗum «temple» [jumaa, to maɓɓe]; yimɓe ƴettiti ngoon ɗoon miijo, ɓe cosi helmere thepela, nde lomti hannde yindlo ya swigotso ɗo woni kala.

60Ina laaɓi wonde, konngi cosaaɗi ɗii e swahili, ɗemngal ngenndi Tansani, ngam innude «miisee» e «patrimoine», hono makumbusho e orithi wa taifa wonande ndonaandi ngenndi, ko ɗe kelme tafaaɗe e belaaɗe tan, ɗe nganndu-ɗaa ɗee, nanata ɗe tan ko yoga e ngardiigu laamu Tansani nguu. Waɗi ɗum noon, ko ɗe njahdaani e geɗe jaati nguurndam pinal renndooji Tansani ɗii; ɗiin njaggiri ɗe ko kelme janane. Ɗe ngoni tan ko ko wa’i no ndesa kelme, kuutorteeɗe hakkunde-leyɗe, tee eɗe mbaawi ɓeydude peccagol pinal hakkunde faamooɓe ɓee kaan ɗoon haala hakkunde-leyɗe, e heddiiɓe ɓee. Ɗe nduñcataa e gootodinal renndo, ɗe ngaddata tan ko mofaade e hoore mum. Ɗum ɗoo na ɓeydi miijagol yimɓe haalooɓe ɓee kiswahili gaadante oo (mbo ɓaarnde Maayo Hinndi oo) wonde, ɗemngal mu’en heɓtanaama jannguɓe ɓe nganndu-ɗaa, ɓe njeeyii kuuɓtidinal aduna (monnjalisasiyoŋ) ngal won e miijnooje mahnooɗe ɗee neɗɗaagu maɓɓe.

Faade e leƴƴi desorɗe goɗɗi?

61Desorɗe pinal ɗee, e ko ɓuri heewde, ko ɗe fannuyankooje. Ina heen woodi leƴƴi jowi mawɗi, teeŋtuɗi: desorɗe ñeenal, ɗe ñeeñe-lobbe [boosaar], ɗe ñeene jooɗnugol; desorɗe daartol (taarik); desorɗe gannde, desorɗe daartol tawangol; desorɗe karalleeje; desorɗe ganndal leƴƴi.

62Leƴƴi desorɗe tati, ina en nanndi e ɓurɗi jahdude e ngonka Afrik kaa.

Resorde jatti

  • 24 Duunde ɗo Nelson Mandela wattindii sokeede ɗoo duuɓi keewɗi.

63Resorde jatti, ko ɗum resorde nde nganndu-ɗaa, ñiiɓirde mum, laaɓtunde ko ɓuri heewde, waɗaaka e belaaɗe, walla fawaade e geɗe keewal yimɓe, eggirlooji walla leydi-e-politik. So laamorgo heso sosaama, desorɗe ndartinee ɗoon; leñol walla jaalal egga, nawora doɓaaɗe mum leƴƴi, e geɗe mum goɗaaɗe. Resorde jatti noon kam, fawii ko e ñiiɓirde «nde waylotaako» rokkoore ɗum maanaa mum oo – nokku mbo jatti ganni-leydi (yeru: Olorgesailé to Keññaa, Ndidima to Afrik Worgo), walla ndeen wiiwo pinal, jatti golwolal walla baɗal daartol teskiningal (Robben Island [Roben Aylannda]24), walla kadi golwolal daariyankeewal, ngal nokku mum ñiiɓirde woni gaadanteejo/kawraaɗo.

64Waɗde, resorde jatti toɗɗaaki kuuɓtidinal winndere, ƴeewraaka kadi wonde ñemmbirgel ɓurngel toksiɗde – tee, haawnaaki tawa ko ɗuum woni ɓural mum ɓurngal teeŋtude. Paandale mooftugol, pindingol e beltingol ɓerɗe baɗanaaɗe ɗee hono ndee ɗoo resorde, ko jiidaa koo e mbaadiiji kowki walla mahngo mum, eɗe mbaawi ɓurde «yiitinaade» wonande fannuyankooɓe desorɗe ɓee, kam e laamuuji leyɗe ɗii, yoo yimɓe arooɓe na njeeɓoya ɓee kala…

65Ndeen noon, resorde jatti, ko nde fannuyankoore. Ina waawi wonande jattiiji e golwole ganndaaɗe, tawa ende ɗe tabitina; ina waawi wonande kadi jattiiji e golwole ɗe nganndaaka, walla ɗe ƴellitaaka (naftinaaka), tawa ende ɗe feññina, fawa e majje naamnitte: jatti neɗɗankeeɓe keewɗo kuule ladde walla kaɓirɗe kaaƴe ganni (hono oldavay Gorge [Oldawee Gorsa]), walla nokku keɓduɗo e njulaagu ɓaleeɓe (Gore – Senegaal), walla nokku gollirɗo mbaylaari mbo koloñaal, walla ndeen, hono ñemmbirde Skansen [Eskansen] nde Orop ndee, resorde huccitnde e asamaan huufnde hoɗorde walla kowki gaadante, tawa eɗe mbaawi waɗdeede geɗe, kam e kadi baɗle fitiramgollaagu, walla ndemankooje, e nder hurum nokku facciro maanaaji.

66Doole resorde jatti ɗee, fuɗngo mum ngo aldaa e jeddi ngoo, ina waawi wonande ɗum kadi sabaabu fuuyre walla luhre, so tawii yeddondirii e gannde leydi goɗɗe: nokkuuji laamu, ne’aande yimɓe, yuɓɓooji taraspoor, saɗde yottaade, kartel lelngo leydi nokku. Ko jiidaa koo e ngoɗɗeeki, walla heen sahaaji, paalkisagol laamuuji renndo ɗii, ina waawi ɓeydaade heen kadi reppere «ruggo-hoore mum», walla kaggingol geɗe (meebaluuji) ɓurɗe teskinaade ɗee, faade to resorde ngenndi, ɗe ngonoya toon tammborɗe haalaluuji goɗɗi, hono no ƴi’al hoore Taung [Toŋ], mooftaande ndee to Pretoria [Peretooriya] – laamorgo Afrik Worgo.

Desorɗe jatti ɗiɗi to Afrik Worgo
Ngam anndinde no wonorde jatti (e resorde mum) to bannge nokku, politik walla ngalu waɗiri fayiida, eɗen mbaawi yerondirde jattiiji ɗiɗi binnditaaɗi e doggol unesco ngol ndonaandi aduna, to afrik Worgo. To oo gaa bannge, jatti bi’eteeɗo oo «Cradle of humankind» [karadol of yumankaynde, «sabbudu jibinannde aadee»] ina waɗi gasɗe kaaƴe e luuraaje les leydi keewɗe, baɗɗe ƴi’e e batte yimɓe hiiɗɓe hono ostaralopitek’en e omoo erektus’en: ina wonani tan Johaanesburgo hakke waktu laawol, e dow bolol. Ina newanii turismo e jokkondiral e yimɓe, tawnoo ina waɗi ɗo otooji walla kaaruuji eleweeɓe mbaawi gaarde, tawa ɓeen na ñalla ɗoon heɗaade humpito «windereyankeewo» yowitiingo e Kesɗitgol Afrik.
To oo too bannge, jatti uKhahlamba Drakensberg [ukalamba Darakensberga], hedde keerol Kwazulu-Natal e Lesotho: ko ɗum wiiwo ngo kaaƴe (ƴooŋe, kooseeje, pele), ngo gasɗe nder kaaƴe baɗɗe nate e penturaaji ɗi leƴƴi San’en (Bushman), ɗeɓɗi suytude jooni, mbaɗnoo. Ko oo jatti ɓuri saɗde yottaade, sabu ko maa njahaa laawol juutngol, e oto, kadi ngaraa luwaa jippunde, bungalow; ko ɗuum waɗi, ɗoon ko ɗum jatti tuurismo keeriiɗo, ɗo arani’en ɓuri heewde, nde wonnoo yimɓe nokku oo kam keewaani haaju e leƴƴi baɗnoonɗi ɗii nate ɗeen, nde wonnoo ɓe cikkaani won ko heɓdi ɓe to batte leñol walla taarik/daartol.

Resorde renndo

67Resorde renndo, walla resorde minisipaal, ko ɗum jaalal walla kuutorgal ngal komin walla goomu juɓɓiiɗo sosi, tawa faanditaa heen ko: mooftude daɗnda, naftinde, kam e waawde udditaneede ko ɓuri heewde e yimɓe, seedeeji ndonagu pinal e tawaangu, memotooɗi e ɗi memotaako, jeyaaɗi e laamanteeri mum walla e dingiral mum pinal. Hono no juɓɓule tellitinaaɗe (kaggitaaɗe) ɗee kala nii, resorde renndo ko ko woni e les njiimaandi horo ngardiigu e ngo laawol, to batte njuɓɓudi e kisnegol, fawaade e sarɗiiji mooftugol, kisnugol e naftingol ndonaagu e ndonaandi pinal kala.

68Fanndaare resorde renndo ɓurnde teeŋtude, ko wallitde e pindingol ɓiyleydi. Sabaabu cosgol desorɗe renndooji ɗee, ɗum fawii ko e ngonkaaji ɗiɗi: go’o go’o, wonorde tellitinal laamu e weeytaare cosgol, to oo gaa bannge; ɗiɗi ɗiɗi, yiɗde darnude pinal ngenndi keewceerngal, udditiingal kadi e pine aduna goɗɗe ɗee, to oya bannge. Nder ɗuum ɗoon noon, politik cosgol jaale desorɗe tellitinaaɗe oo, ina foti tuugaade e humpito, heblo, hirjino renndo-e-pinal, jaɓɓagol e ɗowgol laarooɓe faade e pinal nokkunkewal, udditingal.

69Nder hono ngal ɗoo jaɓɓal, jowngal e resorde kala gollal mooftugol, cargol e kirjingol to batte pinal, tee engal newna kadi ƴellitaare ngalu, desorɗe renndooji ngontata ko «dingire» ƴellitooje pinal hanki e hannde kala: desorɗe guurɗe (pidduɗe), baɗiraaɗe ɓamtugol pindingol faade e ndonaagu, kam e gaadoragol jam.

Desorɗe renndooji ɗe leydi Dogoŋ’en
To Mali, ko ɓuri koo teskeede e desorɗe renndo ngoni ko e doŋre Dogoŋ’en. Ko ɗeen ngoni desorɗe Fommboori, ennde e Soroli. Ndeen ɗoon desorɗe, cosaa ko e dow feere renndooji ɗii; caggal ɗuum, mahgol ɗe waɗaa e dow ballitgol Mission Culturelle de Bandiagara (MCB), maanaa Lappol Pinal Bannjagara, to bannge karallaagal, e mballitaari kaalis ummoriindi e wallidiiɓe gollondiral (UNESCo, gollondire janane), yimɓe ɓee ne mbaɗi heen juuɗe mu’en haa timmi.
Ndeke noon, sabaabu cosgol ɗeen ɗoon desorɗe, fawii ko e ngonkaaji ɗiɗi: kaɓtagol baasal e njulaagu ɓure pinal cuuɗsuuɗu, kam e moƴƴitingol nguurndam yimɓe hoɗɓe ɓee, tawa ina rewraa ndonaandi.

Booñ (banke) pinal

70Booñ walla banke pinal, feeñi e Mali ko e hitaande 1997; mbo mahii ko e banngeeji tati: resorde wootere, santar (huɓeere) ñamalon, e santar (huɓeere) pinal e heblo.

71Hannde oo, Booñuuji pinal ɗii ko ɗi 4 to Mali, tee kadi ñemmbirde ndee ƴettitaama to Togo e to Beneŋ.

72Renndooji ɗii pellitii woɗɗitaade mbaadi resorde ngaatanteeri ndii, ɗi ngetoo heɓde no ɗi jahdodiniri deentugol neɗɗaagu pinal mumen, kam e ɓamtaare mumen.

73Paandale toɗɗanaaɗe ɗee booñ pinal ko ɗee ɗoo:

  • Reentude moofta, e nder resorde e mooftirɗe, ngaluuji baawɗi wujjeede, yaneede, walla yeeyeede e cuuɗsuuko. Ɗerewol limto (ñemmbirde hakkunde-leyɗe) na waɗaa.

  • Ɗiin ɗoon ngaluuji mbaasa seerndeede e daartol galle e renndo ngol, sabu ko kamngol rokkata ɗi maanaa e njaru majji fof. Kala heen geɗel kadi na jogii ɗerewol limto «ngo memotaako», ɗo winndaa kala ko woni ciimti, daari, peeje naftorgol ngam yeengooji walla ngam nguurndam ñande kala.

  • Wallude yimɓe ɓee e waɗde golle gaddooje dañal, tawa rokkirtee ko ñamaande nde happu njoɓdi mum ɓennataa duuɓi tati. Joom geɗel ngel na waawi, caggal nde o ruttiri pawdi ndii (3%) haa gasi, heɓtude geɗel ngel, walla haaldeede ñamaande woɗnde. Heewaani noon heɓtooɓe kaake mu’en.

  • Galle pinal e heblooji oo, toɗɗii ko ƴellitde golle ñeeñal, kam e heblude yimɓe gure ɓee (jaŋde mawɓe, kisugol antampiriis tokooso, jaɓɓagol turisto’en (yilliyankooɓe), e janngooɓe lekkolaaji).

74Renndooji ɗii cuɓiima konngol «banque culturelle [banke kiltirel]» ngol, haa ngol woni ngol yimɓe ɓee ɓuri hannde ƴettitteede, ɓurngol yumtude ne to batte wowlaango, ngam innude juɓɓule ñemmbiraaɗe ɗee ñemmbirde Mali ndee, tee ɗe ndarnaa to Togo e Beneŋ.

75Booñuuji pinal ɗii, nde wonnoo eɗi ndeenta, ɗi naftina baɗle pinal renndooji keewceerɗi ɗii, eɗi ngonti nokkuuji gostondiral e kaaldigal, nokkuuji newnooji nanondiral renndo, ɗo keewceeral jaggiraa no ɓeydaari ngalu.

76Ɗi ngollirta ko no pelle nii, tee kadi wune majji oo na addani ɗi boom casol goɗngol: casol ƴellitgol njuɓɓudi ñamalon tokoson; casol mooftugol geɗe ɓurtatɗe heewde ñande kala, e nder kuɓeeje ɗe njahdaani heen; casol keblugol terɗe majji to batte baawal golle, kam e teeŋti noon, casol keɓtinegol majji to bannge ardiiɓe Pinal Dowlaaji gonaaɗi ɗii.

Humpito ngurndam booñ pinal mbo Fommboori, Serkal Duwensa, Doŋre-Dogoŋ’en, Mali
Ko kammbo woni booñ pinal adiiɗo e Mali, e hitannde 1997. Ko ɗum njuɓɓudi renndankoori ngam mooftugol geɗe pinal, njogiindi booñ kaalis wuro, ngam waɗde ñamalon tokoson, kam e galle (santar) heblo pinal ngam tabitinde golle gaddooje dañal. Ko ɗum jaalal duumingal, ngam mooftugol, naftingol e cargol ndonaandi pinal renndooji ɗii, kaɓotoongal njanuuji, njeeygu mbonngu wonande geɗe ɗee, kaɓtotoongal baasal, baɗowal kadi feere haa kisnugol ndonaandi pinal ndii nafa renndooji ɗii.
Njuɓɓudi kisnal booñ pinal Fommboori ko ɗum ɗoo soomi:
– batu kuuɓtodinɗo oo;
–-goomu kisnal oo;
– goomu tottirgol ñamaale oo;
– gommu mawɓe oo.
Kaalis puɗɗorɗo oo, nde booñ oo uddittee ndee, wonnoo ko 40.000 mb. e hitannde 2002, roɓaande booñ pinal Fommboori ina yahratnoo e hakke geɗe 430, gummoriiɗe e gure sappo. Ñamlanɗe 450, hakke 1.300.000 mb, tottiraama, tee 60% heen fa’i ko e rewɓe. Hannde oo, booñ pinal Fommboori ina moofti geɗe 1.072 gummoriiɗe e hakke gure 24. Tuggi 2006 haa hannde, 802 ñamlannde kaalis tottaama 1.700 neɗɗo ngam moƴƴitinde ngonka nguurndam e golle mu’en.

Jooni noon?

Etaade firde gaadondire hakkundeleyɗe ɗee e ɗemɗe Afrik

77Keewceeral ɗemɗe seerataa e jibinde caɗeele pirgol kelme hakkunde ɗemngal e ɗemngal. Baɗtugol kelme e konngi Gaadondire UNESCO ɗee e ɗemɗe Afrik, ɗum wonata tan ko golle caɗtuɗe. Ndeen noon, Dowlaaji terɗi ɗii, kam e yimɓe ngardiigu UNESCO ɓee, na poti:

  • waɗtorde, tawtina, yimɓe renndooji ɓee, e nder tabitingol poroseeji e porogaramuuji pinal ɗii, e kala tolno;

  • waɗde wiɗtooji lugguɗi e ɗemnɗe nokkuuje ɗee, kam e firooji hakkunde majje e ɗemɗe laamu ɗee (farayse, walla engele);

  • darnude juɓɓule ngenndiije ngam pirgol e naattingol geɗe jowitiiɗe ɗee e ndonaandi e nder porogaramuuji janngingol sukaaɓe e keblugol mawɓe ngol;

  • firde gaadondire Unesco ɗee, e nder ɗemɗe nokkuuje renndooji ɗii, ummoraade e ɗemɗe heen baɗanaaɗe sarɗiiji binndol kala;

  • toɗɗaade heblooji fannuyankooji wonande toɓɓe jowitiiɗe ɗee e mooftugol e ƴellitgol ndonaandi, tawa ina yahdi e kelmeendi njowitiindi heen ndii;

  • muulde defte njeñcudi wiɗtooji ɗii, kam e tammborɗe ƴellitooje ɗee, nder ɗemɗe nokkuuje ɗee.

78Golle ɗee, wonaa ɗakkude tan kelmeendi hakkunde-leyɗe e nder winndannde ɗe poti wonde; haani kay ko miijtaade sosa peeje e hurumaaji sariya keeriiɗi.

Hollirde/peeñaa

79André Malraux [Anndere Malroo] wi’iino, e 1947, nder winndannde makko Le Miisee imaginaire [Resorde pinal miijaande]: «Nafoore desorɗe pinal ɗee, e nder jotondiral men e golle ñeeñal, ina mwani haa hay gooto waawaa miijaade baasal majje woodde […], tee eɗen heen njogii gila han teemedanɗe ɗiɗi. Teemedannde XIXe ndee wuurii e majje, hannde kadi eɗen nguuri e majje, tee en njejjitii wonde ɗe nduñcii yeeɓiyankooɓe e jotondiral kesal pul hakkunde mu’en e golle ñeeñal. Ɗe mballitii e seerndude golle ñeeñe ɗe ɗe denndinatnoo ɗee e darnde majje arwaneere».

80So en njiɗii yaltude e caɗeele ñemtingol ɓolol, ko heɓdaani koo e goonga e goonga, haawnaaki eɗen mbaawnoo fuɗɗitoraade e nafooje desorɗe pinal keɓtinaaɗe, njaɓaa ɗee ɗo woni kala, e winndere ndee, hono: roɓindaade, mooftude, e hollirde.

81So en naatanii ngal ɗoo jaɓɓal, maa resorde afriknaare waaw yaltude e oo ɗoo wutte mbo alaa daande, hono resornde ngenndi. Desorɗe pinal Afrik fof, walla ndeen yoga e majje, mbaɗiraa ko yoo mawnin ngenndi, tee ɗuum ɗoon ko ko waawnaa tan. Desorɗe ɗee, ko ɗe geƴƴelaaɗe e nder taariindi sahaa e dingiral, ndi nganndu-ɗaa, endi tonngi ɗo wootere jokkondire ɗe golle koloñaal taƴnondirnoo ɗee. Haa ɗum waɗi, ɗo ɗe potnoo wonde ɗoo dingire keɓtugol neɗɗaaguuji taƴcitaaɗi, ɗe ngonti ɗoon, e ko heewaani boom wondude e wune, galleeji ƴellitirɗi martaaba, wonande ngenndiiji sukaaji njiɗɗi dañde neɗɗaaguuji ɗi keɓotaako.

82Doɓaaɗe «ngenndiije» baɗaaɗe ɗee e kaa ɗoo ngonka, ni wa’i han no ko ɗe seedeeji ganni ɗi nganndu-ɗaa, ko seeɗa tan ɗi kaalan Afrik keso oo’en keñaniiɗo ɓamtaade. Nde wonnoo ko ɗe belsindaaɗe, walla nii ɗe nganndaaka, desorɗe ɗee paami wonde alaa e sago ɗe ngartira miijo e ko’e majje.

83Laabi jumtugol nayi na mbaawnoo daraade, weli metti:

  • Doɓindagol geɗe ngol, ina fotnoo ɓennude lowre geɗe ganndal leƴƴi ɗee tan, naatana ɓoggude kala ko nganndu-ɗaa ina waawi wonande seede yontaaji hannde e ɗi janngo ɗii kala;

  • Peeje golle mooftugol ɗee, ina potnoo jahdodineede e kala yuɓɓo-tagoore [ekoosistem]: wonaa ñemmbirgal mooftirde gootal tan woodi. Teeŋti noon, mooftirɗe yoo desorɗe Afrik ɗee fof, na potnoo haɗdeede e «ŋakkere kuuraa», yimɓe mbaɗta huutorde doole/ndoolam naange, ko aldaa e sikkitaare;

  • Golle kollirgol ɗee: alaa e sago yimɓe ngacca ngol ɗoo ndaartagol hoore mum, ngol seerataa e wiide wonde Afrik ina anndani hoore mum. Ko goonga, neɗɗo na haani haalde hoore mum, hollira hoore mum, kono noon neɗɗo oo na sokli anndude goɗɗo oo kadi, sabu ko e nder kawral ngalu tawetee.

84Orop adii mooftude fof ko ñemmbooje, caggal ɗuum waɗti hakkille e ñeeñal, o reenti karallaagal mum kowki, o ƴelliti haa dow maale golle mum mbaylaari, kadi waɗi desorɗe ganndal leƴƴi, ngam hollirde keewceeral pine ɗe yimɓe makko kawri e nder njilluuji maɓɓe e nder duunde baaba Aadama. Ɗuum ɗoon fof, jeyaa ko e daartol jamaanu, daartol ngol waawaaka waasde renndeede, ko yahaa yahaa fof. Ɗo ɗi mbaawi moofteede kala, so won to Afrik, to Orop walla to goɗɗum, ɗii ɗoo ndonaaguuji jeyaa ko e ko ndonu neɗɗankooɓe ndenndaangu, tee ɗum waawaa waade no wonaa nii.

85Ndekete noon, hollirde, hannde oo, wawaa nootondirde e feeñde. Afrik na ɗomɗaa aduna oo, tee desorɗe ɗee na poti heen janngude ko haani koo. Desorɗe Orop ɗee, ko ɗe dingire kawral, sabu ɗoon, hawrude e goɗɗo oo, annda ɗum, yeddondiraani e mawninde hoore mum.

86Tabitinde kesɗitingol resorde pinal e Afrik, ko waɗde feere haa desorɗe ɗee ngona dingire ganndondiral e goɗɗo oo, kawral e pine aduna ɗee, kam e ƴellitgol baawal sosde. E ndaɓɓa nafoowa tan, so resorde Afrik yiɗii daɗndude hoore mum, alaa e sago nde wona dingiral «deŋaade (feŋaade), udditoo».

Resorde e baawgol sosde: hanki baɗtaaɗo?

87Won e miijooji alaa ɗo ndarii, sabu nehdi cosaan e Afrik wonnoo ko dingiral gonanngal tan baawal sosde, haa laaɓi. Ina waawi wi’eede boom, Afrik mbo ceeɓal hakkille oo, wonaa mbo koƴcindagol poteeje tamaate, e potyon ngoɗkon, ngam waɗde pijirɗe oo; tigi tigi, woni Afrik ko oo mbo «cukalel-cosowel ngel» addata walla waɗa, ñande kala, fawaade e janngingol walla e ɗowgol mawɓe makko, pijirlooji e pijirɗe limlimte ɗe nganndu-ɗaa, kamɗe fof ko polanteereeje gudditiiɗe ngam annude tagoore, kam faamude maanaa geɗe e kuule kala.

88Oon ɗoon fannu potɗo renndeede e findinooɓe (heblooɓe, jannginooɓe), haa teeŋti noon e nder desorɗe ɗee, mbo waasaani fayiida. Sabu ɗum, so wonii hannde, caɗeele Afrik ɗee, njowitii, ko aldaa e sikke, ko e ko miijo naftorgol hettiti koo dow miijo baɗgol, haawnaani tawa feere na woodi, hono gaadoragol miijo baɗgol, kam welemma weltoraade ko mbaɗan-ɗaa hoore maa, sabu ko ɗum ƴellitgol hoolaare hoore mum. Aadoraade cosgol, gila e cukaagu ɓurngu famɗude, fawaade e duttorɗe pinal Afrik gonɗe e desorɗe pinal ɗee, ellee ko kañum woni feere ɓurnde yumtude ngam ƴellitde neɗɗo Afrik joom ganndal sosngo, deŋiiɗo e finaa-tawaa mum, baawɗo kadi jeyeede e renndo hummpito hannde ngoo, tawa o wonaa jeeɓoowo kono ko o baɗoowo; sabu renndo ngoo, ko adii fof, ko ngo renndo waɗooɓe.

89No waawnoo waade fof, ƴellitaare filñitiinde hannde ndee wonande pijirlooji baɗanaaɗe sukaaɓe, tee eɗe coomi kabaruuji pine ñande kala, e politik heen sahaaji, ina fotnoo en duñcude e ƴeewtaade ndonaagu inal Afrik nguu; nguun donaangu ngu nganndu-ɗaa, pijirlooji mum, e pijirkon, e jeeti (taali, tinndi), daari, kam e jimi belɗi jeƴirɗi cukaaguuji men keewceerɗi ɗii, na potnoo heɓtindeede, ngam janngingol e janngugol, ɗi ngona nafooji nehdi sukaaɓe Afrik e kala sahaa.

90Ko ɗum feere kadi faltorde taƴondiral gannde ordinateruuji, tawa NTIC na mbaɗee e naftugol ƴellitaare desorɗe, kam e biɗtugol e jahdodingol aadaaji pinal ɗii e ɗeen ɗoon kollorɗe ɗe hay gooto waawaa woorde hankadi.

Kaaldule hakkunde Afrik e leyɗe Hirnaange e ko faati e resorde pinal

91Jaɓde wonde desorɗe pinal Afrik ɗee eɗe njogii ganni koloñaal, ko waawde faamude kadi wonde hannde majje e janngo majje ina waawa udditde kaaldigal ngal sifaa keso, faade e leyɗe «Hirnaange» ɗee: hono no Georges Balandier [Joorjo Balannjee] wiiri nii, rewde e ngonka desorɗe haa yalta e «ngonka njiimaandi».

92Wonaa noon wiide na yedda daartol jamaanu, kono kay ko maanaa waɗtude ɗum e daartol, faama heen ko waawi koo naattineede e desorɗe, holliree e jaati, dallinee, ɗum waɗee ndaɗɗudi peccondiral, ndaɗɗudi duttagol – hono no yeru adano dow ɗoo holliri nii – walla ndeen ɗum wonta eggugol, ɗanngal, hono no ɗum feeñri ɗii e yeru ɗimmo oo. Kollirirɗe ɗiɗi ɗee nani, ndee ko heddiinde e waɗeede, ndeya ko waɗaande haa gasi.

93Adande ndee na waawi innireede Dakaar-Jibuti, gila Dakaar haa Dakaar. Ngoo ɗoo eɓɓo hollirirde, fuɗɗoriingo Senegaal, ngo waawi faade heedi e Funnaange, maa boom yahde haa to dinndeere-felo nde Ecopi too, toɗɗii ko lappol wiɗto ganndal leƴƴi lollungol, taƴcunoongol Afrik e kitaale 1930-1931 ɗee. Ardinoo ngol, ngam gollande Miisee de l’Homme [resorde Aadee] mbo Pari, ko Marcel Griaule [Marsel Giriyol] et Michel Leiris [Misel Leris] – eleweeɓe Marcel Mauss [Marsel Moos] kamɓe ɗiɗo fof -; ngool lappol Dakaar-Jibuti waɗii golle teskiniiɗe e nder baylagol ganndal leƴƴi aadeeɓe, itti ɗum e cifagol aadaaji e nessuuji yimɓe ladde ɓolol, waɗti ɗum ganndal neɗɗanke jowitiingal e renndo e pinal.

94Nde wonnoo woƴnoo ngol tan ko dañde duttorɗe timmuɗe, e roɓindo kuule (ɓurtungo, walla nii ñaayoowo, heen sahaaji), ngool ɗoon lappol wallitii e jajjitgol lowe wiɗto ganndal, haa ɓenni jeeɓoygol tan ko hesɗi walla ko yowitii e yimɓe ladde («ñeenal ɓalewal» ngal), ngol faari ɗe e miijo tugii e keewceeral, ɓurngo yaajde, wonande pinal memomtooɗe e peññingol pine renndooji Afrik ɗii. Kollirgol ngol, e nder Afrik e hoore mum, duttorɗe moofteteeɗe, e binndannde doɓindaaɗe e wiɗto, e fotooje, e geɗe kurujuruuji nuunɗuɗe doɓindaaɗe e oon sahaa, ɗe moɓtaa gila ndeen e nder desorɗe walla diimirɗe Faraas, ɗuum ɗoon ko ɗum huunde waɗnde faayiida mbo alaa haaɗdu.

95To batte duttorɗe, feere hono ndee ɗoo, ina waawa addude yiirude ɗeen ɗoon pine toɗɗaaɗe, no ɗe ngonirnoo nii duuɓi han ɓurɗi capanɗe jeetati (80). To batte miijtagol ne, jojjata ko yuurnitaade e hollirde, ɗoon e nokku hee, hol no won ganndal mahorii e dow goɗngal, hol no yi’annde fawanoonde ndee e renndooji nokkuuji ndeen ɗii yahri haa yajjitii, wonti ko huuɓtidini, wonti ko seerti e ɓittaare gannde dowrowe ɗee, ɗum faati e peeñgol wonorde caggal koloñaal yiitiniinde. So ƴeewaama boom, hol ko haɗi waɗde desorɗe nokkuuje wonande ñenngegol koloñaal kam e fiiltimooltaaji jaltugol e njiimaandi ngol?

96Yeru ɗimmo oo, woni ɗoo casol ngol ko hollirde e Afrik ko meeɗataa yi’eede ɗoon koo: ganni daartol «woɗɓe» ɓee, kam e daartol mu’en tan boom, e ko ɓuri yaajde. Resorde Houet [Hu’et] nde Boobo Julaasoo, to Burkinaa fasoo, e resorde Laténium [Lateñom] nde Neuchâtel [Noosatel] meeɗii yuɓɓinde hollirirde waɗnde batte ganni arkewolosi ɗe leydi Siwis, ɗum holliraa to desorɗe Boobo Julaasoo, Wagadugu e Abijaa fof.

97Ndeen ɗoon hollirirde inniranoonde Un peu plus lointain, un peu plus proche [Ɓuri woɗɗude seeɗa, ɓuri ɓadtaade seeɗa], nde hono mayre meeɗaa waɗeede, ina renndinnoo maketaaji [eɓɓoyon], cañanteeri beɗi e geɗe goɗɗe gummoriiɗe e yimɓe ndiyam hiiɗɓe kam e jamaanu boroos mbo leydi Siwis. Wonande laarooɓe heewɓe aratnooɓe e hollilirde hee fof, ɗum wonnoo ko jiitugol resorde e ayaawa nokku guuditorɗo e aduna, baɗduɗo gannde e miijo siloowo. Nde wonnoo, e ngol, hollirirde ndee ko waylunde joopannde ɗanngal nagl – ngol ko ummoraade Orop fa’a Afrik – nde ardinii daɗɗule denndaaɗe e pine kiiɗɗe ɗee, yahdude e peññingol ñeeñe mu’en kam e jotondire mu’en e taariindi: ɗum holliri noon ko waawi koo waɗdeede kala, fawaade e ƴellitaaje mu’en to batte taariik. Yanti heen kadi, nde ɗum hollirnoo wonde jaale e yimɓe Orop ɓee kala ina ngondaa batte daartol mu’en, tee eɓe ƴeewa no ɓe galɗitiniri ɗe, hollirirde ndee ina duñca laarooɓe ɓee e hakkilantaagal kesal.

98Ɗo Afrik ɗoo ne, seedeeji hanki ɗii, kam geɗe ñeeñal gaadante ɗee, ngonaa tan kaawniiɗe ɗe lappi wiɗto ngara na ndoɓindoo (hono no «Dakaar-Jibuti» nii); ɗum wonaa kadi geɗe njeeygu kuutorteeɗe e nder ruggo ngaluuji firtoowo renndo, kono kay ko ɗum ngaluuje pinal jogiiɗe nafoore to batte ganndal e taarik, ko ɗum ndonaandi tigi potndi reenteede, alɗitinee, anndinee, ko ayawi e ko yaƴcii.

99Ay oo ɗoo hanki, gaamtuɗo woorondirde, wonande keɓgol geɗe pinal e jahli jowitiiɗi e desorɗe, ko nganndu-ɗaa koo Hirnaange koloñaal na renndi ɗum e Afrik mbo les-saharaa oo, ina waawi hollude en winndannde faade e hannde e janngo kala.

100Hol mbo wi’i en boom wonde ndonaandi golle ñeenal hannde ndii ne faatirtaake kadi Rewo ɗoon e ɗoon?

101Hay so woni, hankadi, ko laawol waɗi, fawaade e sarɗiiji njulaagu hakkunde leyɗe, haa geɗe ndonaandi ɗee na mbaawi faareede to jehe Hirnaange, walla Aasii, walla Funnaange-Hakkunde too, tawa ko roɓindiyankooɓe coodi ɗe, walla tawa ko galleeji ñeeñal walla jaale desorɗe ɗum waɗanaa.

102So wonii, geɗe ñeeñal e golle turismo ɗee, ina njeyanoo e ngoƴaaji koloñaal ɗii ne, hannde oo kam, keɓtingol fitiramgolleeɓe laaɓtuɓe, gila to yimɓe heeriiɓe haa to lekkolaaji, ko ɗum huunde teskiniinde, jilɓiinde. Alaa e sago yimɓe ndeentoo, ɓe mbaɗa feere haa ngalu ñemmbal e kaalis jowiiɗo oo e ngool ɗoon keɓtinegol – ngalu oo ko mbo ngalu Hirnaange e ko ɓuri heewde – waasa jibinde kadi, dow ɗo teyaaka noon, «ruggo» jawdi heso ngo nganndu-ɗaa ongo waawi seerndoyde janngo desorɗe ñeeñal kesal ɗe Afrik ɗee e loowdiiji majje.

Notes

1 Daartol, taarik.

2 Aquariums [akwariyom].

3 Basiyanɗe

4 Experts [eksepeer]

5 Conndi galaas toɓanndi, na muuroo e leydi, haa fof ranwa tal.

6 Filosof mbo ganndu-ɗaa, adii tuugnude miijo mum fof ko e sikkitaare.

7 Jalkitatnoo, tooñatnoo, e fijirde.

8 Inɗe galleeji ganndal e ñeenal, to Faraas e Amerik.

9 Saal silo ɓalli: ɗo annduɓe kuttata kullon ngam ganndal medsin.

10 Kayitol binndangol, morlaa, humaa: ko ɗuum wonnoo defte adan.

11 Jamaanu teemedannde 18e, mbo tuubakooɓe mbi’ata «Aas de Limiyeer» oo.

12 Ƴame bi’ooje «ɗum ko e ngeereendi amen jeyaa» hay so wonaa goonga.

13 Teeruyankooɓe ɓe ngonaa lawakeeɓe, kono ko alɗuɓe, joom’en mbaylareeje.

14 Pintal mbaylaari: «Révolution industrielle».

15 Ganndal jowitiingal e ko fuugii, ubbii, e lees nguru leydi koo (gure, mahanteeje jawtuɗe, ƴi’e kuule ganni, ekn.).

16 Duɗe-jaaɓi-haaɗtirde

17 Ganndal ganni-leydi : arkewolosi.

18 Keewceeral: diversité

19 Ko lolliri koo golobalisasiyoŋ walla monnjalisasiyoŋ e tuubakoore.

20 Fetel… heewa-warngo: arme de destruction massive.

21 Miijnoore: notion.

22 Geereele, geereeɗe (tl. ngeereendi): territoire(s)

23 Fulɓe Labe, to Gine Konaakiri, na mbi’a ɗum «Suudu martaaba». Ko noon ɓe nginniri Miisee Labe oo.

24 Duunde ɗo Nelson Mandela wattindii sokeede ɗoo duuɓi keewɗi.

© Demopolis, 2014

Conditions d’utilisation : http://www.openedition.org/6540