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OpenEdition Books

Les intraduisibles du patrimoine en Afrique subsaharienne

 | 
Danièle Wozny
, 
Barbara Cassin

E Fulfulde. Kelmiije ndonaandi ɗe pirotaako ender afrik les-saharaa

1. Kolliral

Texte intégral

Golliyankooɓe ɓee

1UNESCO, fawaade e kuutorɗe mum ɓurɗe teeŋtude ɗee wonande mooftugol e galɗitingol, hono gaadondiral mum 1972 faade e deentugol ndonaandi pinal e tawaandi aduna ngal, kam e ngal 2003 ngam daɗndugol ndonaandi pinal miijankoori (ndonaagu) ngal, udditanii ɗoon kala leydi, baawgol mum hesɗitinde sifaa e keeri ndonaandi mum, ndi daranoo galɗitingol mayri.

2Waɗtude hakkille, faama na moƴƴi, faayiida gonɗo oo e ndonaandi Afrik, wonande yimɓe Afrik ɓee e ko’e maɓɓe, ɓe ndewa ɗoon ɓe ngannda nafoore wonnde ndee e galɗitingol ndonaandi ndii, ɓe pellita ko ndi kaanndi reenteede e moofteede, kadi ndi jokkondiree na yottinee hakkunde yontaaji, ina jaggaa wonde ina jeyaa e taamborɗe ɓurɗe teeŋtande «kesɗitgol Afrik».

3Ngam noon ñiiɓnude, e nder ngaal ɗoon ɓosɓosal jeytugol/keɓtindagol pinal maɓɓe, jahdodinal doole cellungal hakkunde yimɓe addooɓe ɓee, tamɓe ɓee ndeeni ndonaandi ndii, kam e fannuyankooɓe pinal ɓee, daartiyankooɓe/taarikiyankooɓe ɓee, ɗemɗiyankooɓe e kelmiyankooɓe ɓee, kam e heblooɓe e hisnooɓe ɓee, alaa e sago ngado-ɗen keɓindo-ɗen loowdi humpito e sarɗiiji kuutorɗe UNESCO ɗee; ɗeen kuutorɗe ɗe nganndu-ɗaa ɗe peewnaa, mbinndaa, ko e ɗemɗe janane ɗe yimɓe ɓee nganndaa. Tawa noon, en kaalaani boom haala caɗeele ngonɗe ɗee e jilɓagol – jowitiingol e caɗeele nanondondiral ngal waawaa ŋakkude hakkunde Dowlaaji terɗe ɗii – kelmiije tammbiiɗe ɗee ɗeen ɗoon kuutorɗe: e ko ɓuri heewde, ɗeen ɗoon kelmiije, ɗe ngonaa ɓurɗe laaɓtude, hay e nder ɗemɗe ɗo ɗe cosaa ɗoo. Haa ɗum waɗi, alaa e sago ɗe ngadoo fireede, gila to miijo haa to maanaa, e nder ɗemɗe leƴƴi Afrik ɗee ngam tabitinde humpito ngoo, hirjino ngoo e keɓindagol ngol kala.

4Ndeen noon, alaa e saga jaɓɓal hakkunde-fannuuji waɗee. Ko ɗuum waɗi min noddi fannuyankooɓe ndonaandi (mooftooɓe, fannuyankooɓe desorɗe pinal, fannuyankooɓe ubbital leydi, hisnooɓe, wallidiiɓe, ardiiɓe jaale), min noddi kadi ɗemɗiyankooɓe, sarɗiyankooɓe, daartiyankooɓe, filosof’en, firooɓe. Fof min naatni heen juuɗe mu’en.

5Ina njeya e wiɗto miijooji ngoo:

6Wiktuwaar Adegbidi, fannuyanke «ndonaandi» to Ecole du patrimoine africain [Duɗal ndonaandi Afrik] (EPA), Beneŋ]; Lucy Asante Mtenje, Université de Malawi [Lusii Asante Metennje, Iniwersitee Malawii]; Antoine Courroy [Antuwaan Kuruwaa], Directeur de l’Alliance française de Gaborone, Botswana [Gaboron, Botsuwanaa]; Manthia Diawara, professeur de littérature comparée, université de New York, États-Unis [Manca Jaawara, Etaasini]; Julia Ethé, professeur de pédagogie des langues, université de Yaoundé (Cameroun) [Suliyaa Etee, Yawnde, Kamerun]; Samuel Kidiba, directeur du patrimoine, Brazzaville, Congo [Samiyel Kidibaa, Konngo]; Justin Kimpalou [Susteŋ Kimpalu, ɗemɗiyanke], linguiste, Direction du patrimoine, Brazzaville, Congo; Cynthia Kros [Siñcaa Koros] (université de Witts, Johannesburg, Afrique du Sud); Léon de Stadler Lewoŋ Destadleer], directeur du Centre des langues (université de Stellenbosch); Amina Meddeb [Aminaa Meddeb, Pari, Faraas], Pôle Patrimoine mondial, ministère des Affaires étrangères, Paris, France; Samba Mboup [Sammba Mbuub], Afrique du Sud; Sheila Mmusi [Shelaa Musi], professeur de linguistique, université de Limpopo, Afrique du Sud/Acalan; Rosaleen O. Nhlekisana [Rosaliin O. Lekisanaa], chef du département de langues africaines et de littérature, université de Botswana; Paul Nzete [Pool Ensetee], professeur de linguistique, université de Brazzaville, République du Congo/Acalan; David Okello [Dawid Okeloo], professeur Heritage Studies, Kenyatta University, Nairobi, Kenya; Deirdre Prins-Solani [Deyder Pirinsa-Solani], directrice du CHDA (Center for Heritage Development in Africa), Mombassa, Kenya; Alain Ricard [Aleŋ Rikaar], linguiste, Sciences Politiques, université de Bordeaux, France; Amina Saïd [Aminaa Sayid], CHDA, Mombassa, Kenya; Klessige Sanogo [Kelesigee Sanogoo], directeur du patrimoine, Bamako, Mali; Julius Taji [Juliyus Tajii], linguiste, Université de Dar es Salam, Tanzanie; Amadou Touré [Aamadu Ture], professeur de linguistique, Bamako, Mali/Acalan; Georgios Tasklidis [Jeworjiwos Taskilidis], interprète, Paris.

Ɗemɗe ɗee

7Ko woodi, ko taarii en koo, ngam ɗum fahmee anndee, alaa e saga ɗum silee, seerndee e nder terɗe e geɗe mum, ɗum innee. Ko nii tan takata kelmiije e geɗe heɓindeede, yimɓe mbaawa tabitinde baɗal e dow majje. Ɗemngal darii, e nder ɗuum ɗoon, ko darɗe ɗiɗi: ko ko jeyaa e ndonaandi ndi memotaako (miijankoori) e ndi pinal ndii; ngal woni kadi daabaa miijo e ganndal, waɗde noon, daabaa ko woodi koo, e mbo ndonaandi ndii e hoore mum kala.

8Leƴƴi e mbaadiiji cifatooɗi ndonaandi ɗii, kam yoo miijnoore «ndonaandi» ndee e hoore mum, alaa heen ko woni gootum hakkunde pinal e pinal, e hakkunde ɗemngal e ɗemngal; ɗemngal ne ruttii kadi woni noon ngalu ndonaandi ɓurɗo oo sattande heɓtinirde leƴƴi, hay so tawii ndeen ɗoon darnde to laawol gasnaani naamnitte jowitiiɗe ɗee e heɓtinirde.

9Gila ko ɓooyi, Siik Anta Joob omo wi’atnoo wonde «ngootaagu ɗemngal pawiingu e ɗemngal jananal, no waawi ƴeewreede fof, ko ɗum nusko pinal tan. Alaa e sago, nguun ɗoon ngootaagu tammbii tan ko waroyde pinal ngenndi goonga e goonga ngal, ɗum gasna nguurndam men to batte hakkilantaagal, ɗum waɗta en ñemtinooɓe ɓolɓe, ɓe nganndu-ɗaa ɓe ngoopii laawol mu’en e oo ɗoo aduna kam». Kanko, o yi’atnoo «kisal» Afrik tan ko e waɗde feere haa njogoren keewal ɗemɗe men ngal hakkilantagal, tawa eɗen ndewtii kadi keewceeral pine.

10Ko maa njuurnito-ɗen dingire pine e ɗemɗe keewɗe ceertuɗe, nde mbaawen wiɗtude kelme tammbiiɗe ɗee keɓtinegol ndonaandi to batte hakkunde-leyɗe, kadi ngeto-ɗen anndude hol to ɗe nduttata e miijo, e hol ko ɗe jibinta e miijo. Ummagol e ɗemngal fa’aa e goɗngal, alaa e sago ɗum yahda e woon ko waasaa, kono noon ina yamira kadi ɓulnagol geɗe gese ɗe ngannduɗaa betgol fayiida majje e batte majje ko ko jojji sanne. Ko ngaal ɗoon daawtal tan waawi wallitde e mahgol baɗle kisnal ndonaandi, e golle yiilgol desorɗe pine, kam e galɗitingol, tawa ɗeen baɗle ko ɗe puɗɗe e nder pine e nokkuuji toɗɗaaɗi ɗii.

11E nder ndeen ɗoon joopannde, ɗemɗe jeeɗiɗi njaggaama, e nder ɗee ɗoo golle, ɗe mbaɗaa yeruuji: farayse e engele, fulfulde e bambarankoore to bannge Afrik Hirnaange, kiswahili, sukuma e tisonnga to bannge Afrik Funnaange. Ɗee ɗoo golle, faanditaa heen ko jokkireede ɗemɗe Afrik goɗɗe, tawa arab na yanta heen, tawa ɗum waɗiraa ko tufnde gostondiral e Internet, nde nganndu-ɗaa ende woni e feewneede nihen.

Farayse oo e engele oo

12Waɗi amen suɓaade farayse oo e engele oo ko tawde kelmiije mahɗe ɗee gollal UNESCO, e ko ɓuri koo heewde, ɗe miijaa, peewnaa, ko e ɗee ɗoo ɗemɗe ɗiɗi. Yanti heen kadi, kamɗe ɗiɗi fof, e wonde majje ɗemɗe njiimaandi koloñaal – «ko ruggaa e wolde» - ko ɗe kadi ɗemɗe kuutorteeɗe hakkunde leyɗeele. Ko kamɗe ɓurnoo wonde ɗemɗe gollirɗe e nder lulɗe amen ɗee.

Ɗemɗe Afrik mbo les-saharaa ɗee

13E dow gollidaade e ACALAN – Akademii Afrik mbo Ɗemɗe – jaalal fannuyankeewal Ngootaagu Afrik keɓtinangal to Kaartum/Sudaan e hitaande 2006, ngal ñiiɓirde mum woni Bamakoo/Mali, min keɓtinii ɗemɗe jowi taƴcokeeriije kuutorɗe. Koyngal ACALAN ko ɓamtude ƴellita ɗemɗe afriknaaje ɗee, haa ɗe mbaawa huutoreede e kala fannu renndo, tawa eɗe jahdodinaa e ɗemɗe donaaɗe e njiimaandi tuubakooɓe ɗee, hono farayse, engele, purtugees e español. ACALAN na yiira ƴellitgol ɗemɗe Afrik ɗee wonde maggol ko newnata tippondiral, nanngondiral, dewtondiral e paamondiral hakkunde leyɗeele ɗee, kam e kadi kuutorgal faade e jam e paltagol luhre.

14Ɗemngal taƴcokeeriwal, ko ɗum ɗemngal ngal leñol walla renndo haalata, tawa engol feccii e nder leyɗeele ɗiɗi walla leyɗeele keewɗe; ɗemngal kuutorgal ko ɗemngal ngal yimɓe ndenndata na kaala tawa noon eɓe njogii ɗemɗe mu’en goɗɗe keeriiɗe dana. Ɗo tolni-ɗen ɗoo, min eeli suɓaade ko ɗemɗe jowi jogiiɗe ɗii ɗoo sifaaji ɗiɗi.

Ɗemngal fulfulde

15Ko fulfulde woni innde ɗemngal Fulɓe (teelal Pullo). Fulɓe ina njeyaa e leƴƴi aynaaɓe Afrik Hirnaange lasliyankeeji ɓurɗi mawnude. Ɗemngal ngal na wi’ee kadi pulaar to Senegaal e Moritani, pulaar walla pulal to Gine Konaakiri e Gine Bisaawo. Hangal wi’ee titi pël (farayse), fulaa (engele), walla ful (almaa).

16Fawaade e peɗingol J. H. Greenberg [Girinbeerga] (1963), ngal jeyaa ko e goomu ɗemɗe Afrik-hirnaange mbo calsalol Niiseer-Konngo. Ko ɗum ɗemngal ɗakkondiroowal – ceŋondiroowal maandoñ – ngal mbaadi kelme nilɓiindi, jogingal yuɓɓo pelle inɗe sañiingo, wondungo e maandoñ kelmeendi e celluka keewkoñ ceerkoñ. Angal wanndi ɗoon e ɗemɗe bantuuje ɗee. Angal jogii hakke 25 fedde innde, heewi heewi, fawaade e ngaddinaaji, kam e 11 maande seekirde. Kelme ɗemngal yummaaje ɗee, mahii ko e maandoñ ndaɗɗudi (ɗaɗi innde, ɗaɗi baɗal, ɗaɗi sifaa e pooɓe innde). Maandon ndaɗɗudi kon, yoo maale geɗe ceekirɗe ɗee, fof ina njogii maanaa miijnoore yummaare. Ko ɗuum waɗi haa ɗemngal fulfulde na weeɓaa tafde kelme kese.

17Hannde hannde oo, fulfulde na haalee e nder hakke leyɗeele 21 e nder Afrik Hirnaange e mbo Hakkunde: Beneŋ, Burkinaa Fasoo, Kamerun, Koduwaar, Gaboŋ, Gammbi, Gaana, Gine Bisaawo, Gine Konaakiri, Gine Ekuwaatoriyaal, Liberiyaa, Mali, Moritani, Niiseer, Niseriyaa, Santarafrik, Senegaal, Sara Lon, Sudaan, Caad, Togo. Heen leyɗeele sappo (binndiraaɗe italik ɗee) ko leyɗeele cosaan ɗemngal ngal.

18Renndooji haalooɓe fulfulde keewɗi na ngoni Faraas, Belsik, Etaasini (Amerik), Espaañ, e Itali. Ina woodi kadi to leyɗeele aarabooɓe, hono Misira (Esipta). Ƴellitaare ɗemngal fulfulde, ina ɓuri tammbaade ɗum hannde fedde Tabital Pulaagu International (TPI). Fedde ndee na jogii catal e kala ngootiri e ɗee leyɗe Hirnaange limtaɗe.

19Keewal haalooɓe fulfulde e winndere ndee, ina iimee e hakke miliyoŋaaji 30 haa fa’i 50 neɗɗo. En njogaaki noon, hannde oo, limto ngo nuunɗal mum yeddondiraaka.

Ɗemngal bambarankoore

20Bambarankoore woni ɗemngal bambarankooɓe. Ɓe mbi’atata ɗemngal mu’en ngal ko bamanakan (helmere tafiinde e bamanan «bambara» e – kan «ɗemngal»). Keewal bambarankooɓe ina iimee e ko ɓuri miliyoŋaaji 10 aadee: ko ɗum gootol e leƴƴi Mali, ngol nganndu-ɗaa ɓuri wonde golle mu’en gaadante ko ndemri (ndema) nguuree, hono gawri ndiimiri e muutiri, feelaa e basi, masara, ñebbe). Ɓe ɓuri hoɗde ko e diiwanuuji hono Segu, to hakkunde leydi Mali, Kulikoro to hirnaange-hakkunde, Kaay to hirnaange, e Mooti to funnaange-hakkunde.

21Bambarankoore jeyaa ko e ɗemɗe goomu manndeŋ (walla «manndinkoore»), ko ngal gootal e nder ɗemɗe Mali «ngenndiije»; ko jiidaa koo e bambarankooɓe ɓee e ko’e mu’en, ko ɓuri koo heewde e leƴƴi Mali ina ngal kaala; ko ngal kadi ɗemngal taƴcongenndiwal, keewngal calti/ngaddinaaji jokkondirɗi, ɗum woni doggol gootol gila Mali haa nawi Burkinaa Faso, Koduwaar, Gine, Senegaal e Gammbi. Halooɓe ɗiin ɗoon ngaddinaaji fof noon eɓe nanondira, ko aldaa e caɗeele keewɗe. Aadaaji eggirgol e jahondirgol hakkunde yimɓe ɗeen ɗoon leyɗeele mbaɗi haa, gila ko ɓooyi, ɗemngal ngal woni kuutorgal.

22Bambarankoore fuɗɗiima winndeede gila e kitaale 1970’en, e binndol lateŋ. Mase pese dow binnol ɗee mbaɗiraa ko darnde ŋeñi daande; baylagol ŋeñol daande na waawi waylude firo helmere. Ɗemngal nagl na waɗi alkule laaɓɗe 7 hundukaaje: a, e, ɛ, i, o, ɔ, u kam e laaɓɗe 7 ñonnde: an en, ɛn, in, on, ɔn, un.

23Limto bambarankoore laawɗinaango to Mali ngoo waɗi ko muume 20: b, c, d, f, g, h, j, k, l, m, n, ɲ, ŋ, p, r, s, t, w, y, z. E ko ɓuri heewde, kala heen alkulal jogii ko wowlaango wooto, hay so wonii heen sahaaji ina waasa wonirde noon.

24Ko woni koo jaŋde mawɓe ndee na waɗaa e ko ɓuri yaajde, e bambarankoore, e nder leydi hee kala, haɗaani binndugol defte e maggal ina ŋakki tawa, sabaabu nde jaalagol farayse e wonde mum ɗemngal laamorgal. Kono noon, ɗemngal haala gaadantewal ngal kam angal alɗi no feewi to batte coñce, gila e jeeti, tinndi, daari, cifti, humpitooji aske, jimi/jiɓɓi, ekn; ɗuum ɗoon ko wammbaaɓe ɓee («joom’en haala») jogii ɗum, ina yottondiree hakkunde yontaaji, haa arti e jamaanu hannde; njimri ndii kadi na jeyaa e ko jokkondiri ɗeen ɗoon coñce gaadante.

Ɗemngal iswahili walla kiswahili

25Ɗemngal iswahili (ngal joom’en nginirta kiswahili) angal haaliree ɗemngal gadanal walla ɗimmal wonande hakke 80 miliyoŋ kaaloowo e nder leyɗeele 12 ɗe Afrik Funnaange e mbo hakkunde oo: Komoor, Somali, Keññaa, Tansani, Uganndaa, Burunndii, Ruwanndaa, Reppibilik Demokaratik Konngo, Sammbi, Malawi, Mosammbik, e Madagaskaar. Engal jeyaa e ɗemnɗe ɓurɗe haaleede e Afrik.

26Fawaade e peɗingol J. H. Greenberg [Girinbeerga] (1963) ngol, ngal jeyaa ko e goomu bantu mbo calsalol Niiser-Konngo. Hono no ɗemɗe bantu goɗɗe ɗee fof nii, ko ngal ɗemngal ɗakkondiroowal, ngal mbaadi kelme njilɓiindi, kam e yuɓɓo pelle inɗe sañiingo, wondungo e maandoñ kelmeendi e celluka keewkoñ ceerkoñ. Angal waɗi pelle inɗe sappo e jowi (15) e maale ceekirɗe jeenayi (09).

  • 1 Maanaa «ɗemngal denndangal, ngal alaa joom keeriiɗo».

27Kiswahili ummii ko e ɗemngal ngal remooɓe e awooɓe wuurnooɓe e daande maayo Sabaki, to Afrik funnaange, kaalatnoo. Caggal ɗuum, julaaɓe aarabooɓe e farsi’en ngoni e heɓindaade ngal e huutorde ngal, gila e teeemedannde Xe ndee, e nder njulaagu mu’en ñiiƴe ñiibi e maccuɓe, ngal sari noon, ngal jaalorii wonde linguwaa faranka1 e ɓaarnde maayo haaɗngo ngoo fof, haa heɓoyi nder leyɗi njoorndi kala. Caggal ɗuum, ɗemngal ngal woni e ƴelliteede e wootidineede, e jamaanu njimaandi koloñaal, no feewi; kono, ngal woni e saltude kadi e ngaddinaaji keewɗi, e reɓde faade e Afrik mbo worgo fof, tawi ko harbiyankooɓe Afrik mbo worgo hiiɗɓe, wuurnooɓe e Arik Funnaange, cari ngla toon.

28Hannde oo, kiswahili ko ngal ɗemngal ngenndiiwal e, heen sahaaji boom, ɗemngal laamorgal wonande leyɗeele ɗo ngal haaletee ɗoo. Ngal ɓooyii waɗtude winndeede (hannde oo ko e binndol lateŋ) tee kadi angal jogii coñce keewɗe baɗɗe fayiida.

29Ko ngal ɗemngal ngal ɗemɗe hono arab, engele, purtugees e enndu fof keewi ko mbattini e maggal. Angal jannginee, na jannginiree, ngal heewi kadi ko ngal huutortee e jaaynirɗe (hono rajooji e teleeji) e nder Afrik, kam e Orop e Aasii kadi. Caggal arab, ko kamngal ɓuri huutoreede e ɗemɗe Afrik.

30Haɗaani noon, ko haalirta ngal koo no ɗemngal neeniwal heɓaani 10% yimɓe leyɗeele ɗo ngal haaletee ɗoo. Wonande ko ɓuri koo heewde e haalooɓe ngal ɓee, ngal darii ko darnde ɗemngal ɗimmal, walla nii boom ɗemngal jananal.

Ɗemngal sukuma walla shisukumi

31Ɗemngal sukuma (bi’otoongal shisukuma walla kigwe) ngal, ko ɓuri miliyoŋaaji jowi neɗɗo na kaala ngal, gila bannge hirnaange-rewo Tansani haa to worko ferlo Wiktooriya.

32Ɗemngal sukuma jeyaa ko e goomu bantu mbo calsalol Niiser-Konngo. Hono no ɗemɗe bantu goɗɗe ɗee fof nii, ko ngal ɗemngal ɗakkondiroowal, ngal mbaadi kelme njilɓiindi, kam e yuɓɓo pelle inɗe sañiingo, wondungo e maandoñ kelmeendi e celluka keewkoñ ceerkoñ. Angal waɗi pelle inɗe sappo e jeetati (18) e maale ceekirɗe jeenayi (09).

33Haalooɓe sukuma ɓee, ko ɓuri heewde, ko ɓe remooɓe, aynaaɓe na’i, ɓe nganndu-ɗaa pinal mu’en galɗungal e nguurndam renndo mu’en ɗam fof tuugii tan ko e taariindi mu’en ngaadanteeri ndii. Yimɓe sukuma walla Basukuma’en ɓee, to batte keewal limoore, ko kamɓe ngoni leñol ɓurngol mawnude e Tansani (nde wonnoo haalooɓe kiswahili ɓee njaggiraaka wonde leñol).

34Konngol sukuma ngol firti ko «rewankooɓe». Ko hoɗdiiɓe mu’en bannge worgo ɓee totti ɗum ndee innde, ɓeen ngoni Dakama’en walla «worgankooɓe», yimɓe ɓadtiiɓe ɗumen to bannge ɗemngal.

35Ko haalooɓe sukuma ɓee keewi koo kala, ɗumen takaani ɗemngal mu’en ngal janngeede walla huutoreede to bannge binndi e coñce. Ko ɗum ɗemngal haala tan, baɗangal noon daabaa mawɗo, ngam mooftude pinal e heɓtinirde leñol ngol.

Ɗemngal tsonga [tisonnga] walla xitsonga [kitsonnga]

36Tisonnga ko ɗum innde lasliyankoore wonande goomu ɗemɗe bantu ɓadtondirɗe gooto, kaaleteeɗe gila to maayo Sawe, to worgo Mosammbik, haa to doŋre Afrik-Worgo wi’etennde Limpopoo too. Tisonnga na haalee kadi to Simmbaabuwe e to Suwaasilannda. Fawaade e peɗingol Guthrie [Gutiri] ngol ɗemnɗe bantu ɗee, tisonnga woni ko e nder lowre S ndee, ngal maandinaa kadi e nder fedde 50-S50’en-ndee, hono no ɗemɗe goɗɗe baɗɗe oon ɗoon goomu ɗee kala, ko wa’i no tishwa (S51), gamba (S52), tsonga (S52) kam e ronga (S54). Keewal halooɓe tisonnga ɓee, to Mosammbik e to Afrik-Worgo, ina iimee e miliyoŋaaji tati (03) neɗɗo.

Notes

1 Maanaa «ɗemngal denndangal, ngal alaa joom keeriiɗo».

© Demopolis, 2014

Conditions d’utilisation : http://www.openedition.org/6540