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Les intraduisibles du patrimoine en Afrique subsaharienne

 | 
Danièle Wozny
, 
Barbara Cassin

E Fulfulde. Kelmiije ndonaandi ɗe pirotaako ender afrik les-saharaa

Naatirde

Texte intégral

1Ko wi’etee koo Patrimoine [patirimuwaan] e farayse, maanaa ndonaandi walla ndonaagu, firo mum e njaajeendi mum mbaandi no winndereyankeeri ndii fof, feññini ɗum tan ko wonorde jaaliyankoore nde ɓuraani boom ɓooyde noon fof; sabu nde jeyaa tan ko caggal Wolde Winndere Ɗimmere ndee, nde fuɗii nanondireede e ko yaaji. Woni seede mum ko: keeweendi Dowlaaji nuunɗinɗi ɗii Gaadondire UNESCO ɗe 1972 faade e ndonaandi aduna oo, kam e 2003 faade ndonaandi ndi memotaako – walla ndonaagu, kam e fayiida politik mbo ɗiin ɗoon Dowlaaji mbaɗti oo e binnditgol ngaluuje majji ngenndiiji, pinal, tawaaɗe e ɗe memotaako ɗee fof e Doggol Ndonaandi Aduna. Ɗuum ɗoon ko wa’i no nanondiral noon, haɗaani won ɓurdugol woni e nder mbaadiiji no leyɗeele ɗee mbaɗiranaa nii e Doggii UNESCO ɗii, haa e nder goomuji binnditgol ɗii kala. E yeru, ina waawi teskeede wonde ngaluuje Afrik binnditaaɗe e doggol Ndonaandi aduna ndi aadeeɓe ɗee keɓaani nii 10% fofof oo, tee hakke 50%, famɗi famɗi, ngaluuje binnditaaɗe e doggol ndonaandi keborndi nuskaade ndii, ngoni ko Afrik.

  • 1 Anndinoore: konngol pirngol no huunde, walla miijo, waawi faamireede haa laaɓta.
  • 2 Miijnoore: helmere nde firo mum toɗɗii won miijo.

2Gila ko ɓooyi, ganndinooje1 ndonaandi ɗee, kam yoo cuɓorɗe jaɓegol ɗee fof, ƴoogaa tan ko e miijooji UNESCO e batuuji Orop; ɗum meeɗaa waɗtorde aadaaji e finaa-tawaaji goɗɗi, walla silooji jilɓiiɗi, baylotooɗi, gonɗi ɗii hakkunde ndonaandi, ngeereendi - nokku leydi-, daartol, siwtorde, e heɓtinirde. So ƴeewaama tawee miijo yowitiingo e ndonaandi ngoo, ko ngo wirnanoongo: mbaadiiji no ndi miijtortee, miijnooje2 ɗe helmiire ndee soomi, firo walla maanaa mbo ndi jogii, geɗe ɗe ndi toɗɗii fawaade e nokku, sahaa e sato ɗemɗe ɗo ndi mahii ɗoo. Ɗeen ɗoon geɗe ceertuɗe fof, njaajeendi gollal ngal UNESCO heewingal waɗde e heñaare, faade e ndonaandi ngal, ko ndi mbirnunoondi ɗe.

  • 3 Ne’aande, leriinde.

3Ngool ɗoon ceertugol ina woni e hakkunde3 golle amen hannde ɗee.

4E nder doggol lulɗe golle jowitiiɗe e «Kelmiije ndonaandi ɗe pirotaako» ɗee, puɗɗaaɗe gila e hitaande 2011 to Pari, ɗe njokkaa to Dakaar 2012, to Gaboron 2013, haa ari e Fonndasiyoŋ de Tereyi 2013, wiɗtiyankooɓe, e dow ballal Ministeer Caggal Leydi Faraas Direksiyoŋ Seneraal delaa Monjalisasiyoŋ/Pool Patirimuwaan] hono Ngardiidu Monnjalisasiyoŋ Kuuɓtidinngu/Bannge Ndonaandi), kam e Labex Transfers (CNRS/ENS), e Akademi Ɗemɗe mbo Afrik (ACALAN), IFAN – Ch. A. Diop maanaa IFAA Siik Anta Joob mbo Duɗal Jaaɓi Haaɗtire Ndakaaru, kam e oIF, maanaa Feddee Haalfaraysiire walla Farankofoni Hakkunde-Leyde, ɓe pelliti waɗde feere haa ɓe keɓindoo won e maale ngaal ɗoon goorondiral. Ɓe ngollidii e ko faati e kala miijo yowitiingo e ndonaandi, e kala peeje potɗe lelneede haa kaɓirɗe laawɗinooje keɓee, ngam hisnude e reentude ngaluuje ndonaandi ɗe nafoore nde alaa wano.

5Lulɗe golle ɗee njuurnitiima laabi jokkondirgol e pirgol hakkunde farayse, engele, ɗemɗe afriknaaje: jokkondire ɗe mbaawaa ŋakkude, so en njiɗi kay yoo yimɓe e renndooji jeyaaɗi heen ɗii keɓindo tigi rigi miijooji e casi coomiiɗi ɗii e geɗe ndonaandi kala – tee ɗeen ɗoon miijnooje fof, ko jilɓiiɗe, tammbiiɗe pooɗondire. So yimɓe ɓee keɓɓitinooma ɗe han, haa ɗe naatti tigi kakkillaaji mu’en, ma heew ko ɗum ɓeydi e deentugol donaaɗi memotooɗi e miijankooji – geɗe ndonaandi e ndonaagu ɗee; ɗum adda kadi ƴellitaare to batte renndo, pinal, haa boom to ngalu e faggudu.

6Golle mbaɗaama to bannge ceertugol to ɗemɗe, tawi kadi ko e keewal e jerondiral, fawaade e ɗee maale, hono «kelmiije ɗe pirotaako»: tawa ɗum firtaani wonde ɗe piretaake, kono wi’aa tan ko ɗe ceerataa e fireede walla waasde fireede; tawa nder ɗuum, haa jooni, ɗemɗe na njaggiraa, go’o, wonde ji’anɗe aduna, e kadi wonde mahirɗe adunaaji.

7Sabu ɗum, ummaade e ɗemngal fa’a e goɗngal, ko ɗum tigi umaade e won miijo pa’aa e woɗngo, umaade e won pinal pa’aa e goɗngal: ko ɗum humpitaade eggugol e nokku fa’a e goɗɗo. Nii ɗum wa’i tan no ummaade e nokku goodɗo walla miijaaɗo tan, jola e laana ɗemdiiwa, joofoya e «tufle» ɗe nganndu-ɗaa ko ɗe keewɗe ceerɗe cay, ko ɗe nokkuuje ɗo ɗemɗe kawrata na pelɓondira.

8Ko ɗum sooynoraade to woɗɗi ko woni e nder ɗemngal, ruttoo kadi waɗa haa jiiɗe ɓeydoo alɗondirde.

9Eggingol miijooji hakkunde ɗemɗe ngol, naatnaattondire ɗee, jiggondire kelme hakkunde ɗemɗe e binndanɗe, kam yoo firooji beñiiɗi ɗii, kam e tippondire ɗee, kodi ɗii, laabi codorɗi e gooñiiɗi ɗii fof, ko ɗuum ɗoon wuurnata ɗemɗe e miijooji, ko ɗuum hollirta nguurndam e semmbe mumen. Ɓetgol, e kala sahaa nde golle firo mbaɗaa, ko ronkaa fireede koo, ko waasaa heen koo, ko dañaa heen koo, ko ɗuum waɗata haa hakkillaaji na ɓeydoo ɓaditaade ko heeranii koo kala pinal. E nder ko ngon-ɗen koo e dow mum hannde noon, ina ɓeydii heen geɗe ɗiɗi: caɗeele gonɗe ɗee e keewceeral pine e aadaaji kaaleteeɗi ɗii e nder ɗemɗe jeegoo cuɓaaɗe ɗee, kam e caɗeele gonɗe ɗee e etagol yaltude e mbaadi haala e ganndinooje tuubakooɓe ɗee.

10Heñaare wonnde ndee hannde e ɓosɓose naattingol e ndonaandi, ina yottii haa e denndaangal ngaluuje pinal, ngaluuje tawaaɗe e miijiyankooje kala. Ndee ɗoo yi’annde hesre, wonande ndonaandi, ina addani ngaluuje ɗee njaru ɓeydiiɗo, njaru njeeygu e njaru ñemmbirde; yi’annde ndee na wallita e reentude ngaluuje ɗee, yuurnitoo ɗe, tawa ɗum rewi ko e limtaade ɗe, feɗina ɗe, waɗana ɗe tiitooɗe – nde waɗta ɗe kadi «njeyaari» ngam ɓurde ɗe heɓindaade, na gollora ɗe ngam loowde e majje won yi’annde laamu njooɗiingu nguu, walla boom fusde ɗe, hono no budaaji Bamiyan walla genaale diine ɗe Tummbutu mbaɗaa nii to Mali. Ina waawi huleede woto ngaluuje ndonaandi nguurndi, ngonndi e ƴellitaade, ƴette waɗtee ngaluuje pijirlooji e yeengooji, walla maaytuɗi ngoppaa, gonɗi e yeeyeede, tawa ɗi nattii jotondirde e aadaaji neesu e pinal majji, ceertii kadi e loowdi kelme jogiiɗe ɗee maanaaji e nder renndooji yimɓe ɗii.

  • 4 Donaaɗi = ndonaaguuji, leƴƴi ndonaagu.
  • 5 Heɓtinirde: ko anndinta koo neɗɗo walla renndo ngoo, gila to ɗemngal, aadaaji, nguurndam, neesuuji, (...)

11Min njiɗaa darnude wirngooji tekkuɗi hakkunde ndonaandi pinal, tawaandi, miijankoori, to oo gaa bannge, kam e ɗemɗe, to oo too bannge; miɗi njiɗi kay ko teeŋtinde, e dow ganndal laaɓngal, semmbe gonɗo oo e jotondiral hakkunde ɗemɗe e donaaɗi4. Ɗuum ɗoon ko gootum e sarɗiiji potɗi rewteede, mbele yimɓe e renndooji ɗii kala na mbaawa wonde golliyankooɓe kisnugol, mooftugol, e galɗitingol ngaluuje memotooɗe e miijankooje mahɗe ɗee keɓtinirɗe5 mu’en. Ɗii ɗoo ngoƴaaji fof njeewtidaama laabi limlimti, e nder lulɗe golle ɗee, kadi ɗi njuurnitoraama to bannge kelme too. Sabu ɗum noon, hay so wonii ndonaandi limtirtee ko e geɗe, kullon, monimaaji, laddeele, ngaluuje kulle e puɗi, aadaaji e daari e ciimti ne, haɗataa kam ko «kelme» ɓuri wonde ko innata ɗum. Ko kelme ɗemɗe ndenkata donaaɗi e nder pine yimɓe. Ko e kelme kadi, e nder ɗemɗe laamu ɗe UNESCO huutorto ɗee, anndintee cuɓorɗe (wonde ko alaa wano, winndereyankeejum, ñemmbiijum; wonde muumum, nuunɗugol, keɓtinaaɗum; tawaɗum, pinaleejum, ekn.) baɗooje ɗe haa ngalu ndonaandi heɓtinee hakkunde-leyɗe, kadi ƴellitiree wonde kuutorgal ɓamtaare ngalu, renndo e pinal.

12Kelmiije ndonaandi ɗe pirotaako ɗee, so ƴeewraama kelme majje ɗee, e firooji majje, e nanndooji majje, e kuutoragol majje, e cañu firooji ɗo ɗe naatata ɗoo, eɗe peññina lappi jooporɗi miijo yowitiingo e casi ndonaandi hannde ɗii, e nder oo ɗoo jamaanu gootidinaaɗo mbo ngon-ɗen. Rewde e ɗiin ɗoon lappi, ina wallita e keɓtingol won e haqiiqaaji deentugol ndonaandi gondaaɗi, ɗi nganndu-ɗaa jaale e lelngooji sariya Afrik ɗii na mbaawnoo heen tuugnaade; ina wallita kadi e yiitude laabi gollondiral hakkunde afriknaaɓe, kam yoo laabi kaaldigal kesɗitingal hakkunde mu’en e UNESCO. Ina waawi ɗamineede kadi, e njoorto moƴƴo, wonde maa ɗemɗe Afrik ɗee (kam e ɗemɗe leyɗeele goɗɗe kadi boom) ɓeydu yeñcinde miijo UNESCO ngoo faade e kelmiije makko kañum e hoore mum ɗee, yajjita kadi ji’anɗe mum adunayankooje ɗee kala. Eɗen mbaawi joortaade kadi wonde ceerseerte to batte ɗemɗe too, ina waawi wallitde e peññingol laabi gostondiral e denndal baɗooji haa ndonaandi ɓee ɗoo waasa felɓondirde e ndonaandi ɓee too.

13E nder ɗuum ɗoon, min cuɓii ko kelme ɗiɗi resorde e ndonaandi sabu wonde majje ɓurɗe tammbaade, e ko ɓuri yiitinaade, geɗe keeriiɗe gonɗe ɗee e ne’aande golle amen ɗee; ɗeen keeriiɗe ɗe nganndu-ɗaa eɗe tawee e nder denndaangal ɗemɗe ɗe min liggotoo ɗee e dow majje e nder majje fof: ko helmere ndonaandi ndee ɗowi golle miijo ɗee fof; helmere resorde pinal ndee, toɗɗii ko ko woowi waɗeede na waɗtee: jaalal ngal lasli koloñaal, ngal sifaaji keewɗi ceerɗi, fawaade e jiimiyanke koloñaal oo, ari wonti nokku seede, ñemmbirɗo, wonande Jeytaare leyɗeele; nokku oo ruttii kadi, jeyti hoore mum, wonti na ƴellitoroo wonde galle keɓindagol e cosgol pine, e ko ɓuri yaajde.

14Caggal nde min cuɓii ɗee ɗoo kelme ɗiɗi, min mbaɗi noon, e heen kala helmere, ñemmbal naatirde «saggitorde» ruttorde, yerondiraande hakkunde ɗemɗe ceertuɗe; caggal ɗuum, min ndaɗɗi cañondiral mbaawkaaji ɗemɗiyankooɓe e fannuyankooɓe ndonaandi, min piri/njahdodini ɗeen ɗoon naatirɗe – gadiiɗe winndeede e farayse tawa – e engele kam e e ko ɓuri koo teeŋtude e ɗemɗe Afrik mbo les-saharaa taƴcokeeriije kuutorɗe ɗee.

15Min toɗɗii ɗoo ko wallitde denndaangal taƴnooɓe nder ngenndi e hakkunde-leyɗe kala, kam e leƴƴi e renndooji leyɗeele ɗee, fawaade e yottinooɓe e wallitooɓe heewɓe seertuɓe, mbele keɓindagol/jeytugol, ngalɗitingol e costugol walla cosgol ndonaandi ina wonta ngalu gooto denndaaɗo.

16Ɗee ɗoo golle, e sikke amen, ina kaani jokkeede.

***

17Ndee ɗoo deftere, ko nde feere adande e tabitingol ngoo ɗoo miijo; ina wa’i no ko nde ñemmbirde arwaneere. Nde fuɗɗiima udditde damal nguu ɗoo ɗamaawu, maa nde hollir ko sellini koo sabaabu oo e jaati, nde fooɗta kadi, miɗen njoortii, ji’anɗe, teskuyaaji e dokkal miijooji faade e jokkugol golle ɗee.

18Ende adoo feeñde e ɗemɗe nayi, ɗemɗe tuubakooɓe Orop ɗiɗi e ɗemɗe Afrik Hirnaange ɗiɗi, taƴcokeeriije kuutorɗe, ɗe haalooɓe heewɓe kuutortoo.

19Firooji na ngoni e waɗeede e ɗemɗe swahili e sukuma; eɗi potnoo waawde feññinde, walla nii joopaade, goorondire e jotondire gonɗe e hakkunde biigol ndonaandi e swahili, ɗemngal «leriwal» wonande leyɗeele Afrik Funnaange keewɗe, kam e sukuma, ɗemngal sukumaaɓe.

20Ina haani siwtinireede ɗoo wonde, mbaawondiral ɗemɗe, e ko ɗum jibinta koo e waylowaylooji to batte pine e pagguli, ɗum wooraani hay leydi ngootiri: ina heewi e ɗemɗe cuytatɗe e kala hitaande. ACALAN woni fedde yiiloore golle, faade e cifagol mbaadiiji ɗemɗe e wonorde majje e nder renndooji, e nder denndaangal duundeeri Afrik fof; ɗuum ko mbele maaytugol, walla nii cuytugol ko heewi e ɗemɗe Afrik na waasa waɗde, nde wonnoo ɗemɗe Afrik ɗee ngoni duñcooje ƴellitaare ɓamtaare mayri.

Notes

1 Anndinoore: konngol pirngol no huunde, walla miijo, waawi faamireede haa laaɓta.

2 Miijnoore: helmere nde firo mum toɗɗii won miijo.

3 Ne’aande, leriinde.

4 Donaaɗi = ndonaaguuji, leƴƴi ndonaagu.

5 Heɓtinirde: ko anndinta koo neɗɗo walla renndo ngoo, gila to ɗemngal, aadaaji, nguurndam, neesuuji, mbaadiiji, pine, ekn.

© Demopolis, 2014

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