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Les intraduisibles du patrimoine en Afrique subsaharienne

 | 
Danièle Wozny
, 
Barbara Cassin

E Fulfulde. Kelmiije ndonaandi ɗe pirotaako ender afrik les-saharaa

Waɗduɓe golle ɓee

Texte intégral

1ERMAAN BOTIBOO, dañaa, kadi mawni ko to Tansani. Gila e lekkol mum duɗal les, keewal ɗemɗe ko ko meeɗi ɗum tan waɗde kaawis: ndeen jaŋde ndee waɗetenoo ko e kiwahili e engele, wonande sukaaɓe haalatnooɓe ɗemɗe ɓurɗe sappo. Caggal nde o janngi to Iniwersitee (Duɗal jaaɓi haaɗtire) Daar es Salaam too, o ari Pari, to leydi Faraas, o woni ɗoon e janngude leeter kalaasik (maanaa ganndi e coñce ɗemngal farayse), e keɓindagol ɗemngal farayse ngal, kam e ɗemɗiyankaagal; caggal ɗuum, o naatani wiɗto e jaŋde ɗemɗe Afrik, haa teeŋti noon e sukumaa, ɗemngal makko neeniwal. Nde o yalti, o janngnoyi to Iniwersitee Daar es Salaam, to Tansani too, kam e iniwersitee mbo Botsuwanaa; yahi haa woni ɗoon gardiiɗo Departamaa ɗemɗe Afrik kam e coñce, gila 1994 haa 2003. O naati kadi e Acalan e hitaande 2006. Deftere mum Language Decline and Death in Africa: Causes, Consequences and Challenges, yaltunde ndee e 2005, toɗɗii ko ɗemɗe Afrik kulanaaɗe cuytugol ɗee, teeŋti noon ɗe ɗemɗe afriknaaje ɓurɗe haaleede mbaɗɗitii ɗee. Wiɗtooji makko njowitii ko e geɗe baɗɗondiral ɗemɗe, darnde golle e baɗle haala, ɓosɓosal baylagol ɗemngal, kam e peeje potɗe waɗeede mbele ɗiin ɗoon kulhuli ɗii na mbeñcitoo.

2HAMMADI BOOKUM, ko o wiɗtiyanke ganni leydi (arkewolog), ganndal aadeeɓe kam e daartol ñeeñee. Gila hitaande 2001 kanko woni Dirikteer Ndonaandi Senegaal, kadi, gila 2005, woni gardiiɗo Biro kowki monimaaji taarik (daartol). E nokki koo e hitaande 2010, ko kanko ardii IFAA (Institut Fondamental de’Afriŋue Noire) mbo Iniwersitee Siik Anta Joob mbo Ndakaaru. Ko ɗoon o woni e jokkude e janngingol e wiɗtooji makko, haa teeŋti noon e karallagal mbaylaari jamɗe e nder Afrik. Omo jooɗanoo Senegaal, e duundeeri Afrik boom e ko ɓuri yaajde, e batuuji hakkunde-leyɗe jowitiiɗi ɗii e geɗe ndonaandi fof: yanti heen kadi, e nder geɗe goɗɗe, ko e tergal e konsey administarasiyoŋ Foŋ (Booñ) Afrik mbo ndonaandi, tergal kadi Goomu Ndonaandi Aduna mbo Unesco, kam e hooreejo (persidaa) Icomos Senegaal. Omo golloroo ɗemɗe farayse, engele, wolof e pulaar (fulfulde) kala nayi; ko o kaɓanteeɗo kadi yoo golle pinal Afrik heɓtine hakkunde leyɗe, fawaade e kollirɗe, muulngooji defte, e yeewte. O woni kadi komiseer hollirde wi’etenoonde «Ñeene Afrik» e nder Fewtiwaal Tataɓo mbo ñeene ɓaleeɓe aduna, baɗaaɗo oo to Ndakaaru e leewru deesammbar 2010.

3Oo ɗoo, BARBARAA KASEŊ, ko o filolog e filosof fof, fannuyanke filosofii gerek; o liggotoo ko e ko yowitii e golle e baɗle kaalgol, e filosofii, e retorik, e sofistik, e politik, e firo. O ardiima wallifo deftere wi’eteende Vocabulaire européen des philosophies. Dictionnaire des intraduisibles (Seuil, le Robert, 2004), nde nganndu-ɗaa nde firaama caggal ɗuum e enegle mbo Amerik (Dictionary of Untranslatables, Princeton, 2014), kam e ɗemɗe ikeren, arab, rumeŋ, español mbo Meksik, purtugees mbo Beresil, riis, italiyeŋ, gerek e eeboro (ɗemngal Israa’el). Ko o Dirikteer Wiɗto to CNRS, mbo nganndu-ɗaa o heɓii njeenaari filosofii mawndi, ndi Akademi mbo Faraas, sabu nde denndaangal golle makko wiɗto e ganndal.

4MULAAY KULIBALI ne ko ganndo, keɓɗo seedamfaagu DEA e ganndal leƴƴi aadeeɓe, to Iniwersitee Seŋ-Petesburgo (Riisi), o resndaama ɗii ɗoo ostooji to Mali: jogiiɗo ndonaandi pinal, seef diwisoŋ «ndonaandi ganndal leƴƴi» (Ngardiigu ngenndi ngu ndonaandi pinal/ministeer Pinal mbo Mali). Hannde oo, ko e cukko Dirikteer ngenndi mbo Ndonaandi pinal, jannginoowo kadi kisnal ndonaandi pinal to Estiti Iniwersiteer Ɓamtaare Ngeereendi mbo Bamakoo. Hakkunde 1995 e 2014, o waɗii njilluuji wiɗto keewɗi jowitiiɗi e ndonaandi, nder leydi e hakkunde-leyɗe kala, to batte mooftugol, ƴellitgol e cargol ndonaandi, rewindo-e-ɓeto poposeeji (eɓɓooji) pinal kam e tabitingol binndanɗe sariya ngenndiije e gaadondire hekkundeleyɗe tambiiɗe ɗee ndonaandi pinal. O yaltinii, e 1994, deftere wi’eteende Traditions et innovations dans la société bambara, (éd. du Cercle de Ségou).

5FARY SILATE KÂ ko o janngoowo Khâgne – fannuyanke ɗemɗe lateŋ e gerek kiiɗɗe, to liisee Sampoletoŋ mbo Goronoobal, Faraas wonnoo; o heɓi kadi seedamfaagu makko Doktoraa to Sorbon, Pari, Faraaas (1977). Ko o ɗemɗeɗiyanke, bi?toowojannginoowo, to IFAA Siik Anta Joob mbo Iniwersitee Siik Anta Joob mbo Ndakaaru, fannuyanke ɗemngal pulaar (fulfulde). Golle makko ɓuri yowitaade fof ko e ƴellitaare ɗemɗe Afrik, haa teeŋti noon to fannuuji celluka, jerondiral ɗemɗe to lasli, kalɗingol kelmeendi e baɗgol caggitorɗe. Ko o kumpitooɗo ko ɓuri heewde e ɗemɗe Senegaal ɗee fof, kam e ɗemɗe Afrik keewɗe, haa arti e arab, wolof e seereer, baɗtuɗo hakkille e fannu taarik e ndonaagu ɗemɗe. O yaltinii defte keewɗe ɗe ina jeyaa heen:

6Le pulaar au Sénégal, étude dialectologique (1983), Problématique de la standardisation linguistique: le cas du pulaar/fulfulde (1991), De l’oral à la publication: guide de l’éditeur en langues africaines (2006), Pourquoi et comment l’Afrique doit s’unir? (2012). Ko o kaɓanteeɗo, kaaɗdi baawɗe mum, ngootagu Afrik kam e kesɗital mum, haa ɗum waɗi, baawɗe mum fof o ɓure ɗe waɗde ko e ballitgol pelle ƴellitooje ɓamtaare yimɓe ngenndi, tawa ko e heblo e jannginirgol ɗemɗe Afrik ɗee ɗum rewraa. Hannde oo, ko kanko woni Hooreejo Akademi Senegaal mbo Ɗemɗe Ngnndiije, kam e Hooreejo goomu fulfulde (Fulkom) mbo Acalan. Kanko ardii Laboratuwaar Ɗemɗiyankaagal mbo IFAA Siik Anta Joob. Ko kanko firi ndee ɗoo deftere e ɗemngal fulfulde.

7SUMAANA KAN, pirɗo oo ndee ɗoo deftere e bambarankoore, liggotoo ko to CNR-ENF mbo Bamakoo, to Mali.

8FARANSISKOO SOSIIÑOO MATSIIÑE, ko jogiiɗo PhD e ɗemɗiyankaagal, ummoriiɗo e SOAS mbo Iniwersitee Lonndon; wiɗtooji mum ɓaartii ko e jotondiral ɗemɗe, kam jaŋɗe ɗemɗiɗiire, e kuutoragol ɗemɗe Afrik e nder yuɓɓo jaŋde sukaaɓe, kam e mbaadi kelme e lelngo celluka ɗemɗe bantu. Hakkunde 1992 e 2009, ko o jannginatnooɗo to Departamaa ɗemɗe afriknaaje to Iniwersitee Afrik Worgo (UNISA); gila 2009 noon, ko e koolaaɗo cihnal Akademi Afrik mbo Ɗemɗe (Aclan), galle Ngootaagu Afrik mbo koyngal mm woni ƴellitgol ɗemɗe Afrik, e dow gollondiral e ɗemɗe tuubakooɓe donaaɗe ɗee, e nder kala fannu nguurndam renndo. Omo golloo e nder iniwersiteeji keewɗi to Afrik, Beresil, Ostarali, Kanadaa e Amerik kala.

9WEŊSANŊ NEEGIRI, ko wiɗtiyanke to CNRS, e nder Galle wiɗtooji jowitiiɗi e gollondiral hakkunde-leyɗe to batte sariya (CECOJI). Golle makoo wiɗto njowitii ko jerondiral laawol, kam e laawol hakkunde-leyɗe wonande pinal kam e ndonaandi pinal; yanti heen noon wiɗto jotondiral hakkunde sarɗiiji e pine. Ko o Porofesoor asosiyee to Iniwersitee Lewopol Sedaar Seeŋoor mbo Aleksanndiri (Misira), omo janngina kadi to Iniwersiteeji Pari 1, Pari 11 e Liyoŋ 3. Gila 1995, ko o koysiltaa wonande Unesco e pelle hakkunde-leyɗe goɗɗe kadi (Icom, Iccrom, Kousey Orop, ekn.). Omo winndidaa deftere wi’eteende Dictionnaire comparé du droit du patrimoine culturel, CNRS, 2012). Ina jeyaa e defte makko cakkitiiɗo feññineede: Le patrimoine culturel, cible des conflits armés. De la guerre civile espagnole aux guerres du 21ème siècle, 2014.

10Arkewolog, daartiyanke gannde renndo, NATAŊ esHlannGEER (PhD Cambridge, 1995) kam ne, fannu makko abbitii ko e karallagal e pinal memotoongal, yantude e taarik (daartol) arkewolosi e politikaaji ndonaandi, teeŋti noon e nder Afrik mbo koloñaal e mbo hannde oo. Ina jeyaa e binndaaɗe mum: L’Archéologie préventive en Afrique: enjeux et perspectives (2008, ngardiigu ndenndaangu), La Préhistoire des autres. Perspectives archéologiques et anthropologiques (2012, ngardiigu ndenndaangu), European Archaeology Abroad. Global Settings, Comparative Perspectives (2013, ngardiigu ndenndaangu). Ko o Sarɗe de misiyoŋ to Inrap, tergal kadi diɗɗal wiɗtooɓe ɓe Lekkol Luuwaar; gila sttammbar 2014, ko o Dirikteer wiɗtooji fannu arkewolosi to Lekkol nasiyonaal Sarɗiiji.

11Caggal nde o woni jannginoowo Leeter kalasik, DAÑÑEL WOSNII artiri ngoƴa mum e yah-ngarta kam e jokkondiral e nder gannde: caatitagol hade muulngo (saanga nde o woni direktiris koleksiyoŋ «Aloor», to Santar S. Pompidu, Pari) Premier Salon des médias de la science to Miiseyom nasiyonaal mbo taarik tawaandi 1998, Train des sciences en Inde, kollirirɗe (teeŋti noon, komiseer-denndaaɗo wonande Parfums d’Egypte, resorde pinal ngenndi nde Keer to Misira, Quand les sciences parlent arabe, resorde pinal ñeeñal lislaam nde Keer, Tisser le paradis, resorde pinal ngenndi nde tappiiji, to Teheraan), juɓɓingol kawre, batuuji ganndal, lulɗe, emisoŋaaji telewisoŋ e rajooji, e nder njilluuji caggal leydi, nde o wonnoo atasee kiltrel (kalfinaaɗo geɗe pinal) e nder ammbasaaduuji. Gila 2008 haa 2013, ko kanko ardinaa Pool Ndonaandi aduna to ministeer faryse mbo geɗe caggal leydi.

12Nde ɓe kawri to Fonndasiyoŋ de Terey ndee, waɗduɓe ɓee golle ɗee ndenndii cañi hakkunde maɓɓe ko ɓuri fayiida e ndee ɗoo deftere koo; tawi eɓe ɗum mbaɗiri kawre mu’en kaaldigal, gostondiral miijooji, kam e wallifaaji keeriiɗi, e duttirgol kadi ko winndaa koo faade e goomu oo, ngam saatooji e jaɓegol fof’en. Won e taƴe, ɗe keɓaani ngaal ɗoon nanondiral, mbattini ko winndideede e dental. Caggal nde gooto kala hooti leydi mum ndee, golle ɗee njokkitiraa jokkondiral elektoronik, maanaa ɓataakeeji Internet.

© Demopolis, 2014

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