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Les intraduisibles du patrimoine en Afrique subsaharienne

 | 
Danièle Wozny
, 
Barbara Cassin

Bamanankan na. Forobaciyɛn yɔrɔ bayɛlɛmabaliw afiriki sahara woroduguyanfanjamanaw na

3. Forobaciyɛn

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Angilɛkan na.: heritage, patrimony
Tubabukan na: patrimoine
Fulakan na: ndonaandi
Sukumakan na: bulisi
Siwahilikan na: urithi
Tisɔngakan na: ndhazaka ou pfindlaƐ

1I n’a fɔ ɲɛfɔli gɛlɛyaw bɛ tubabukan ni angilɛkan kan cogo min, daɲɛ, forobadaɲɛ kɛrɛnkɛrɛnnen sɔrɔli ka gɛlɛn Afiriki kanw na min bɛ ɲɛfɔli kɛ, bɛn kɛlen don min kan INƐSIKO kɔnɔna na. Tiɲɛ na, forobaciyɛn tɛ fɛn kelen ye, fɛn caman de don: forobaciyɛn dalen, dɔnkoforobaciyɛn, forobaciyɛn farima, forobaciyɛn farintan, forobaciyɛn dogolen walima dɔnnen, siyaforobaciyɛn, kabilaforobaciyɛn, jamanaforobaciyɛn, diɲɛ forobaciyɛn…

2Nin ɲɛfɔli gɛlɛyaw bɛ «forobaciyɛnko» nafa jira walasa yɛlɛma minnu bɛ senna yɔrɔ dɔ la, k’olu faamuya, k’u kiimɛ, k’u bila sira ani k’u ɲɛsigi.

3«Forobaciyɛn» faamuya tɛ ko kɔrɔjɛlen ye jɛkulu bɛɛ kɔnɔ, nka o n’a ta bɛɛ, a bɛ san-tan damadɔ bɔ, a kɛra i n’a fɔ ko poyilen, i n’a fɔ, tuma dɔ, kilisikan, min bɛ na ni sɔrɔ kuraw ani/walima jamana ka yɛrɛya jiraminɛn, walima yɛrɛ a ka yɛrɛya laseginminɛn a ma.

4Wale in ɲɛsinnen bɛ forobaciyɛnfɛn dalenw de ma, ani siya lakananenw cayali ka kɛ forobaciyɛnw ye, ani kɛnɛ lakananenw, dugujukɔrɔfɛnw, mɔnni sɔrɔfɛnw ani ji sɔrɔfɛnw, nin minnu tuma deli ka kɛ jagofɛnw ye ka kɔn bi ɲɛ. Ko wɛrɛw bangena. Dɔnkoforobaciyɛn fana bɛ nin cogo kelen na, i n’a fɔ Zuluw ka sitiw, minnu nana ni turisimu sugu kuraw ye Afiriki woroduguyanfanjamana walima yɔrɔw ani jɔnya taamaseerefɛnw, olu minnu bɛ ɲininkali kɛ kokura tariki ani Afiriki ni Tubabutile ni ɲɔgɔncɛla kan.

A kɔrɔ tubabukan ni angilɛkan na

Ɲɛfɔliw

5Daɲɛgafe Larusi bɛ nin ɲɛfɔliw kɛ:

6Fɛn min n’i y’a sɔrɔ ciyɛn ye i bɛnbaw fɛ;

7Fɛn min bɛ jate halalafɛn ye, nafolo ye: a halalafɛn, o y’a hakili ye;

8Fɛn min bɛ jate jɛkulu bɛɛ lajɛlen jɛmafɛn ye: jamana dɔnkoforobaciyɛn

9Bololafɛnw, hakɛw ni kɛtaw bɛɛ lajɛlen, nafa bɛ minnu na sɔrɔ siratigɛ la, ni mɔgɔ dɔ bɛ se ka kɛ a tigi ye;

10Bɔsifɛnw ni lasefɛnw bɛɛ lajɛlen minnu ye, waati dɔ la, mɔgɔ, du, baarada walima jɛkulu dɔ ta ye.

Forobaciyɛn faamuya sariya siratigɛ la

11Forobaciyɛn faamuya sariya siratigɛ la, o lasiri bɛ jira sariya kɛrɛnkɛrɛnnen kɔnɔ k’a kɔrɔ kɛ:«mɔgɔ bololafɛn n’a ka kɛtaw bɛɛ lajɛlen (…), a ka sɔrɔtaw n’a ka bintaw, bitaw ni nataw» (Zerari Kɔrinu, Sariya daɲɛw, PUF, 2004, ɲ. 654). Nafaba bɛ faamuya in na; forobaciyɛn mankutu min b’a kan, o ni mɔgɔw ka hakɛw bɛ ɲɔgɔn ta sɔrɔko siratigɛ la. Dɔnkoforobaciyɛn faamuya in nana san-kɛmɛ XIXnan ka modɛli wɛrɛ jira. A bɛ fɛntigi ka nafa ni jɛkulu ta kala ɲɔgɔn na, n’o ye ka bɔ i ka dɔnko numa. Dɔnkoforobaciyɛn ye fɛnw ye minnu bɛ, fɛntigi yɛrɛ bɛ nafa min sɔrɔ a la bɔlen kɔ yen, jamana dɔ ka dɔnko bɛɛ jira; fɛn minnu n’a bɛ nafaba don u la; fɛn minnu ni diɲɛ tɛ se ka kɛ ni u ntanya ye.

12Erɔpujamanaw ka kɔnsayi bɛnkankadiri ka ɲɛsin dɔnkoforobaciyɛn nafa ma jamana kan, min sigira senkan san 2005 ɔkutɔburukalo tile, o bɛ ɲɛfɔli kɛ, a ka sariyasen 2nan kɔnɔ, ko dɔnkoforobaciyɛn ye: «sɔrɔfɛnw bɛɛ lajɛlen ye minnu sɔrɔla ciyɛn ye ka tɛmɛ, ni mɔgɔ dɔw b’u jate i n’a fɔ u ka danbefɛnw, dannakow, dɔnniyaw ni laadaw jaw n’u taamaseerelanw. Sigida lamini cogoya bɛɛ ni b’o la, minnu bɔra hadamadenw n’u sigiyɔrɔw ni ɲɔgɔncɛlakow la waati kɔnɔna na.

Kulusigili

13Forobaciyɛn farima/farintan: Bɛnkan min ɲɛsinnen bɛ diɲɛ dɔnkoforobaciyɛn ni forobaciyɛn dalen ma, n’a tara INƐSIKO fɛ san 1972, n’a bɛ wele «Dɲɛ forobaciyɛn bɛnkan», o bɛnkan bɛ boli forobaciyɛn jɔlenw dɔrɔn de kan, ka tali kɛ a dɔnkomayɔrɔw ni/walima dalenmayɔrɔw la.

14Dɔnkoforobaciyɛn ɲɛfɔliw (sariyasen 1lɔ) ani forobaciyɛn dalen ta (sariyasen 2nan) tɛ ɲɔgɔn fili. Bolofɛn minnu bɛ suguya fila kɛ ɲɔgɔn kan, dɔnkoforobaciyɛn ni forobaciyɛn dalen, olu bɛ wele forobaciyɛn sugufilama.

15«Dɔnkoyɔrɔ kɛrɛnkɛrɛnnen» faamuya min n’a sɔrɔla ka da «hadamaden ni dugukolo jɛmabaara kɛlenw» kɔrɔ ɲɛfɔli waralen kan, o ɲɛfɔlen tɛ ka jɛya sariyasen fɔlɔ kɔnɔ. O n’a ta bɛɛ, a bɛ danfarali kɛ fɛn camanba la minnu tɔgɔsɛbɛnnen don diɲɛ forobaciyɛn tɔgɔsɛbɛn (lisi) kan. Dɔnkoyɔrɔw – dɔnkofɛnw – ɲɛfɔlen don taabolow fɛ minnu bɛ bilasirali kɛ diɲɛ forobaciyɛn Bɛnkan waleyali la: «U bɛ hadamadenjɛkulu sigisenkanni n’a yɛlɛmabolow jira waati kuntaala kɔnɔ, gɛlɛyaw ni/walima nɔgɔyaw ka waleyaw kɔnɔ, waleya minnu sababuyara sigida n’a lamini ni hadamadenw ka kɔnɔna ani kɔkanna baaraw fɛ hadamadenya ni sɔrɔ ni dɔnko siratigɛ la».

16Dalen/dɔnko ye danfara sigilen ye bɛn kɛra min kan diɲɛ bɛɛ fɛ? nin kuluw: «tariki-, cɛɲuman, siya-, hadamadenyakalan-» b’olu cogo kelen na wa? nin kulu ninnu ye fɛn sɔsɔtaw ye wa?

Bolofɛnw tɔgɔsɛbɛnni daɲɛ kɛrɛnkɛrɛnnenbaw

San 1972 bɛnkan tariki

17Sitiw lakanani hakilina bangena Diɲɛ Kɛlɛba Fɔlɔ kɔfɛ, ani a nana ni tiɲɛniw ni ladilanni minnu ye. Ko minnu nana ni hakilina in ye, o ye Asuwan barasi jɔli ye min tun bɛna ji walankata ka don folonba kɔnɔ, Abu Sinbɛli Tanpulu tun bɛ yɔrɔ min. Walasa k’o tiɲɛni bali, INƐSIKO ye folonba nafolow lakanani kanpanɲi dɔ bila senkan diɲɛ kɔnɔ, san 1959 – tanpuluw bɔra ɲɔgɔn kunna, ka taa n’u ye yɔrɔ wɛrɛ, ka tila k’u sigi-sigi ɲɔgɔn kan. Nin waleya kelen in nana kɛ kokura sitiw wɛrɛw kan, ka laban ni sariyaminɛnko miirina ye diɲɛ kɔnɔ. Hakilina caman nana ta jamanaw ni dɛmɛdonjɛkuluw fɛ ka sɛbɛn dɔ labɛn, INƐSIKO ka mara kɔnɔ, bɛn kɛra min kan INƐSIKO ka lajɛba dɔ senfɛ, san 1972 nowanburukalo tile 16, k’a tɔgɔ da ko: «Bɛnkan ka ɲɛsin diɲɛ dɔnkoforobaciyɛn n’a forobaciyɛn dalen lakanani ma»

Ɲɛfɔliw

18Bɛnkan sariyasen 1 bɛ fɛn minnu jate i n’a fɔ «Dɔnkoforobaciyɛnw», olu ye ninnu ye:

  • Hakilimaralanw (monimanw): fɛnw don, nafa kɛrɛnkɛrɛnnen bɛ minnu na diɲɛ bɛɛ bolo tariki, seko walima dɔnniya siratigɛ la: jɔlifɛnw, dɛsɛfɛnw walima pɛntirifɛnw, fɛnkɔrɔtɔw, sɛbɛnniw, farawow ani fɛnkulu wɛrɛw,

  • sobolo: so caman dannabilaw walima kafolenw, nafa kɛrɛnkɛrɛnnen bɛ minnu na diɲɛ bɛɛ bolo tariki, seko walima dɔnniya siratigɛ la;

  • sitiw: hadamaden ka baaraw walima a ni dugukolo ni ɲɔgɔncɛwalew, ani yɔrɔw, fɛnkɔrɔtɔsitiw bɛ minnu na ni nafa kɛrɛnkɛrɛnnen b’u la diɲɛ bɛɛ bolo tariki, cɛɲiya, siyadɔnnikalan walima maayadɔnnikalan;

19Sariyasen 2nan bɛ ninnu jate i n’a fɔ «forobaciyɛn dalen»:

  • Hakilimaralan dalenw (dilanbaliw), minnu sababuyara ɲɛnamaya yɛlɛmabolo waleyaw walima waleyakuluw fɛ, nafa kɛrɛnkɛrɛnnen bɛ minnu na diɲɛ bɛɛ bolo cɛɲa walima dɔnniya siratigɛ la;

  • Dugukolo kɔnɔna n’a kɔkanna yɛlɛma-yɛlɛmawalew ani yɔrɔ dantigɛlenw k’u kɛ bagansiyaw ani falenfɛnsiya silatunutaw lamarayɔrɔw ye, nafa kɛrɛnkɛrɛnnen bɛ minnu na diɲɛ bɛɛ bolo dɔnniya ani lakanani siratigɛ la;

  • Siti dalenw walima kungokɔnɔna yɔrɔ dantigɛlenw, nafa kɛrɛnkɛrɛnnen bɛ minnu na diɲɛ bɛɛ bolo dɔnniya, lakanani walima dali ka cɛɲiya siratigɛ la.

Bɛnkan waleyali kama daliluya tan tara, minnu na wɔɔrɔ ye dɔnkoforobaciyɛn ye, naani ye forobaciyɛn dalen ye:

20Dɔnkoforobaciyɛn daliluyaw:

  • Ka hadamaden yɛrɛ ka fɛndilanhakili jira;

  • Ka waleya dɔw seereya minnu kɛra waati dɔ kɔnɔna walima dɔnkosigida dɔ la sojɔcogo kuraw walima fɛɛrɛ kuraw yiriwali kan, ani hakilimarasekow, ani dugubaw sigili bolodacogo walima dɔnkoyɔrɔ kɛrɛnkɛrɛnnenw dayɛlɛli;

  • Ka seereya kelen pe walima kɛrɛkɛrɛnnen di laada walima hadamadenya dɔ kan, sennata walima tɛmɛnen;

  • Ka sobolojɔcogo walima sobolojɔfɛɛrɛ walima dɔnkokɛnɛbɔcogo misali ɲɛnama dɔ di minnu bɛ hadamaden ka tariki waatiba dɔ(w) kofɔ;

  • Ka kɛ laadala hadamadenso ani dugukolo walima kɔgɔji minɛcogo kɔrɔ misali ɲɛnama dɔ ye, min bɛdɔnko dɔ (walima dɔnko dɔw) jira, walima hadamaden ni a ka sigida lamini ka ni ɲɔgɔncɛwalew, kɛrɛnkɛrɛnnenya la tuma min ni dugukolo ka ɲɛtaa yɛlɛma-yɛlɛmaw barika nana bonya hadamaden ma;

  • Ka kɛ kow walima laada ɲɛnamaw seere ye, ani miiriyaw, dannakow walima sekobaaraw ni gafesɛbɛnbaaraw, kɔrɔ kɛrɛnkɛrɛnnen bɛ minnu na diɲɛ bɛɛ bolo. (Komite ka jate la, a ka ɲi nin daliluya ni tɔw ka waleya ɲɔgɔn fɛ).

21Forobaciyɛn dalen daliluyaw:

  • ka dugukolo kow walima yɔrɔ cɛɲumanba walima nafa kɛrɛnkɛrɛnnenba jira;

  • Ka kɛ misaliw ye minnu bɛ dugukolo tariki dakunbaw jira kosɛbɛ, ɲɛnamaya seereyali b’olu la, ani yɛlɛmaba minnu donna dugukolo cogoyaw la;

  • Ka kɛ misaliw ye minnu bɛ jirali kɛ dugukolo yɛlɛmabolo yɛlɛmaw la, ani yɛlɛma minnu bɛ ka don dugukolo kɔkanna ani jikɔnɔnaw, tintinkannaw ni kɔgɔjikɔnɔ falenfɛnw ni baganw ka yiriwali la;

  • Ka se yɔrɔw kɔrɔ minnu ka ca n’u nafa ka bon kosɛbɛ kungo fɛnsiyacamanya lakanani na, nafa kɛrɛnkɛrɛnnen bɛ minnu na diɲɛ bɛɛ bolo dɔnniya ni lakanani siratigɛ la.

Dɔnkoyɔrɔ kɛrɛnkɛrɛnnenw

22Bololafɛnw lakanani n’u ladonni n’u yɛrɛyɛrɛya n’u dafalenya ye jateminɛdaw ye minnu nafa ka bon kosɛbɛ. Kabini san 1992, hadamaden n’a ka sigida lamini ni ɲɔgɔn cɛwalew dɔnnen don dɔnkoyɔrɔ kɛrɛnkɛrɛnnenw kɔnɔ fɛnw ye.

23«Dɔnkoyɔrɔ kɛrɛnkɛrɛnnenw ye dɔnkofɛnw ye minnu bɛ hadamaden n’a ka sigida lamini ni ɲɔgɔn cɛwalew jira. U bɛ hadamadenya yɛlɛmabolo jira waati kɔnɔna na, hadamadenw yɛrɛ ka sigidaw lamini gɛlɛyaw n’a nɔgɔyadaw kɔnɔ, ani mɔgɔw ka baaraw kɔnɔ hadamadenya, sɔrɔ ani dɔnko siratigɛ la, sigida kɔnɔna n’a kɔkanna na».

Dɔnkoyɔrɔ kɛrɛnkɛrɛnnenw: ko miiriya lasiri
Sitiw ni monimanw lakananitaaboloba minnu labɛnna ka sinsin san-kɛmɛ XXnan daminɛ na, olu jateminɛ b’a jira ko dɔnkoyɔrɔw lakanani sirilen don nafasɔrɔbaaradaw la minnu bɛ lafasali kɛ jamanaw ka yɛrɛya n’u ka dɔnkow la. «Dɔnkoyɔrɔ ye faso ɲɛda lakanunen ye», Jɔnni rusikini ka o waati sɛbɛnninɔ dɔ y’o ye. ″Dɔnkoyɔrɔ kɛrɛnkɛrɛnnen″ miiriya bɔra yan de, ani baara kɛlenw jamanakalan siratigɛ la, miiriya min ni Karili o. Sawɛri y’a kɛ sɛbɛn ye théorise san 1925: The cultural landscape is fashioned out of the natural landscape by a culture group. Culture is the agent, the natural area is the medium, the cultural landscape is the result («Dɔnkoyɔrɔ kɛrɛnkɛrɛnnen bɛ labɛn ka bɔ kungomayɔrɔ dɔ de la dɔnkojɛkulu dɔ de fɛ. Dɔnko ye walebaga ye, kungo ye waleyalan ye, dɔnkoyɔrɔ kɛrɛnkɛrɛnnen, ale ye sɔrɔlen ye») [Karili o. Sawɛri, «The Morphology of Landscape», Geography, vol. 2, n° 2, university of California Publications, 1925, p. 46.]
Diɲɛ jamanaw ka sariyaw, minnu tara san-kɛmɛ XXnan kɔnɔna na, olu ma dɔnkoyɔrɔkɛrɛnkɛrɛnnenko miiriya ta jate la, olu ye yɔrɔw ɲɛnacɛɲa kanu a ye (OEA ka san 1940 bɛnkan), ani yɔrɔw ni sitiw ka cɛɲa n’u cogoya (INƐSIKO ka san 1962 laɲi), walima fana hadamaden ni dugukolo ni ɲɔgɔncɛla walew miiriya (INƐSIKO ka san 1972 laɲi, min bɛ wele ko Diɲɛ forobaciyɛn bɛnkan). Nin fɔcogo in n’o ye «Dɔnkoyɔrɔ kɛrɛnkɛrɛnnen» ye, a sɛbɛnnen tɛ san 1972 Bɛnkan k ɔnɔna na. a ma na ni san 1992 tɛ, bilasiralisɛbɛn kɔnɔ min ka kan ka dɛmɛdon kɛ a waleyali la. «Dɔnkoyɔrɔ kɛrɛnkɛrɛnnen miiriya lamaralen bɛ siti» ɲɛfɔli kɔnɔ: hadamaden ka walew walima hadamaden ni dugukolo jɛma walew (…) nafa kɛrɛnkɛrɛnnen bɛ minnu na tariki, cɛɲa, siyadɔnnikalan ani maayadɔnnikalan siratigɛ la.
Kabini u labɛnko fɔlɔ san 19 7, taakasegin bɛ to ka kɛ bilasiralisɛbɛn in kan k’a labɛn kokura ye. Bilasiralisɛbɛn in tun ye dakun 27 ye san 19 77, dakun 290 san 2013 ta kɔnɔ. Nin cikan ninnu n’u ɲɛsinna diɲɛ forobaciyɛn komite, ani kiimɛnijùkuluw, ani koɲɛdɔnnaw ni tɔndenjamanaw ma, o cikan ninnu cayali bɛ na ni diɲɛ forobaciyɛnko kɔrɔ cili ye, dɔnkoyɔrɔ kɛrɛnkɛrɛnnen ye min taamaseere dɔ ye.

Bilasiralisɛbɛn (san 2013 ta) bɛ dɔnkoyɔrɔ kɛrɛnkɛrɛnnenw kɛ kulu saba saba ye: dɔnkoyɔrɔ dantigɛlen koɲuman, hadamaden ye min lawuli a kama a dilan; dɔnkoyɔrɔ yɛlɛma-yɛlɛmata; dɔnkoyɔrɔ tɔnnama. Nin kɔrɔmisɛn kelen-kelen bɛɛ ɲɛfɔlen don walasa ka koɲɛdɔnnaw dɛmɛ u k’a dɔn dɔnkoyɔrɔ min ni nin dɔnkoyɔrɔ kɛrɛnkɛrɛnnen suguya kelek-kelen bɛ taa ni ɲɔgɔn ye.
Sanni ka se nin kuluw ma, ko wɛrɛ bɛ kɛ ka ɲɛsin nin dɔnkoyɔrɔw sigidamɔgɔw ma. Dɔnkoyɔrɔ bɛ dantigɛ fɔlɔ ɲɛ (filɛli) fɛ, ani mɔgɔw ka sebaaya ka ɲɛ ka fɛn yelen bɛɛ tɔgɔda, ka bigiyaw labɛn kankodɔnniya siratigɛ la dɔnkoyɔrɔ kan, ani ka sariyaw dilan o kɛnɛ kow la.

24“Dɔnkoyɔrɔ kɛrɛnkɛrɛnnen” ye daɲɛ ye min kɔrɔ bɛ yɛlɛn hadamaden n’a ka sigida lamini ni ɲɔgɔn cɛjiraliwale sugucamanba kan. Dɔnkoyɔrɔ kɛrɛnkɛrɛnnenw bɛ dugukolo minɛcogo ɲuman fɛɛrɛ kɛrɛnkɛrɛnnenw kofɔ tuma dɔ, minɛcogo ɲuman min bɛ jateminɛ kɛ mɔgɔw ka sigida lamini cogoyaw n’a dansigiw la, ani mɔgɔw yɛrɛmiiriya kɛrɛnkɛrɛnnen ka ɲɛsin o lamini in ma. Dɔnkoyɔrɔ kɛrɛnkɛrɛnnenw lakanani bɛ se ka dɔ fara dugukolow labaarako ɲuman fɛɛrɛ kuraw kan ni kɛnɛ kɛrɛnkɛrɛnnen in dugukolo nafaw lakanani ye, ani u ɲɛni ka t’a fɛ. Dugukolo labaaracogo kɔrɔ minnu bɛ yen halisa ka caya, olu de bɛ ɲɛnamaya sifacamanya sinsin diɲɛ yɔrɔ caman na. Dɔnkoyɔrɔ kɛrɛnkɛrɛnnen kɔrɔw lakanani ye o tuma na ko ɲuman ye ɲɛnamaya sifacamanya sinsinni na.

25Dantigɛli fɔlɔ kɛra san 1978, Ameriki, Wasintɔni. Diɲɛ Jamanaw ka Kelenyatɔnba bɛnkanba, o bolonɔbilala jamana 190 fɛ.

26Diɲɛ forobaciyɛn tɔgɔsɛbɛnba bɛ taa, bi-bi in na, fɛn 981 na, minnu bɛ jamana 160 kɔnɔ. U tila-tilen bɛ nin cogo in na: dɔnkoforobaciyɛn 759, forobaciyɛn dalen 193 ani sugufila forobaciyɛn 29.

Forobaciyɛn sariyalamali

27Bolofara tɛ yen Afiriki sariyacakɛdaw la min ka baara ɲɛsinnen bɛ dɔnkoforobaciyɛn ɲɛfɔli ma. O sariyacakɛdaw bɛ ɲɛfɔlibaw kɛ minnu sinsinnen bɛ «forobaciyɛn» suguyaw dantigɛdaliluyawkan.

28Dantigɛdaliluyaw sɛmɛnen don dɔnkonafamafɛn dɔw la, yɔrɔ min fɛn nafa tariki, dɔnniya walima seko siratigɛ la, ani dansigiliw waatiko siratigɛ la, olu bɛ ɲɔgɔn kɛrɛfɛtaama. O dantigɛliw bɛ tali kɛ baara ni/walima politiki la. Politikiko nasira la, u bɛ sɔrɔ jamana ka dantigɛlifɛɛrɛ fɛ, yɔrɔ min tali kɛli tubabutile la, o bɛ se ka kɛ wolomaniwale ye.

29Ɲɛsin bɛ kɛ sariya ma ka labɛnni dɔ kɛ forobaciyɛn ɲɛfɔli la, ɲɛfɔli min labɛnfɛnw bɛ Fanga-jamana jɔli waleya. O la, Keɲa jamana na, dɔnkofɛn minnu sɔrɔla ka kɔn san 1895 ɲɛ – angilɛjamana ka lakananifanga sigisan – olu dɔrɔn de bɛ se ka sugandi ka kɛ sariya ka lakananidabaliw sɔrɔbagaw ye (nka dɔnko minisiri bɛ se, latigɛlisɛbɛn telinman fɛ, ka forobaciyɛnfɛnw don sariya waleyaliforo kɔnɔ, minnu sɔrɔla o san kelen in kɔfɛ)

30Zanbi jamana na, “relics” (reliks), n’o ye dɔnkoforobaciyɛn welecogo ye sariya fɛ, bɛ fɔ dɔnkofɛn dɔw de ma minnu dilanna ka kɔn san 1924 ɲɛ, san min ni angilɛw yɛrɛ ye British South Africa Company sariya (sariya min tun bɛ kɛ ka jamana koɲɛw ɲɛnabɔ fɔlɔ, kabini Bɛrilɛn lajɛba, san 1885) bin, ka jamana maraɲɛmɔgɔya ta.

31Misali wɛrɛw: Gana sariyaw ka jateminɛ bɛ daminɛ san 1900 na (san naani angilɛjamana ka lakanannifanga sigilen kɔ, nka san 1900 ye kɛrɛnkɛrɛnnenya la muruti san ye min kɛra sanusigilan yeliko kuma fɔli senfɛ Angilɛjamana fɛ (Sanusigilan in de tun ye asantehenew ka fanga taamaseerelan ye, min dogolen tun don masakɛ ka mɔgɔw fɛ kabini san 1896). Walifasomara kɛra, yɔrɔ dɔw la, i n’a fɔ dɔnkoforobaciyɛn dantigɛli n’a lakodɔnni daliluyaw sababuyalan jɔnjɔn.

32Sariyasigitaabolo wɛrɛw bɛ dɔnkoforobaciyɛn dantigɛ nafa ye dɔnko siratigɛ la (an’a bɔnnaw tariki, seko, fɛnkɔrɔtɔw, hakili… siratigɛ la) walima ni daliluyaw ɲagamini ye. Taa kɛra kɛrɛnkɛrɛnnenya la nin sira in fɛ Lesoto, Malawi walima Uganda sariyaw fɛ.

33Uganda jamana na, «“historical monument” means any object, site, place, building or erection having connections with historical events»; nin ɲɛfɔli kɛra ka da Uganda san 1995 sariyabaju kuntilenna 25nan kan min b’a fɔ ko: «The State and citizens shall endeavour to preserve and protect and generally promote, the culture of preservation of public property and Unganda’s heritage».

34Nin taabolo ɲɔgɔnna tara tubabukanfɔjamanaw ka sariya caman fɛ, minnu bɛ forobaciyɛn danfaralan kɛ nafasɛrɛ ye dɔnko siratigɛ la.

35Misali la, Senegali san 1971 sariya b’a fɔ a ka sariyasen fɔlɔ kɔnɔ ko: «ye tarikihakilimaralanw ye foroba walima kɛnyɛrɛye fɛn tataw walima tabaliw (sow), hakilimaralan dalenw ni sitiw ani yɔrɔ kɛrɛnkɛrɛnnenw ni damanafɛn kɔrɔw b’u la, nafa bɛ minnu makaranni n’u lakanani na tariki, seko, dɔnniya, maana siratigɛ la»

36Nin daliluya bɛ se ka dafa ni si dɔgɔnin ye, i n’a fɔ Afiriki Worodugujamana min sariyaw b’a ɲini sitiw ni fɛnkɔrɔtɔw si dɔgɔyalen ka kɛ san 100 ye walasa k’u sugandi, san 75 ni sɔrɔdasitariki siti don. Ka tali kɛ kow fɔ-fɔcogo la ɲɔgɔn kɔ, o bɛ se ka kɛ taabolo ye min jate ka kɛnɛ kosɛbɛ ka tɛmɛ san jɔnjɔn jateminɛ kan; si dɔgɔmanninko gɛlɛyali, o ye sɛgɛsɛgɛlikɛwaatijate ye walasa ka fɛn ɲumanya dantigɛ dɔnko siratigɛ la, ani a ka forobaciyɛnya baara kɛ sarati.

«Monument» means any area of land which has distinctive or beautiful scenery or which contains rare or distinctive or beautiful vegetation or any area of land, structure, building, erection, ruin, stone circle, monolith, altar, pillar, statue, memorial, grave, tumulus, cairn, place of interment, pit dwelling, trench, fortification, excavation, working, kiln, rock, rock shelter, midden, mound, cave, grotto, rock sculpture, rock painting, wall painting or inscription or any other site or article of a similar kind or associated therewith which is of archaeological, geological, anthropological, ethnological, prehistorical, historical, artistic or scientific value or interest or any remains thereof and includes – the site on which any monument or group of monuments was discovered or exists; and such portion of land adjoining such site as may be required for the maintenance of or otherwise for the preservation of such monument or group of monuments.

37Taabolo wɛrɛ bɛMalawi sariyaw bolo, n’o ye dannikɛfɛɛrɛ ye...

38Kuma laban na, nin dantigɛlikɛcogow dɔnkoforobaciyɛnw na sariyaw fɛ, o tɛ jateminɛ kɛ sigida kow la, ani forobaciyɛnfɛnw cogoya lakodɔnnenw walima tɔgɔdalenw sigida mɔgɔw fɛ

Tubabudaɲɛ «patrimoine» kɔrɔɲɔgɔnmaw an’a nɔfɛ daɲɛw afiriki sahara woroduguyanfanjamanaw kanw na

Siwahilikan na: “urithi” (Urisi); sukumakan na: bulisi

Patrimoines naturel et culturel

39A ka c’a la siwahilikan ni sukumakan fɔduguw bɛ “patrimoine naturel” ɲɛfɔ i n’a fɔ Ala ka fɛn dalen, ka” patrimoine culturel” ɲɛfɔ i n’a fɔ hadamadenw ka fɛn dilannen.

40Siwahilikan daɲɛ “urithi” bɛ kɛ ka ciyɛn kofɔ, ani du fɛn sɔrɔlenw ciyɛn ye, ani kɔrɔlasama na, forobaciyɛn.

41Daɲɛ in singana larabukan fɛ, min bɛ fɔ Tansani kabini san-kɛmɛ XIXnan. A ye yɛlɛma caman don Tansani kanw na, kɛrɛnkɛrɛnnenya la siwahilikan.

42Sukumaw bɛ daɲɛ kelen in fɔ, nka ni mankanyɛlɛma ye a la: bulisi.

43A nana ye kɔsa in na ko daɲɛ in kɔrɔ bɛ lasama ka bɛɛ jɛma forobaciyɛn kofɔ: urithi wa Tanzania (urisi wa Tanzaniya = Tanzani forobaciyɛn) ani urithi wetu (urisi wɛtu = an ka (jamana) forobaciyɛn).

44Urith bɛ kɔrɔ kɛnɛ fila in bɛɛ datugu, n’olu ye dɔnkoforobaciyɛn ni forobaciyɛn dalen ye, siwahilikan b’a fila bɛɛ faamu bakurubaya la

45Ni pereperelatigɛli ka kan ka kɛ waati min, a bɛ fɔ:

46 urithi wa kimaumbile (a kalan: urisi wa kimawunbile), n’o kɔrɔ ye: forobaciyɛn dalen.

47ki-:-cogo

48maumbile (mawunbile): dali

49“patrimoine naturel” bɛ dali kofɔ ka kɔn mɔgɔw ka baara ɲɛ. O kɔrɔ ye ko daɲɛkulu in kɔrɔ ni «paysage culturel» faamuya ka jan.

50 urithi wa kiutamaduni (urisi wa kiwutamaduni) bɛ fɔ ka dɔnkoforobaciyɛn kofɔ. Utamaduni bɔra larabukan na, a bɛ ɲɛnamaya kɛcogo kofɔ, ani kɛwalew hadamaden taw, sɔrɔ ani dɔnko siratigɛ la, wa fɛn o fɛn n’o bɛ tali kɛ hadamaden ka dilannibaara la, a b’o bɛɛ kofɔ.

51N’i b’a fɛ ka “forobaciyɛn dalen” bayɛlɛma sukumakan na, i b’a fɔ “bulisi wa kasumbile” (bulisi wa kasunbile).

52ka:-cogo

53sumba: ka a da

54O la, sukumakan ni siwahilikan na,”forobaciyɛn dalen” bɛ hakili bila ka taa Ala ka dalen ma.

55Ka”dɔnkoforobaciyɛn” fɔ sukumakan na, i b’a fɔ “bulisi wa kiikalile”.

56ki:-cogo

57ikalile bɔra wale ikala la, n’o kɔrɔ ye: k’i sigi.

58Sisukumukan na, «dɔnkoforobaciyɛn» bɛ ɲɛnamaya ni hadamadenya don-o-don walew kofɔ.

Forobaciyɛn farintan

59Siwahilikan na, forobaciyɛn farima-farintan danfara tɛ ko jɔlen ye. Nin daɲɛkuluw bɛ fɔ: urithi usioonekana/unaoonekana (yeta/yebali).

60Nin daɲɛ ninnu n’u dilanna INƐSIKO ka laɲiniw tiimɛni hukumu kɔnɔ, u lahalaya pereperelatigɛlen tɛ, bugunnatigɛlen tɛ, o de kama, jama ka baara ka dɔgɔ u la. A ka baara bɛ kɛ sanaa de la, n’o ye forobadaɲɛ ye min bɛ kunun ni bi seko bɛɛ lajɛlen kofɔ walima za zamani min bɛseko kɔrɔw kofɔ, walima tugunni za jadi min bɛ laada sekow kofɔ, min kɔrɔsina ye za kisasa ka bi sekow kofɔ.

61Sukumakan na, danfara kofɔlen in bɛ jira fana yeta ni yebali cɛ: shibonwa et ishitabonwa. Ɲininkali minnu bɛ kɛ, olu ni siwahilikan ta bɛɛ ye kelen ye.

62Tiɲɛ na, nin danfarako in, farima ni farintan cɛ, cookora wantɛrɛko hukumu kɔnɔ, ani Afiriki jamananw ni diɲɛjamana tɔ ni INƐSIKO ka donɲɔgɔnna senfɛ.

Dɔnkoyɔrɔ kɛrɛnkɛrɛnnen

63Daɲɛkulu dɔ dilanna siwahilikan na, n’o ye upeo wa kiutamaduni; a dilanna ni upeo: yeli, ani ki: cogo la ani utamaduni: dɔnko.

64O la, daɲɛ ni daɲɛ, “paysage culturel” kɔrɔ na kɛ fɛn o fɛn n’an ɲɛ b’a la dɔnko siratigɛ la, dɔnko yɛrɛ ye hadamaden ka fɛn dilannen bɛɛ ye Ala ka dugukolo kɔkan. An b’a kɔlɔsi yan ko nin ɲɛfɔli in bɛ fɛn fila fɔ, n’an ye INƐSIKO lajɛ: “paysage culturel” ye kɛnɛ labɛnnen ye hadamaden fɛ.

65Sukumakan na, daɲɛbange bɛ kɛ o cogo kelen na: kabonele ka wikalile, kɔrɔ ye: «ka yeli kɛ dɔnko cogo la», min faranfasilen tɛ, a tɛ «paysage culturel» kɔrɔ bɛɛ di.

Tisɔngakan na (Mosanbiki, Afiriki Worodugujamana, Zinbawe ani Siwasilandi):” ndhzaka” walima” pfindla”

66Ndhzaka walima Pfindla bɛ fɔ ka” patrimoine” kofɔ, nka daɲɛ in tɛ perepereltigɛli kɛ. Ciyɛntala ye mɔgɔ ye min tɛbaara kɛ, wa a tɛ dɔwɛrɛ ɲini ka kɛ «ciyɛntala» ye dɔrɔn, banbagatɔ muso n’a bolofɛnw b’o la.

67Rifuwo bɛ bolofɛn farimaw kofɔ ani forobaciyɛn falenta nafolo, wari la; afuwilebɛmɔgɔ kofɔ forobaciyɛnba bɛ min bolo.

68Forobaciyɛn dalen min dilanna walima sokɔnɔfɛnyara hadamaden fɛ, o bɛ wele ko rifuwo

69Tumbunuko bɛ forobaciyɛn dalen kofɔ, jaati-jaati la, fɛn dalen Ala fɛ mɔgɔ seko si tɛ min na: ba, kuluw, kɔgɔjiw, kungoɔnɔbaganw, adw.

Forobaciyɛn farintan

70Walasa ka forobaciyɛn farintan kofɔ, an b’a fɔ: Ndzhaka leyi nga vonakiki, n’o kɔrɔ ye, daɲɛ ni daɲɛ: «Fɛn minnu n’an tɛ se k’u ye», «Fɛn yebaliw».

71Ka kuma catirikow ni dɔnkɛkow ni sinimankow kan, an b’a fɔ Ndzhaka levi vonakaka («Fɛn yetaw». An ɲɛ b’a la,” patrimoine immatériel” bayɛlɛmani ka gɛlɛn i n’a fɔ INƐSIKO y’a ɲɛfɔ cogo min na.

Dɔnkoyɔrɔ kɛrɛnkɛrɛnnen

72Daɲɛkulu «paysage culturel» ma bayɛlɛma. An b’a ɲɛfɔ ni Vukhavisi bya ndhawu kuya hi Mfuwo miyako, mimfungho, na swin’wana ye, n’o ye daɲɛ ni daɲɛ:«Siti welecogo don ka da a nafa kan tariki, sow, jamana ka hakilijiginyɔrɔ, adw. siratigɛ la».

73Nin welecogo ye Gɔfɛrɛnaman ka tɔgɔ dilen ye siti dɔ ma nafa bɛ min na jamana tariki siratigɛ la, a b’a fɛ ka min jira tɔgɔsɛbɛnni na INƐSIKO ka diɲɛ forobaciyɛn tɔgɔsɛbɛn kɔnɔ.

74Welecogo in kɔrɔfilamaya b’an bila taabolo in faamuyali sigidamɔgɔw fɛ, o gɛlɛya miirili la.

Fulakan na: ndonaandi

75«Patrimoine» ye faamuya ye min bɛ fulakan na, wa a dɔnnen don fulakan n’a dɔnko fɛ.

76Daɲɛ min b’a kofɔ, o tɛ tubabukan” patimoine” faamuya in bɛɛ datugu wajibi la, nka u ka surun ɲɔgɔn na. Daɲɛ fila de don: ndonaandi /ron – aa-ndi/«forobaciyɛn farima, jɛlen», min bɔra bɛnbaw yɔrɔ, ani ndonaagu/ron – aa – gu/«forobaciyɛn farintan».

77Daɲɛ min bɛ fɔ yan ka caya, o dilanna ka bɔ waledaɲɛbaju RoN- la (waleganan: RONde) «ka a ta ciyɛn ye». Danfara b’a ni ndonu cɛ «bolofɛnw tali ciyɛn ye bolofɛntigi, balima ka saya kɔfɛ.

78Ndonaandi dilanna ni ron – «ka a ta ciyɛn ye», ani-aa, ani – ndi [jama, mumɛsɛrɛjiralan NDI min kɔrɔ ye: bakurubaya, girinmanya, adw.), wa a kɔrɔ ye «bɛnbaw ka ciyɛn yeta, jɛlen, farima bɛɛ lajɛlen». Fɛn o fɛn n’o ye yɔrɔ, jɔli, taamaseere, fɛn wɛrɛw, adw., o kofɔlen don yan.

79Ndonaagu ni ron – «ka a ciyɛnta», ani-aa -, ani – gu [sɛrɛjiralan NGU min bɛ hakililakow, mankutu ɲuman ni cogoyaw, cɛlakow, adw. jira), wa a kɔrɔ ye: «bɛnbaciyɛn bɛɛ lajɛlen min hakililama, cogoyalama walima mankutulama lasera». Fɛn o fɛn ye miiricogo, laadalakow ni laadalaɲɛnajɛw ye, ani kɛwalew hadamadenya ni dɔnko siratigɛ la, fɛn o fɛn ye kelennafɛn walima jamamako, adw., kofɔlen don yan.

80Nin daɲɛkulu ninnu bɛ bayɛlɛma cogo di: «patrimoine naturel, patrimoine culturel, patrimoine immatériel, paysage culturel?»

Bamanankan na: forobaciyεn

81Bamanankan na, tubabukan daɲɛ «patrimoine» bɛ bayɛlɛma ni «forobaciyεn» ye, n’o ye bɛɛ jɛma ciyɛn ye. O ciyɛn in bɛ se ka kɛ suguya caman ye. Nin fɛn don min bɛ se ka ta ka bɔ a nɔ na, a bɛ bayɛlɛma ko: «fɛn nafama tata» (Forobadɔnkofεn tataw); n’a bɛ fɛn kofɔ min tɛ se ka ta ka bɔ a nɔ na, ni tabali don, forobaciyɛn bɛ hakili da o tuma na a sɔrɔyɔrɔ kan i n’a fɔ: «forobadɔnniyɔrɔ» (forobadɔnkoyɔrɔ).

82Nin bayɛlɛmani b’a jira ko gɛlɛya bɛ dɔnkoforobaciyɛn tata la bamanankan na. An b’a kɔlɔsi ko «dɔnkoyɔrɔ» bɛ tali kɛ yɔrɔ la, fɛn bɛ sɔrɔ yɔrɔ min, ka tɛmɛ «dɔnko tabali» kan. Tabali kɔrɔ dɔrɔn tɛ yɔrɔ ye, a kɔrɔ dɔ fana ye fɛnw ye, minu tɛ se ka ta ka bɔ u nɔna k’a sɔrɔ tiɲɛni ma se u yɛrɛ walima lamini ma. Bayɛlɛmani tɛ bɔ nin yɔrɔ kan.

83Tubabukan «immatériel» bɛ bayɛlɛma bamanankan na ni «farintan» ye, n’o ye tubabukan na «sans corps». Fɛn kulukutu de ko don. Bayɛlɛmadaɲɛ in ka ɲi bawo farintan ye jirabali ani minɛbali ye. Farintan ni fiɲɛ walima yebali minɛbali bɛ kɛ kelen ye tuma dɔ: «Jinɛ nana fiɲɛ fɛ» k’a jira, misali la, ko fɛn yebali dɔ donna jama cɛma. Daɲɛkulu «élément immatériel» bɛ bayɛlɛma ni «fεn farintan» ye, n’o ye tubabukan na:«chose sans corps», nka n’a bɛ jate danfɛn yebali ye.

84O bɔlen kɔ yen, hadamadenya siratigɛ la, ciyɛn bɛ se ka kɛ mɔgɔ kelen, du kelen walima dugu kelen ta ye. Misali la, sabaga bolofɛnw, min ye gaden, gatigi walima laadalaɲɛmɔgɔ ye, o bolofɛnw ye ciyɛn ye denw, dudenw walima dugudenw bolo.

85A ka c’a la bamananw tɛ baba walima nafaba don ciyɛn, ka d’a kan a sɔrɔla «nɔgɔya» la, o de kama fɛn lamarata tɛ ka mɛɛn; ka d’a kan fɛn min ma sɔrɔ «gɛlɛya» la, o tɛ mara tɛ gɛmagɛlɛya la. Nka, forobaciyɛn farima an’a farintan min ye dugu walima jamakulu dɔ ta ye, o bɛɛ ye ciyɛn sugu kelen ye, min kɔnɔna na dugumɔgɔw b’u yɛrɛ dɔn, b’u hakilinaw fɔ, bɛ hakililajigin kɛ u ka ko tɛmɛnenw na, bɛ bi kɛ, ka sini labɛn.

86Tubabukan «naturel» bayɛlɛmani, a dama na, bamanankan na, o ka gɛlɛn dɔɔnin. «Naturel» bɛ se ka bayɛlɛma ni fɛn bɛɛ ye, fɛn o fɛn n’o bɛ tali kɛ «kungo» la, fɛn o fɛn n’o bɛ hadamadensow kɔkanna na. Kɔrɔ wɛrɛ dun bɛ «patrimoine naturel» la. A bɛ se ka bayɛlɛma sigida forobaciyεn ye. Yanninnɔ tugunni, daɲɛ «lamini» kɔrɔ tɛ kungo, falenfɛnw ani kungokɔnɔbaganw dɔrɔn ye.

87Tubabukan «culturel» kɔrɔ ye bamanankan na: «min dɔnnen don walima min bɛ se ka dɔn» (dɔnko). Nin bayɛlɛmani kɔnɔ, dɔnko bɛ dɔnni, dɔnniya, se-n-na, dɔnniɲini, kalan kofɔ, ani fɛn o fɛn n’o ye ladamuni ani maaya dɔ ye, n’a bɛ, bamananw ka faamuya la, hadamaden ka hadamadenya tiimɛni baara n’a cogoya jira.

Dɔnkoyɔrɔ kɛrɛnkɛrɛnnen

88Bamanankan na «paysage» kɔrɔ ye, daɲɛ ni daɲɛ, «kungobolo» walima «kungokεnε». Nin bayɛlɛmacogo in bɛ kɔrɔba di «paysage» ma, wa a t’a kɔnɔko pereperelatigɛ. Nka, kan kelen in na, «paysage culturel» faamuya dantigɛlen don. A kɔrɔ bɛ kɛ: «yɔrɔ walima tu kɛrɛnkɛrɛnnen lakananen» (Yɔrɔ kεrεnkεrεnnen, Tu kεrεnkεrεnnen), o kɔrɔ: yɔrɔ, tu min ni dannako ani wale kɛrɛnkɛrɛnnenw bɛ kɛ yen.

89Nin kɛcogo in na, dɔnkokɛnɛ kɛrɛnkɛrɛnnen bɛ faamuya iko tu kɛrɛnkɛrɛnnen. Tu suguya ka ca: «Kɔmɔtu» (tubabukan na: Bois sacré de la Société secrète «Kɔmɔ»); «Ɲatu» (tubabukan na: Bois sacré de la Société secrète «Nia»), etc. Nin tuw kɔnɔ, ni kunkofɔyɔrɔw don, ni jinɛjuguw ni jinɛɲumanw b’u kɔnɔ, sarakabɔlaw ni basisɔnnaw ka mara kɔnɔ, olu minnu ye kulu wulitɔw bilasirabagaw n’u bolodonbagaw ye, olu minnu bɛ degedenw ka cogoyaw n’u ka maaya dɔn, o degedenw bolodonniɲɛnajɛw bɛ kɛ yan k’u balikuya, k’u ka diɲɛnatigɛkow ɲɛnabɔ ani ka tanubila kɛ ka taa su kɔrɔw ma.

90O sarakaw ni sɔnni minnu bɛ kɛ jinɛw ni su kɔrɔw ye ka bolodondenw bila sira, olu bɛ kɛ sababu ye k’u ka jɛn sɔrɔ an’u ka kana, an’u ka dɛmɛ min b’a to u bɛ kɛ mɔgɔ labɛnnenw ye k’u jɔrɔ fa u ka sigida baaraw kɛli la.

91Nin birilitɔnw jɔyɔrɔ ye kana sabatili ye jɛkulu kɔnɔ, ani ladamu kɔlɔsili, ani mɔgɔw n’u bolofɛnw lakanani, ani mɔgɔw ni ɲɔgɔn cɛ dilanni.

© Demopolis, 2014

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