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Les intraduisibles du patrimoine en Afrique subsaharienne

 | 
Danièle Wozny
, 
Barbara Cassin

Bamanankan na. Forobaciyɛn yɔrɔ bayɛlɛmabaliw afiriki sahara woroduguyanfanjamanaw na

2. Fɛnkɔrɔmarayɔrɔ, mise

Texte intégral

Angilɛkan: museum
Tubabukan: musée, museum
Fulakan: resorde pinal
Sukumakan: mashigo/bujora
Siwahilikan: makumbusho
Tisɔngakan: swikumbusho

1Mise (walima fɛnkɔrɔmarayɔrɔ) ye daɲɛ ye min kɔrɔ ka girin tariki siratigɛ la. Forobadanfaralanw bɛ yen minnu b’u pereperelatigɛ, i n’a fɔ «dalajɛ» ani «forobafɛnw walima dɔnkofɛnw»; jama mago ɲɛta dɔw fana b’u pereperelatigɛ: «lamarali, lajɛli, jirali».

2Bi-bi in na an ɲɛb’a la misew bɛ poyi fan bɛɛ. K’a daminɛ jamana mise la ka t’a bila dugu ta la; k’a wuli bololabaaramise la ka t’a bila siyadɔnnikalanmise la; k’a minɛ fɛnkɔrɔtɔkalanmise la k’a bila ɲɛfɔlisantiri la, misew bɛ ka poyi fan bɛɛ dugukolo kɔkan. Mise de tun ye kunun Miziw ka yɔrɔ ye, bi a bɛ ka labɛn kokura ye. Fɛnkɔrɔmarayɔrɔkalan ɲɛsinnen bɛ fɛn bɛɛ ma, fɛn o fɛn n’o bɛ tali k ɛforobaciyɛnw na, sanko yebali ka kɛ yeta ye: fɛnkɔrɔmarayɔrɔkalan kɔnɔ bɛ ka bɔ ka t’a fɛ.

3Ka fara lamaraliko ni ladamuniko ni ɲɛdaamuniko gɛlɛyaw kan, ko wɛrɛw yera: yɛrɛya jirali, ani kɔlɔlɔw sɔrɔ siratigɛ la, ka d’a kan a se bɛ mise ye ka yɔrɔ labilalenw laɲɛnamaya ani ka turisi wɛrɛw lasama. O bɔlen kɔ yen, mise ye politikiminɛn de ye, min bɛ kura ni fasojɔ jira.

4Afiriki mise fɔlɔw tun bɛ tubabutile porozew la. Tubabulakaw ka faamuya la, «musée» kɔrɔ, Afiriki kanw na, o tɛ yen. Nka ɲininiw kɛlen kɔ jamanamɔgɔw yɔrɔ, ani ɲɛfɔli jɛlenw kɛlen kɔ daɲɛ in yɛrɛ kɔrɔ la, bɔ kɛra daɲɛ kɛrɛnkɛrɛnnen caman kan minnu bɛ se ka kɛ «musée» kɔrɔɲɔgɔnmaw ye walima ka na ni mise sugu wɛrɛw ye.

Mise kɔrɔ tubabukan ni angilɛkan na

«Faamaw» ka ɲɛfɔliw

5An ka tali kɛ ɲɛfɔliw la, minnu kɛra faamaw fɛ, n’an b’u sɔrɔ diɲɛ bɛnkanw kɔnɔ, minnu sɛbɛnna tubabukan ani angilɛkan na.

INƐSIKO ka ɲɛfɔli

6INƐSIKO, n’o ye diɲɛjamanaw ka kelenyatɔn ye ka ɲɛsin kalanko, dɔnniya ani dɔnko yiriwali ma, ye diɲɛ kelenyatɔnba in bolofara kɛrɛnkɛrɛnnen ye. A sigira senkan san 1945. Jamana 195 b’a kɔnɔ minnu y’a tɔndenw ye, ani jamana walima jɛkulu 8 minnu y’a jɛɲɔgɔnyew. INƐSIKO ka sariyaw sinsinnen don kologirinya la laɲiniw ni bɛnkanw kan minnu bɛta a ka tɔndenw fɛ lajɛbaw senfɛ

«“Musée” kɔrɔ: so min koɲɛw bɛ ɲɛnabɔ jama ka nafa kama walasa ka dɔnkofɛn nafama caman lakana, fɛsɛfɛsɛ, ani k’u don ba la ni cogoya caman ye, ani kɛrɛnkɛrɛnnenya la, k’u jira jama ɲɛdaamuni ni a lakalanni kama. O dɔnkofɛn nafamaw ye: aritisibolofɛn, tarikifɛn, dɔnniyafɛn dalajɛlenw, ani falenfɛnsiyamarayɔrɔw ni bagansiyamarayɔrɔw, ani jɛgɛlamɔyɔrɔw».
[INƐSIKO ka laɲini ka ɲɛsin dabali ɲɛnamabaw ma minnu bɛ misew lasɔrɔli nɔgɔya bɛɛ ma, min tara san 1960 nowanburukalo tile 14.]
The term «museum» shall be taken to mean any permanent establishment administered in the general interest for the purpose of preserving, studying, enhancing by various means and, in particular, exhibiting to the public for its delectation and instruction, groups of objects and specimens of cultural value: artistic, historical, scientific and technological collections, botanical and zoological gardens and aquariums.
(In Unesco Recommendation concerning the Most Effective Means of Rendering Museums Accessible to Everyone 14 November 1960.)

Diɲɛ misew ka kɔnsayiba ka ɲɛfɔli (DMK)

Diɲɛ misew ka kɔnsayiba tɛ gɔfɛrɛnamanjɛkulu ye, dɛmɛdonjɛkulu don min sigira senkan san 1946. INƐSIKo jɛɲɔgɔnjɛkulu don, wa a ka baara ɲɛsinnen bɛ diɲɛ forobaciyɛnw lakanani n’u sabatili n’u laseli ma: bita ni sinita. Kɛrɛnkɛrɛnnenya la, a bɛ sariyaw sigi senkan ka ɲɛsin baara n’a kɛcogo ɲuman ma, sariya minnu bɛ se ka boli misebaaraw kan. DMK bɛ laɲiniw kɛ fana ko gɛlɛnw kan minnu bɛ tali kɛ forobaciyɛn lakanani na (DMK sigisenkansariyaw sariyasen 1).
Ni tɔndenw (misekodɔnna 30 000 minnu tila-tilalen bɛ jamana 137 ɲɛfɛ) ye DMK fanga fɔlɔ ye (DMK sigisenkansariyaw sariyasen 9), mara sinsinnen bɛ waleyalikɔnsayi dɔ sugandili kan lajɛba fɛ min bɛ ɲɛmɔgɔ dɔ ta a yɛrɛ cɛma, ani hakilinaɲinijɛkuku dɔ kan min mɔgɔw ye kɛrɛnkɛrɛnnenya la jamanakomitew ɲɛmɔgɔw ye.
DMk ye diɲɛ misebaaraɲɛdɔnnaw de ka jɛkulu ye; hakilinaɲinijɛkulu don diɲɛ jamanaw ka kelenyatɔnba sɔrɔko ni hadamadenyako bolofara yɔrɔ.

«Mise ye fɛn sigilen ye senkan min kuntilenna tɛ tɔnɔɲini ye, n’a bilalen bɛ jamana n’a yiriwali kama; yɔrɔ don min dayɛlɛlen bɛ jama ye, n’a bɛ diɲɛforobaciyɛnfɛnw minɛ k’u lamara, k’u fɛsɛfɛsɛ, k’u jira ani k’u lase mɔgɔw lakalanni n’u ladamuni ni u ɲɛdaamuni kama. [DMK sigisenkansariyaw, minnu tara Wiyɛni (Otirisi) lajɛba senfɛ, san 2007]
A museum is a non-profit, permanent institution in the service of society and its development, open to the public, which acquires, conserves, researches, communicates and exhibits the tangible and intangible heritage of humanity and its environment for the purposes of education, study and enjoyment. In: ICOM Statutes, adopted during the 21st General Conference in Vienna, Austria, in 2007.

7DMK ka ɲɛfɔli bɛ tugu INƐSIKO ta la, bɛn kɛra min kan san 1960. Mise ka hadamadenyabaara kɛtaw bɛ bɔ ŋaniya kelen ninnu na ka taa jama yɔrɔ: lakanani, fɛsɛfɛsɛli, jirali. Ɲɛsinni badaabadaa jama ma, o ye ko ɲɛnama ye min bɛ mise danfara. O bɛ dɔn cogo caman na ka da baaraw cogoya kan; nka «lakanani, fɛsɛfɛsɛli, jirali», o ye waleyaw ye minnu tɛ se ka fara ka bɔ jama ani jama ka mago ɲɛta la.

8Nin jɔsen in de bɛ DMK ni INƐSIKO ka ɲɛfɔliw ka «forobaya» sinsin.

9Jɔsen in waleyali kɔsɛmɛnen bɛ ladamu ani ɲɛdaamuni mankutu ɲumanw na, olu minnu ye INƐSIKO ni DMK ka jɛmakow ye. (Angilɛkan sɛbɛn ye daɲɛ fila ta: «education» ani «enjoyment»; daɲɛlaban bayɛlɛmana fɔlɔ ni «plaisir» ye tubabukan na, o kɔfɛ, san 2007 la, ni «délectation» ye).

10Mise ka baara kɛtaw waleyalikɛnɛ tɛ yɛlɛma kosɛbɛ n’i bɛ bɔ ɲɛfɔli dɔ la ka taa dɔ wɛrɛ la. Tiɲɛ don, daɲɛw tɛ kelen ye («dɔnkofɛnkulu nafama» (INƐSIKO, 1960) ani «diɲɛ kɔnɔ mɔgɔw n’a lamini ka forobaciyɛnw» (DMK, 2007), nka forobaciyɛn dakun min kofɔlen bɛ ɲɛfɔli fila kelen-kelen kɔnɔ, o bɛ tali kɛ fɛnsiya kelen na. DMK ka ɲɛfɔli bɛ seginnkanni kɛ diɲɛ jamanaw ka sariya sigilen kumasen labanw na ni forobaciyɛnw (farima ni farintan) bɔli ye ɲɔgɔn na.

11Nin ɲɛfɔli fila kofɔli bɛ ɲininkali kɛli bali mise lahalako kan: foroba, kɛnyɛrɛye, jɛkulu… Mise kow ɲɛnabɔli mana kɛ ka da sariya o sariya kan, a ka baaaraw, n’olu ye «lakanani, fɛsɛfɛsɛli, jirali» ye, olu ka kan ka kɛ wajibiya la kuntilenna kɔnɔ min tɛ tɔnɔɲini ye. O jɛlen don, sɔsɔli t’a la, hali n’a y’a sɔrɔ mise dɔw b’u ka hakɛw ɲini baara kɛlenw kan mɔgɔ wɛrɛw fɛ; bali n’u bɛ misekɔnɔfɛnjira sannifeere kɛ; n’u bɛ jateminɛbaaraw ni fɛsɛfɛsɛlibaaraw kɛ sara la; n’u b’u ka jiralikɛkɛnɛw feere kɛnyɛrɛyew ma ka tila k’u luwe ɲɛnajɛw kɛli kama mise dayɛlɛlen tɛ waati min na jama ye. «kuntilenna tɔnɔɲinibali» ka kan, o kosɔn, ni ɲɛfɔli ye min jɛlen don, wa n’a jɔyɔrɔ pereperelatigɛlen.

Daɲɛ n’a fɛn kofɔta lasiri

12«Forobaya» yɔrɔ min bɛ mise faamuya kɔnɔ, n’o sirilen bɛ mankutu damadɔ badaabadaaya la, mankutu minnu kɛra k’a ɲɛfɔ sanfɛla la, o «forobaya» sɔrɔla tariki kɛrɛnkɛrɛnnen dɔ fɛ, min bɛ dɔn fɔlɔ gɛrɛkikan daɲɛ” mouseion (museyɔn) kɔnɔ.

Museyɔn (Mouseion): Miziw ni misew
Daɲɛ in bɛ fɛn damadɔ kofɔ minnu tɛ ɲɔgɔn sɔrɔ fosi la tuma dɔ ni daɲɛ yɛrɛ tɔgɔ tɛ. Mise bɛ forobaciyɛn kofɔ tuma dɔ, ciyɛn min n’a ka kaan ka lakana k’a jira. Mouseion kɔrɔlen ni nin si tun tɛ ɲɔgɔn ɲɛ sira la, a daminɛ na. a ye kɔrɔ k’a sababu kɛ gɛrɛkikan kɔrɔ ye.
«Musée» bɔra «muse» (mizi) de la, o dɔnnen don. Miziw tun ye Zesi ni Memuwari denmusow ye. Memuwari bangena, Hesiyɔdi ka fɔ la: «musomannin kɔnɔntɔn ka bɔ ninakili kelen na», «dimiw tununni ani hamiw banni». Tɔgɔ kɔnɔntɔn b’u la, tɔgɔ dumanbaw, minnu bɛ bɛn seko kɔnɔntɔn ma, k’a ta Tariki la ka t’a bila sannakolodɔ nni (dolodɔnni) na; k’a ta dɔn na ka t’a bila yɛlɛ, ɲɛji la, ani poyi suguya bɛɛ; u bɛ poyikɛla miiridiya, kumada tɛ min fɛ u kɔ, wa «nkalon minnu ni tiɲɛ bɔlen», u b’olu de fɔ.
N’a fɔra «Mise», a faamuya fɔlɔ ko yɔrɔ de ko don, siti (sigiyɔrɔ, dugu), kulu, miziw b’u yɛrɛ farifoni, dɔnkili da ani ka dɔn kɛ yɔrɔ min, Piyeri walima elikɔn kulu sanfɛ, olɛnpu kulu nɛnɛkuruma kɛrɛfɛ; so kɛrɛnkɛrɛnnen don ko tanpulu min dabɔra u kama Paritenɔn kan; farawo don «mosayikiw» kɛra ka minnu datugu, nin kabakurunnin seri-serilen, yeleku-yelekuw, minnu tɔgɔ bɔra u la. eripidi bɛ mouseia (museya) wele ko “kɔnɔw dɔnkilidayɔrɔ” (kasiyɔrɔ).
N’a fɔra «Mise», alɛsandiri dakabana Mise in fana ko don dɛ, min jɔra Misirajamana na, Pitoleme Sotɛri fɛ, san 280 magɛn na, ka kɔn yesu Kirisi ɲɛ, n’a jenina san 47, ka tila ka jɔ kokura ye, wa n’a tɛna datugu pewu fo san 391. Nka halisa, nin bɛɛ la, fili don k’a faamu ko n’a fɔra «mise» ko lakanani de ko don fɔlɔ. Bawo Mouseion (museyɔn) ye yɔrɔ ye halisa min dabɔra Miziw kama, «misiki» (dɔnkili) bɛ fɔ yɔrɔ min, seko bɛɛ bɛ jira yɔrɔ min. «Misirajamana mɔgɔcamandugukolo in kan gafeɲɛgɛnnaw lamɔna minnu b’u dabɔlɔ-sɛbɛnnikɛlanw kɛ ka ɲɔgɔn sogi-sogi Miziw ka sansara kɔnɔ», o ye Timɔn-de-Filiyɔnti yɛlɛbɔnnakan ye. Nka san-kɛmɛ naani tɛmɛnen kɔ, Sitarabɔn ye yɔrɔ in bɛɛ ɲɛfɔ ni nimisiwasa ye, nɔgɔ fan si tɛ min na: Mise bɛ palɛ kɔnɔna na, palɛba, «a n’a dondabaw, a ka jɛmukɛsoba, ani dumunikɛsoba, mise sɛbɛnkanubagabaw tun bɛ jɛ k’u ka fanaw dun ɲɔgɔn fɛ yɔrɔ yɔrɔ min. o sɛbɛnkanubagabaw tun y’u danma jɛkuluba ye, wa u bɛɛ jɛma sɔrɔw tun bɛ lamara pɛrɛtiri (tubabumori) dɔ de fɛ masakɛw tun bɛ min sugandi, wa n’a bɛ sugandi halibi Sesari fɛ» (kunnafoni bɔyɔrɔ: Géographie, ƝVII, 1, 8). Mise bɔlen bɛ ɲininikalanso fɛ, min bɛMɛsɔn-de-la-Sazɛsi, Silikɔn Waleyi ani Makisi Pilanki ni ɲɔgɔn cɛ; dololajɛyɔrɔ b’a la, ani falenfɛnsiyamarayɔrɔ, ani bagansiyamarayɔɔrɔ, ani sɛgɛsɛgɛlikɛyɔrɔw (laboratuwariw), bosolikɛso. Bibulu bɛ bayɛlɛma yan (La sɛtanti), wa dɔnnibagaba kɛmɛ ɲɔgɔnna, i n’a fɔ ekilidi, olu sigilen bɛ yan badaabadaa ka baara kɛ ɲɔgɔn fɛ walima ka jɛmuw (barosigiw) kɛ.
Nka min yɛrɛ y’a la ko ɲumanba ye, o ye, siga t’a la, nin gafelasagoso ye dukɛnɛ kelen kan, hakili sekow fɛnsɛnnen bɛ min kɔnɔ, gafesɛrɛsigi ɲuman matarafalen ɲininicogo n’a sɔrɔcogo taabolo jugu dɔ tun talen bɛ min na ((urulo 500.000-700.000, kurun fɛn o fɛn tun bɛ waatininjɔli kɛ, olu tun ka kan ka u ka bololasɛbɛnw di olu bɔɲɔgɔnna (kopi) dɔ kɛli kama). Gafelasagoso yɛrɛ de y’a to ni Miziw kɛra, jaati yɛrɛ la, «Hakili denmusow» ye, nka, Mise yɛrɛ kɔnɔna na, fɛnkuradilan de tun fɔra ni sinsinni kɛli ye tɛmɛnen (kɔrɔlen) kan, fɛnlakana tun ma fɔ.
Gɛrɛkikan kɔrɔ fɛ tugunni, an bɛ se k’a fɔ ko Mise fɔlɔ tun ye kalanyɔrɔ ye: ɲɛnamayakɛyɔrɔ min n’i tun bɛ se «i sago la» (skole), (o kɔrɔ, waati kuntaala min ka d’i ye, ani k’a sɔrɔ a ma kɛ ni wariko ye) ka kuma, ka dumuni kɛ ani ka ɲinini kɛ. an yɛrɛ de b’a lajɛ sa n’a y’a sɔrɔ daɲɛ in kɔrɔ fɔlɔ bɛ se halibi ka bilasirali kɛ.

13An bɛ se ka tubabumise yiriwali n’a danfaralanw ɲɛbilaw sɔrɔ waati kura dɔnkoyiriwasow la k’a sɔrɔ a ma kɛ, wajibiya la, burujusiraw bɔli ye minnu ka kan. O ɲɛbilaw ye, kɛrɛnkɛrɛnnenya la, Itali jamana kan, mansarenw ni mesɛniw (aritisiw jukɔrɔmadondonnaw) minnu bɛ fɛnkɔrɔdalajɛ kɛ (maaninw, dagaw, masirikɛfaraninw, wariw ni medayiw) k’u ka kanubaanciya jira ka ɲɛsin gale-gale ma, an’u ka maadalabɛnnenya. Nin fɛnkɔrɔ dalajɛlenw ni fɛn dalajɛta fila wɛrɛ ye taaɲɔgɔnmaw ye: fan dɔ fɛ, jadalajɛso (pɛntirigaleri), min falen don masakɛw fotow walima bibulu kɔnɔ maanaw ɲɛgɛnw na; fan wɛrɛ fɛ, dakabanamaraso, o min bɛ fɛnmisɛn caman, dalenw ni dilannenw, dalajɛ, min bɛna ni mɔgɔw kabakoyali n’u bilali ye ɲininkali la.

14Ni Dɔnniyeelenw-ka-san ye dɔ fara nin laada laban kan an’a yɛlɛmabolo kundali tarikimise kan, min falen bɛ damanfɛnw ni falenfɛnw ni baganw na, minnu bɔra diɲɛ yɔrɔ bɛɛ lajɛlen na, walifasomaralaw ka baara sera yɔrɔ min, san-kɛmɛ XIXnan daminɛ bɛɛ kɛra” jamanamise” bɔwaati ye, min ye yɛlmadon jira miseko la, kuntilennako ni mɔgɔko siratigɛ la.

15…Faransi koyɛlɛmawulikajɔba, masafangaw dafirili ani Erɔpujamanaw tigɛ-tigɛli napoleyɔntile la ka da politikifangaw kuntilennaw kan, ninnu tɛmɛnen kɔ, fanga kɔrɔ mɔgɔw nana kɛ jamanadenw ye, n’olu ye jamana kanunen mɔgɔw ye minnu tɔw n’u kɔw farala ɲɔgɔn kan ka jira mise kɔnɔ.

16Kabini Kopɛnagi jamanamise waati, sansabako daminɛna yɔrɔ min san 1820 waatiw la (kábá san, bɔrɔnsi san, nɛgɛ san), Pirisijamana ka lakana kɔnɔ, fo ka t’a se galegalemisew ma minnu sigira senkan san 1862 Pari kɛrɛfɛ Napoleyɔn III fɛ, Sesari kunkan gafew kalanbaga, n’a tun bɛAlesiya jɔbaga ka dugu nɔfɛ, mise kɛra jamana jɔsen dɔ ye, hakili ni fanga gengenyɔrɔ. O ye ɲɛtaa ye min ma sɔrɔ damatɛmɛkow kɔ, o kɛra tarikiw walima siyamaanaw ɲɛfɔcogo jugu ye wo, walima fɛnw bɛɛ tiɲɛni walima u sɔrɔcogow yuruguyurugu la, fɛn minnu bɛ kɛ ka jamana daraja bonya (gɛrɛki mariburuw, Misirajamana ni Kɔrɔnyanfanjamanaw ka fɛnkɔrɔw) walima ka dugukoloko laɲiniw sinsin dancɛ kɔrɔw ni hamadenya taabolow donɲɔgɔnnaw kan.

17Nin kuntilennaba kuraw waleya ka di, bawo Diɲɛ Sariya tɛna kɛlɛkɛdenw ka jugubolofɛnminɛ ni bɔsi-n-tigila kɔn ni san-kɛmɛ 20nan tɛ. Nin kɛwalew kɛra misew bisimilayɔrɔw ye, yɔrɔ min tun bɛ, o waati la, jamana minɛnenw ka dɔnkofɛn minɛnenw fara u ka fɛnkɔrɔ dalajɛtaw kan sebagajamanaw ka nafa kama (Bɛnkan II min bɛ tali kɛsariyaw ni laadaw la ka ɲɛsin dugukolokankɛlɛ ma, La Hɛyi, san 1899 zuluyekalo tile 29; Bɛnkan IV min bɛ tali kɛ sariyaw ni laadaw la ka ɲɛsin dugukolokankɛlɛ ma, La Hɛyi, san 1907 ɔkutɔburukalo tile 18).

18O kɛrɛfɛ, mise y’i dili saran dugubakɔnɔna na (sankansow, minnu jɔra kɛrɛnkɛrɛnnenya la, tanpulu yɛrɛyɛrɛw don minnu bɛ monimansawura ni sojɔcogo kura don ɲɔgɔn na (an miiri bɛ da yan Bɛrlɛn Musewuminsɛl kan) ka misekɔnɔdonbagaw lakabakoya. Olu yɛrɛ bɛna bɔ jamakulu la min ka ca ka tɛmɛ fɔlɔ hɔrɔnw kan, olu minnu tun ye mɔgɔ kalannenbaw ye: mise bɛ cɛmancɛsɛrɛ mɔgɔw fana bisimilayi, n’o ye baanasɛrɛ ye min ka baaraw b’u yamaruya ka kalan kɛ ka ko dɔn, sanko bi yɛlɛmatile in na hadamadenya, fɛɛrɛ ani sɔrɔ siratigɛ la, minnu bɛɛ bɛ wele, bakurabafɔ la, iziniyɛlɛmaba): cɛɲi ni hakililafɛnya kɛrɛfɛ, mise bɛ iziniw ka fɛn dilannenw ni dɔnniya ka kabakofɛnw jira, ka jigisɛmɛdayɔrɔw dayɛlɛ tubabujamanaw ye, olu minnu ni kulukokɛlɛw bɛ ɲɔgɔn na tuma dɔ, ani fangaban.

19Kabini san-kɛmɛ bɛ kurubɔ la, o kunnafoni kɛra mise kura jɔyɔrɔ kologirin dɔ ye, min kɔnɔdonni ye falaki ye, w’a donwaatiw labɛnnen: k’a ta Piti-Riwɛrisi mise la, Ɔkisifɔri, yɔrɔ min ni fɛn kɔrɔ caman, minnu bɛ tali kɛ maayadɔnni ani siyadɔnni kalan na, olu y’a sɛmɛntiya angilɛ Baarakɛkuluw (Working classes) ye ko taaɲɛ tɛ pan-n-kunna kɛ, ko ɲɛtaa tɛ sɔn yɛlɛmanibaw ma, k’a ta bila hadamaden ka mise la, san 1930 mise, min dalawitiriw (…) b’a ɲini ka siyakokunnafoni dɔ kunbɛn ni jamanadenjɔyɔrɔfa ye.

20Forobayaliko lafasalijɛmuw bila-n-ɲɛni n’a ta bɛɛ (taabolo in sinsinna ka t’a fɛ kabini forobamiseko dantigɛli kɛli san 2002) fɛn kɔrɔ dɔw dalajɛli misew fɛ, o ma kisi dankarili kɛli ma Erɔpujamanaw kɔkan dɔnkow la, min tora senna ka ɲɛsin fɛn kɔrɔ sugu dɔw ma fo ka t’a fɔ ko bɛnkan sɔrɔla baarakɛjɔsen dɔw kan kabini san 1970, Diɲɛ Miseko Kɔnsayi (DMK) ka ɲɛmaaya kɔnɔ, ka ɲɛnabɔli kɛ misekɔnɔfɛnw dalajɛcogo la.

Tubabutile mise

21Ni sinsin bɛ kɛ misew ka sini kan Afiriki kɔnɔ, a ka gɛlɛn ɲɛtugu ka kɛ walifasomara tile miseko kan, ka da ko caman kan.

22Fan dɔ fɛ, n’a bɔra u kɔnɔfɛnw n’u kuntilennaw na (se bɛna kɛ minnu ma jukɔrɔla la), Afiriki mise dɔw si ka kɔrɔ ni san kɛmɛ ye: cogo bɛɛ la, u y’u dili saran u ka yɔrɔw la dugubakɔnɔnaw na, ani u gengendugu walima u gengenjamana dɔnkow walima dɔnniyaw. O sigi kuntaala jan kɔnɔ (o bɛ kɛ tuma dɔ la ni kɔtigɛbaliya ni sikuntaalajanya ye ka tɛmɛ erɔpujamanaw mise caman kan), yala o nɔ jumɛn yera dugumɔgɔw walima jamanandenw na? O ni mise kɛrɛnkɛrɛnnenw (i n’a fɔ miseso min n’i b’a lajɛ ka segin ka n’a lajɛ kokura; i n’a fɔ dɔnkoɲɛnajɛyɔrɔ; i n’a fɔ lakɔlisow ni kalansobaw ka kalankɛminɛn), olu ka waleyaw bɛ se ka da ɲɔgɔn kɔrɔ wa? Miseko daɲɛw n’a miiriyaw faamuyali bɛ se ka sɔrɔ cogo di dugumɔgɔw fɛ u yɛrɛ ka kanw walima tiginaw na? Misali la: Kapu Tawuni mise jɔli kabini san 1825 (ani a dayɛlɛli bɛɛ ye), yala o bɛ yɛlɛn dugudenw ka mise faamucogo kan? Yala a bɛ yɛlɛn miseso kuraw jɔli n’u gengenni kan? Cogo di?

23Fan wɛrɛ fɛ, n’an y’an ɲɛsin “walifasomaratile” mise kɔnɔfɛnw n’a kuntilennaw ma, an na walanda sɔrɔ faasi jateminɛ bɛ se ka kɛ minnu na. Tuma caman, sɔrɔdasifanga ni marafanga min kɛra ka yɛrɛmahɔrɔnya kɛlɛ kunfɔlɔ kɛ, o nan tila ka n’a cɛsiri dɔnniyaw labɛnni na. Marabagajamana ni marajamana (jamana marata) ni ɲɔgɔn cɛ, Marabaga ka biro ni kungo dunan ni ɲɔgɔn cɛ, baara kɛta ye tɔgɔsɛbɛnni, kulusigili ani, kɛrɛnkɛrɛnnenya la, sigida sɔrɔfɛnw bɔfanga kiimɛni. Kuma lasurunya la, a daminɛ na, walifasomaratile misew kunilennaw tun ye kuntilenna bɛnnenw ani nafaɲinikuntilennaw ye: u ka ja dilannenw, binmaralanw, olu kun tun ye dɔnniya “jɛlenw” ye, nka “nafabɔ” fana tun don ka ɲɛsin marabagadugudenw ma, ani sigidajɛkuluw ma – ka se k’i yɛrɛ tanga falaw ni toropikibanaw tɔɔrɔ ma, ka se ka yɔrɔ wɛrɛ sɔrɔfɛnw n’a jiriw tɔnɔbɔ, nka ka se fana ka sigidamɔgɔw ka ko kɛrɛnkɛrɛnnenw dɔn koɲuman, an’u ka laadaw n’u ka naamuw, an’u ka kanw, an’u sigi-sigicogo yɔrɔw la ka da politikijɛkuluw ni sɔrɔkɛbaaraw kan minnu bɛna ni mɔgɔw sɔnni ye, walasa ka baara kɛ n’u ye ani u fɛ. A bɛ faamuya o tuma ko Afiriki dɔnni, ani o dɔnni sirataamani n’a sinsinni ye ko gɛlɛnba ye tubabutile mise bolo.

24O cogo kelen na, nka kɔkantaama na, Afiriki forobciyɛn lamarali n’a lakanani fɛɛrɛw labɛnna fɛnkɔrɔdɔnnikalan ni siyadɔnnikalan siratigɛ la walifasomarafangaw fɛ.

25Afiriki Kɔrɔnyanfan na, Afiriki bɛɛ ka fɛnkɔrɔdɔnnikalan Kɔngɛrɛ sigira senkan 1940 sanw kɔnɔna na tali kɛlen kɔ Nayirobi mise la (Koroyindɔn Miseyɔm) – kɔngɛrɛ min bɛna dɛmɛba don ɲininiw sinsinni na fɛnkɔrɔdɔnnikalan kan Afiriki gun bɛɛ lajɛlen kan, forobaciyɛnko ni miseko dakunw bɛɛ sen b’o la.

Mise ni forobaciyɛn Afiriki sahara woroduguyanfanjamanaw na

26An ka kan, «… tubabula mise sugu min bɛ Afiriki kɔnɔ, k’o silatunu ka bɔ yen, walasa forobaciyɛn lakanani n’a layiriwali mise sugu wɛrɛw na sannawuli», Pr. Alifa Umaru Konare tun ye nin fɔ a ka jɛmu tɔgɔbɔlen dɔ kɔnɔ, hakilifalen-falen dɔ senfɛ ko: Mise sugu jumɛn Afiriki ye? [DMk ka barosigi, «Quels musées pour l’Afrique?», 1991].

27San mugan ni duuru tɛmɛna o kɔ, nka ɲininkali in bɛ senna halibi, wa sigi kɛlen tun bɛ ni silatununiko min ye, o ma waleya fɔlɔ. I n’a fɔ tatugukɔnɔnin ɲɛnamayatɔ ka bɔ a bugurincɛ la,” tubabula” mise suguya minnu bɛ yiriwa la, olu bɛ ka sanfɛla sɔrɔ cogoya kuraw kɔnɔ. Luwuru Mise, Simifisiyɔnian Änsititusiyɔn, Baranli Pɔrida, Biritisi Miseyɔm walima Afiriki Cɛmancɛyanfan masakɛmise, min bɛTɛriwuren, ani laminimise caman minnu ka kan ka masurunya mɔgɔw ka don-o-don kow la, olu bɛ kɛ tuma bɛɛ i n’a fɔ danmanamɔgɔw, minnu danfaraw tɛ u ɲɔgɔnnadilan yamaruya.

28An ka kan ka d’a la o tuma na ko modɛli bɛ sugucamanya wajibiya, sanko yɔrɔ la min bɛ tali kɛ hadamadenyabaara ni dɔnkojirawale caman na. Modɛli kelen bilalen tɛ Erɔpu misedɔnnikalan na cogo min na, modɛli kɛrɛnkɛrɛnnen tɛse ka ta Afiriki kama. Nin faamuya yɛrɛ bɛ sɔrɔ Alifa Umaru Konare ka jɛmukan kɔnɔ.

29Siga fosi t’a la, yɛlɛma ka kan, ni tiɲɛdon ko miseko kuma min sɔrɔla tubabufile fɛ, o ye kɔfilɛli ye min tɛ taa yɔrɔ jan. Tubabuw ka nin misekɔnɔfɛnjiraw tun tɛ se, wa u ma se don si, ka Afiriki mɔgɔw lasama. Segin ka kan ka kɛ moddɛli kan k’a lajɛ kokura ye, wa Afiriki forobaciyɛnko kuma ka kan ka fɔ dɔnkoyɔrɔ kelen-kelen bɛɛ ka kan na. Jamanamise, tubabutile dancɛbɔlenw yɛlɛmabaliyako lafasabaga, ninnu man kan wa ka fili jamanaw ka dɔnkow donɲɔgɔnna dankun kan, o min ye Afiriki ni diɲɛ jamanamɔgɔw ka kelenya siriyɔrɔ ye?

30A fɔ Erɔpu ni Mediterane hadamadenya mise kura, ko “MUCEM” (Musɛmu), tɛ Fɛrinan Brodɛli ka tiɲɛ sɛmɛntiya yan, a tun ye min sinibila? Siga t’a la ko «k’a sɔrɔ warabaw m’u tɔgɔla tarikisɛbɛnnaw sɔrɔ, warafɛlɛbɔmaanaw tɛna dadiya tuma si warabaw la». Afiriki ka kan, o tuma na, k’a jija k’a yɛrɛ ka jɛmuw labɛn k’a ka kelenya camanya nisɔndiya jira, an’a ka dakantigiya, ka sɔn a yɛrɛ la a denw ka danfaraw n’u ka ɲɔgɔndafa kɔnɔ.

31Afiriki mise, a taabolo mana kɛ fɛn o fɛn ye, a man kan ka ɲinɛ gun in jɔyɔrɔ kɔ hadamadenw ka diɲɛnatigɛtaama na, an’a jɔyɔrɔ diɲɛ forobaciyɛn labɛnni na fɛɛrɛko, hadamadenya ani politiki siratigɛ la, kuma tɛ farafinw ka jɔnya ani walifasomara waati juguw ma. Kɔsa-in-na tariki, politiki siratigɛla, min n’a yɛlɛnkajiginw don, ale fana ka kan k’i jɔ a jɔyɔrɔ la. Afiriki kura ka kan ka sɔn-n-yɛrɛ-ye ladamuni kɛ walasa ka denmisɛnw dɛmɛ, denmisɛn minnu diliw sarannen don Afiriki danbew la, n’u bɛ se, u fari foninenba, k’u jɔyɔrɔ fa diɲɛ dɔnko yiriwali la.

32Bakurubayali bɛna, tiɲɛ don, ni nɔgɔyaw ye minnu nafa tɛ se ka fɔ ka se a dan na. Nka o n’a ta bɛɛ, a doninen don “d?nkobɛɛ-silatunun” na, min jamafagalan tɔgɔ ye ko sugukelenyali. Ka ɲɛsin nin siranɲɛfɛn in ma, a kala bɛ dɔnko kɔnɔ. Misew de bɛ kɛlɛdakun na, sabu olu man kan ka yɔrɔ janya dɔnkojira sugucamanya lafasali la. «Munna dun an tɛAfiriki mise sɔrɔ kura dɔ miiriya min bɛ tali kɛ jamanadenw ka sɔrɔ la? An ka duguw ni togodaw mɔgɔ faamuyalenw, minnu y’an kan dɔnkofɛnw n’an ka laadaw labɛn, an n’olu de ka kan ka nin ɲininkali jaabi ɲini» [Konare, Le Monde, 2 février 1993].

Musée ni museum kɔrɔɲɔgɔnmadaɲɛw afiriki sahara woroduguyanfanjamanaw kanw na

33Ka daɲɛ kura bange walima ka daɲɛ singa, o bɛ wajibiya ni faamuya, daɲɛ, daɲɛ kɛrɛnkɛrɛnnen, walima fɛn tɔgɔdata tɛ bayɛlɛmanikan na. Tubabukan «musée» faamuya n’a daɲɛ b’o cogo la jɛkulu ɲininkalen bɛɛ ka kanw bolo.

34Afiriki jamanaw yɛrɛ ka sariyako siratigɛ la, a ka c’a la, daɲɛ kɛrɛnkɛrɛnnen musée walima museum de tara kosɛbɛ. Nka Afiriki Sahara woroduguyanfanjamanaw na, danfara bɛ sariyaw ni ɲɔgɔn cɛ ka da sariyamabɛn sugu min bɛ senna. Sariyamodɛli minnu sɔrɔla kabini tubabutile, olu tora yen. Afiriki jamana minnu tun bɛ, tubabufanga waati la, angilɛjamana ka masabamara kɔnɔ, olu bɛ faraɲɔgɔnkan ɲini k’u ka misew kow ɲɛnabɔ, u bɛ sariya kɛrɛnkɛrɛnnenw sigi min na (misali la: National Museum and Art Gallery Act, 1967, Bɔsiwana; National Museums Act, 1983, Keɲa; National Commission For Museums and Monuments Act, 1979, Nizeriya). Nin sariyataabolo suguya tɛAfiriki tubabukanfɔjamanaw na. Afiriki jamana maralenw Faransi walifasomaralaw fɛ, olu camanba ye sariyaw ta minnu bɛ dɔnkoforobaciyɛnw lakana k’a sɔrɔ labɛn ma kɛ, sariya kɛrɛnkɛrɛnnenw ma ta ka ɲɛsin misew ma, fo n’a bɔra Kɔdiwari la min ka san 1987 sariya talen bɛ Kɔdiwari dɔnkoforobaciyɛn lakana k’a tɔgɔ bɔ.

35«Musée» sɛbɛncogo mana kɛ fɛn o fɛn ye sariya fɛ, a lamini n’a kɔnɔko bɛ bɔ a kɔrɔ fɔlɔ de la, i n’a fɔ a labɛnna tubabulaadaw fɛ cogo min. Daɲɛ labaaracogo, a nafa, a lakodɔnni an’a lafaamuyacogo sigida baarakɛbagaw fɛ, dantigɛli ma kɛ ninnu na Afiriki josariyaw kɔnɔ. Sariya jɔyɔrɔ fabaliya daɲɛ in lafaamuyali kɛnɛ kan sigidajɛkuluw fɛ, o bɛna ni sariya kolonw ye miseko la, ani Afiriki jamanadenw ka siga-n-na ka ɲɛsin nin modɛli ladonnen ma.

36Daɲɛ bayɛlɛmani ka bɔ kan dɔ la ka taa kan wɛrɛ la, o tɛ ko nɔgɔ ye. A kɛra wolokan ye wo, walima kan degelen, i na jɛkulu maa dɔ walima kanbaarala dɔ ɲininka tuma bɛɛ min bɛ kan in fɔ walasa k’a dɔn ni daɲɛ in bayɛlɛmako ɲɛna. O tɛ taa ɲinini ni kunnafonidalajɛ kɔ, min kuntaala bɛ se ka janya ka se hakɛ la i ma sigi ni min ye.

37Bayɛlɛmani gɛlɛyaw ni kanw ni ɲɔgɔn cɛ danfaraw n’u ta bɛɛ, a faamuyara ko kan kɔnɔ fɛn kura fɛn o fɛn, a daɲɛ kura fɛn o fɛn, n’a kɔrɔdanfaralanw faamuyara ka ɲɛ, o ko kura ni o daɲɛ kura ka kan ka lase kan bɛɛ la.

38INƐSIKO ka daɲɛ kɛrɛnkɛrɛnnen caman bɛɛ de sɔrɔla o cogo kelen na, o kɔrɔ, ɲɔgɔnhakilinaɲini ni bɛnkelenkan walasa ka bɛnkanw kɔnɔkow n’u daɲɛ kolomaw ɲɛfɔ. Nka, min ka gɛlɛn, o ye baara kɛlen ye, min, n’a faamuyara bɛɛ fɛ, a bɛ kɛ sababu ye ka kan ni dɔnkow ka ɲɔgɔnkumaɲɔgɔnya taa ɲɛ.

39Nin bayɛlɛmani ni/walima bɛrɛbɛnnibaara in kɛli la kanw ni ɲɔgɔn cɛ, cogoya fila bɛ se ka kɛ tuma dɔ n’i bɔra kɔrɔɲɔgɔnmadaɲɛw la ka don dakun kɛrɛnkɛrɛnnen dɔ kɔnɔ i n’a fɔ INƐSIKO ka Bɛnkanw ta.

40Cogoya fɔlɔ la, n’o de bɛ kɛ ka caya, daɲɛ kofɔlen dɔnnen tɛ jɛkulu mɔgɔw ka kan na. O misali dɔ ye «musée» ye.

41Yanninnɔ, an bɛ se ka singani kɛ, nka o tɛ kunnafoni fosi di daɲɛ kɛrɛnkɛrɛnnen in kan k’a faranfasiya, daɲɛ kɛrɛnkɛrɛnnen min ni jɛkulu mɔgɔw t’a mankan dɔn yɛrɛ.

42An bɛ se fana k’an sinsin kanw ka daɲɛbangese kan ka daɲɛ kura dilan min faamu ka di kosɛbɛ k’a sɔrɔ an ma bɔ daɲɛw labɛncogo (dilancogo) sariyaw kɔnɔ, ka daɲɛ kɛrɛnkɛrɛnnen kura kofɔlen in jira. Taa kɛra nin sira in de fɛ «musée» bayɛlɛmatɔ jukɔrɔ kan naani jiralen na.

43Cogoya filanan na, daɲɛ dɔ bɛ sɔrɔ jɛkulu ka kan n’a ka dɔnko kɔnɔ min kɔrɔ ka surun daɲɛ kura in na, hali n’a y’a sɔrɔ kɔrɔɲɔgɔnma dafalen tɛ yen.

Fulakan na: Resorde pinal, «dɔnkomarayɔrɔ»

44«Musée» ye tubabukan daɲɛ dɔ ye; a bɛ fɛn min kofɔ, o ye fɛn dunan ye fulaw fɛ yen. Walasa k’a bayɛlɛma fulakan na, an ye ɲɛfɔli jɛlenw de kɛ fɔlɔ k’a dɔn k’a faamuya an yɛrɛ fɛ min don tubabukan na, a bɔra min.

45O kɔfɛ, an ye daɲɛ yɛrɛ kɔrɔdenw bɔ kelen-kelen walasa k’a kɔnɔko n’a kɔkanna bɛɛ da kɛnɛkan, n’olu ye ninnu ye:

  • yɔrɔko;

  • lamaraliko (ka kow ni fɛnw lamara);

  • dɔnko walima tabiyako: dɔnkofɛnw bɛ lamara yen de walasa na ka kɛ k’u lajɛ, k’u kɔlɔsi; o b’a to i ka dɔnko kɔnɔna bɛ wara ni fɛn fɛrɛw ye n’a n’u donna ɲɔgɔn na;

  • kɔlɔsiliko, lajɛliko, kunnafoniniko, ɲɛdaamuniko.

46Baara senfɛ, an ye daɲɛ caman dilan, nka an ye daɲɛ dilen caman fana bila ka bin, k’a sababu kɛ, a fɔlɔ, o daɲɛ dilen ninnu bɛɛ tun b’a ɲini ka daɲɛ kɔrɔ bɛɛ bɛn” lajɛli” kɔrɔ ma (o misali dɔ filɛ: yeeɓirde «fɛnlajɛyɔrɔ» <= de yeeɓ- «k’a lajɛ ni daamu ye»); a filanan, u tun bɛnnen tɛ kosɛbɛ, u tun bɛ se ka kɛ ka daɲɛ wɛrɛw bayɛlɛma (o misali dɔ filɛ: galle pinal «dɔnko bon» walima suudu pinal «dɔnko so», ka tali kɛsuudu defte la «gafemaraso»). Misali dilen fana dɔ fana b’o cogo la: «Musée» singana k’a labɛn k’a bɛrɛbɛn fulakan mankankolomakalan ma: miisee. Komi mɔgɔw tun tɛ vfosi faamu a mankan fɛ, an banna daɲɛ singanen in na.

47Nin cogo in de la, an y’an sinsin fulakan daɲɛbangese kan, ka jateminɛ kɛ kɔrɔden danfaralan saba fɔlɔ la, n’olu ye yɔrɔ, lamarali ani dɔnko ye, an jɛra ɲɔgɔn fɛ ka daɲɛ kura bange min faamu ka di kojugu, n’o ye resorde pinal ye.

48Daɲɛkɛrɛnkɛrɛnnen resorde pinal faamu ka di kojugu fulakanmɛnna fɛ, min wolokan don, ka da kunba saba kan;

  1. Daɲɛ in, n’o ye resorde ye, a kumaden bɛɛ (daɲɛbaju, nɔrɔnnaw, tɔgɔsɛrɛjiralan) kɔrɔ jɛlen don, u faamu ka di kan fɔbaga bɛɛ fɛ;

  2. Daɲɛ kura in dilanni kɛra jaati tɔgɔbange sariyaw kɔnɔ fulakan na;

  3. Nin daɲɛ dilannen suguw misali ka ca fulakan na:
    hoɗ-«si» => hoɗorde «siyɔrɔ, siso»
    loot-«ko» => lootorde «koliyɔrɔ»
    hen-«fiɲɛ» => henorde «fiɲɛdonda, fɔlɔ»
    sod-«k’a tigɛka surunya» => sodorde «sira surun»
    juul-«ka seli» => juulirde «seliyɔrɔ, misiri» etc.

49Daɲɛ in ye yɔrɔ fila e: resorde «lamarayɔrɔ, lasagoyɔrɔ» et pinal «dɔnko».

50Resorde/res-o-r-de/dilanna, o tuma na, nin cogo in na:

  • Walebaju RES-(waleganan RESde): min kɔrɔ ye «k’a lamara». Misaliw: resde jawdi «ka nafolo mara», resde debbo «ka furumuso mara», resde sirru «ka gundo mara», etc..

  • Kumaden – o-: bɛ cɛmancɛkanhakɛ jira, a bɛ waletigi kofɔ. O la res-o-«ka mara».

  • Kumaden – r-: waleyalan/yɔrɔjiralan: b’a jira k’i b’i mago ɲɛ ni fɛn dɔ, yɔrɔ ye.

  • Sɛrɛjiralan – de: bɔnna kɛdakun filanan taamasiyɛn (tɔgɔbange) tɔgɔsɛrɛ kɔnɔ NDE min bɛ yɔrɔ kofɔ, kɛnɛ dantigɛlen, bakurubaya, koorilenya, adw. Diɲɛ sɛrɛjiralan winndere NDE, gafe sɛrɛjiralan deftere NDE, yɔrɔ sɛrɛjiralan nokkere NDE; fɛn koorilenw sɛrɛjiralan: hoore NDE «kun», horde NDE «filen», duunde NDE «gun», lowre NDE «dugukolo», husre NDE «sogo, fasa», adw. O la: resorde: «lamarayɔrɔ, lasagoyɔrɔ…».

51Pinal/fin-al/dilancogo ye nin ye:

  • Daɲɛbaju FIN- (waleganan FINde): kɔrɔ ye «ka kunun», kɔrɔlasama na: «k’i ɲɛ yɛlɛ, ka kalan».

  • Sɛrɛjiralan – al: bɔnna kɛdakun sabanan taamasiyɛn tɔgɔsɛrɛ kɔnɔ NGAL min bɛ cogoya jira ka caya.

52O la: pinal «[jɛkulu dɔ ka] danbewalew, [sɔrɔlen ciyɛn ye walima dali fɛ] sekow ni dɔnniyaw bɛɛ lajɛlen». Pinal bɛdanfara ka bɔ ganndal la (daɲɛbaju ANND-«k’a dɔn») min bɛ dɔnniya lakika jira.

53Resorde pinal kɔrɔ ye o la «dɔnko bmara yɔrɔ min

Bamanankan na: Fεnkɔrɔmarayɔrɔ, «fɛn kɔrɔw lamarayɔrɔ»

54Kɔrɔlen bamananna na, fɛn kɔrɔ minnu nafa ka bon kosɛbɛ, olu lamarayɔrɔ ye yɔrɔ kɛrɛnkɛrɛnnenba ye. A bɛ basiw, sɛbɛnw, an’olu n’u ɲɔgɔnnaw lakɛrɛnkɛrɛn, fɛn o fɛn n’o bɛ tali kɛ hadamaden farikolo n’a hakili lakanani na ka bɔ fɛn juguw ni mɔgɔ juguw ma. O fɛn kɛrɛnkɛrɛnnen bɛ se ka lamara bon, npalan, daga walima filen kɔnɔ, wa a tigi bɛ se ka kɛ cɛ, musso walima denmisɛn dɔ ye. A lasɔrɔbaga y’a tigi dɔrɔn ye, o kɔrɔ k’a lasɔrɔli dagalen tɛ jama ye. Bamanankan na, «case de l’homme» bɛ fɔ «cεso: = homme,-so = case, maison.

55«Musée» kɔrɔɲɔgɔnma bɛ se ka kɛ bamananna fɛn kɛrɛnkɛrɛnbaliw lamarayɔrɔ ye, kɛrɛnkɛrɛnbali k’a sababu kɛ sarakabɔla tɛ yen tugun, ani bolodonkaramɔgɔw minnu bɛ sarakabɔw kɛ, walima k’a sababu kɛ sarakabɔcogow tiɲɛna ye. Kabini fɛn kɛrɛnkɛrɛnnenw kɛrɛnkɛrɛnnenyayɔrɔ bɔra u la, u kɛra bɛɛta ye, bɛɛ bɔra u kalama. Daɲɛ kura sɔrɔlen: fεnkɔrɔmarayɔrɔ (fεn: chose, objet; kɔrɔ: ancien; mara: conserver; yɔrɔ: lieu), laban tara ka kɛ «musée» bayɛlɛmanan ye; a kɔrɔ tubabukan na: «le lieu de conservation des choses anciennes».

Siwahilikan na: Muse/Makumbusho, «forobahakili marayɔrɔ»

56Daɲɛ dɔ bɛ siwahilikan na ka kɔrɔ min kumadenw bɔra larabukan na, n’a kɔrɔ ye: min ɲɛsinnen bɛ farimafɛnw ni farintanfɛnw lakanani ma: hifadhi ya jadi (laadaw lakanani).

57Makumbusho ye daɲɛ dilannen ye Darɛsalamu jamana miseko (Tansani) waati la.

58Ma – ɲɛnɔrɔ, min bɛ jamako, foroba kofɔ;

59Kumbuka – bɛ hakililajigin, taasili kofɔ;

60O- bɛyɔrɔ jira;

61Makumbusho kɔrɔ ye o tuma na: jama hakilijiginyɔrɔ.

62Nin jamanamise in, n’a bɛ dugu cɛmancɛ la, a bɛ kuma Tansani ni jamana wɛrɛw ka donɲɔgɔnna kan, ka a jɔyɔrɔ jira, min ye «hadamadenya sinti» ye. Mise in kɔnɔ, i bɛ fɛn dɔw ye minnu sɔrɔla jamana ni jamana wɛrɛw ni ɲɔgɔn cɛ f?nfalenfalenni fɛ ani u ka donɲɔgɔnna senfɛ. Mise don, min sababuyara diɲɛ yɛlɛma-yɛlɛmaw fɛ, minnu ye Tansani yɛrɛ cogo yɛlɛma.

63Darɛsalamu mise dɔ in kɔnɔ, min bɛ dugu dawolo la, Tanzani siyabaw jiralen bɛ filenw kɔnɔ k’olu bila u danma. Mise bɛ wele nyumba za makumbusho, «hakililajiginso», «taasiso». So kelen-kelen bɛɛ bɛ siya dɔ ka sojɔcogo kɔrɔ n’a ka dɔnko danfaraw jira – «so» nafa bɛ dɔn yan de, mɔgɔ siyɔrɔ.

64O cogo de la ni Makumbusho kɛra sugu fila ye.

65Siwahilikan daɲɛ jɛnsɛnna fo ka don jamana kan wɛrɛw la, kɛrɛnkɛrɛnnenya la sukumakan, tisɔngakan; nka a lakikaya ma jɛya, bawo daɲɛ in kɔrɔ ma faamuya kosɛbɛ jama bolo.

Dugutigw ka so: maʃigo fo Bujora (Tansani)
San 1961 kɔfɛ, yɛrɛmahɔrɔnya tasan, jamana bɛɛfa raɲɔgɔnkanni kama, dugutigiko dabilala, nka dugutigifanga taamasiyɛnw tora… U kɛra mun de ye?
Bujora dugu kɔnɔ, Tansani, Mɔnpɛrɛw y’a jira ko k’u bila sow kɔnɔ, maʃigo sukumakan na, k’u lamara. Maʃigo, n’a kɔrɔ ye dugutigiw sudonyɔrɔ kɔrɔw, bɛ fɛn dalajɛlenw kofɔ minnu kɔrɔ ka bon kosɛbɛ, minnu makarannen don ka bɔ tilali ma fo ɲɛnajɛ donw. Nka daɲɛ in kɔrɔ bɛ ka yɛlɛma dɔɔnin-dɔɔnin: bɔ kɛra maʃigo la ka taa Bujora la, dugu tɔgɔ, ka sow kofɔ, jama bɛna minnu lajɛ bi (kɛrɛnkɛrɛnnenya la, sukumasiw ni sigiɲɔgɔnsiyaw ni turisiw fɛ). Pilakiw sɛbɛnnen don sukumakan na, ani siwahilikan.
Mosanbiki, afiriki Worodugujamana, Zinbabawe ani Siwasilandi, daɲɛ min talen don, tisɔngakan na nin jamanaw na, o ye fana swiikumbuso ye.
Swi – caya ɲɛnɔrɔ – sɛrɛ8 (fɛnw walima kow ka sɛrɛ);
Ɲikumbuso bɔra ku kumbuka de la, wale-sababuyalan – «laɲinɛbɔ, lahakiliji gin».
Ni dugutigiw ka sow don, jɛkulu walima siya ka fɛn nafamabaw bɛ lamara yɔrɔ min, a bɛ fɔ «fɛn kɛrɛnkɛrɛnnenw ka sonin», yindlo ya swigotso, min tɛ dayɛlɛ ni ɲɛnajɛbaw waatiw tɛ.
Mɔnpɛrɛw y’a jira ko a ni «tanpulu» ka surun ɲɔgɔn na, o faamuya in tara dugumɔgɔw fɛ minnu ye thepela dilan, min bilala kosɛbɛ yindlo ya swigotso nɔ na.

66A jɛlen don ko daɲɛ minnu dilanna siwahilikan na, Tansani jamana kan, ka «musée» ani «patrimoine» bayɛlɛma, n’olu ye makumbusho ni orithi wa taifa ye, o daɲɛ dilannenw tɛ dɔwɛrɛ ye yɛrɛfɛdaɲɛ dilannenw kɔ minnu tɛ mɔgɔ wɛrɛ kunnafoni ni Tansani mara yɔrɔ dɔ tɛ. Tiɲɛ yɛrɛ la, daɲɛ dilannen ninnu bɛ min kofɔ, o ni Tansani jɛkuluw ka ɲɛnamaya kow tɛ ɲɔgɔn ta dɔnko siratigɛ la; o kama, dɔwɛrɛ tɛ daɲɛ surew kɔ, baara bɛ kɛ minnu na diɲɛ jamanaw ni ɲɔgɔncɛla la. Ka da o kan, u na kɛ sababu ye ka dɔ fara danfara kan dɔnko siratigɛla min bɛ nin daɲɛ surew faamubagaw ni mɔgɔ tɔw cɛ, ka olu bila yɛrɛminɛ na ka bɔ jamana ka kelenya ma. Nin cogoya in de bɛ dɔ fara siwahilikan kɔrɔ fɔbagaw ka miiriya kan, k’olu ka kan «minɛnen» don kalanbagaw fɛ, olu minnu b’u ka yɛrɛya yɔrɔ dɔw fili diɲɛ sokelenyali ye (mɔnjalizasɔn).

Ka ɲɛsin mise sugu wɛrɛw ma?

67Misew ye, tuma caman, dɔnniyadakun kɛrɛnkɛrɛnnenw ye. A suguya duuruba de bɛ yen: sekomisew, bozari misew, masiriseko misew; tarikimisew; dɔnniyamisew; dugukolotariki misew, fɛɛrɛmisew, siyadɔnnikalan mise.

68Mise saba de bɛ yen minnu bɛnnen kɛrɛnkɛrɛnnenya la Afiriki kɔnɔ.

Sitimise

69Sitimise ye mise ye min sigiyɔrɔko tɛ kunfɛko ye, yɛrɛfɛko ye; a dulonnen tɛ yɔrɔ yɛrɛ sigicogo la, taamako la, adw. Galodugu kura bɛ sigi, misew b’u sigiyɔrɔ bila a nɔfɛ, siya dɔ walima baarada dɔ fana bɛna a nɔfɛ, u n’u ka siyafɛn dalajɛlenw walima fɛn kɛrɛnkɛrɛnnenw.

70Sitimise dun, ale dulonnen don yɔrɔ basigilen na min bɛ kɔrɔ d’a ma – fɛnkɔrɔtɔmarayɔrɔ (misali: Olorizesayile, Keɲa, Ndidima, Afiriki Woroduguyanfan), walima dɔnkotu dɔ, ko kɛlen dɔ walima tariki tɔgɔbɔlen dɔ siti (Orobɛn-ayisilandi), hali gundoko dɔ min yɔrɔko ye laadalako/bɛnkanko ye.

71Sitimise ma dabɔ, o tuma na, forobaya kama, a miiriya tɛ fana ka kɛ a dama diɲɛnin ye, - wa nin de y’a mankutuw la belebeleba ye. Lakanani, ladamuni ani ɲɛdamuni kuntilenna minnu labɛnna nin mise sugu kama, o kuntilennaw bɛ se ka” dɔn” kosɛbɛ misedɔnnikɛlaw ni forobabaarakɛlaw fɛ, ani nabagaw.

72O la, sitimise ye dakunfɛn ye. A bɛ se ka boli sitiw ni ko dɔnnenw kan, a bɛ kɛ ka minnu kɛ kɛnɛkanfɛnw ye; nk’a bɛ boli fana sitiw ni kow kan minnu ma dɔn walima u ma don da la fɔlɔ, n’a bɛ kɛ sababu ye k’olu jira walima k’u ka gɛlɛyaw jira: ominidesiti min falen don baganw walima faraminɛn (misali; Olidowayi Zɔrizi), walima yɔrɔ min bɛ hakililajigin kɛ jɔnfeere waati kan (Gore), walima tubabutile izinifɛnbɔsantiri; a bɛ boli tugun mise sugu min bɛ wele ko” Skansɛn modɛli”, n’o ye mise ye min jɔlen bɛ fiɲɛ na ni sow walima laadalaso jɔlenw b’a kɔnɔ, bololabaarafɛnw ni bololabaarakɛwalew walima sɛnɛfɛnw ni sɛnɛbaarakɛwalew bɛ se ka fara minnu kan, ɲɛfɔlisantiri dɔ hukumu kɔnɔ.

73Sitimise fanga, n’o y’a dilisaranyɔrɔ ye, sɔsɔli tɛ min na, o fana bɛ se ka kɛ a ma gɛlɛyaw walima fɔɲɔgɔnkɔw sun ye n’a ni yɔrɔ wɛrɛw fɔra ɲɔgɔn kɔ: Fangaw ka yɔrɔw, jama ka yɔrɔ, bolimafɛnw ɲɔgɔnkunbɛnyɔrɔ, yɔrɔ lasɔrɔli gɛlɛyaw, yɔrɔtiginadilan (…)

Sitimise fila Afiriki Worodugujamana na
Misali la ka ɲɛsin dugukolo, politiki ani sɔrɔ jɔyɔrɔ ma min ka bon siti (mise ko tɛ) yɔrɔko la, an bɛ se ka sangaɲɔgɔnmani kɛ afiriki Worodugujamana siti fila la minnu sɛbɛnnen don INƐSIKO ka forobaciyɛnba lisi kan. Fan dɔ fɛ, siti min bɛ wele ‘Cradle of humankind’ (Kradl of yumankayind’) ye kuluwosɛrɛ ani dingɛsɛrɛ ye min falen don ɔsitaralopitɛki ani omo erɛkitusi la: yɔrɔ in ni yohannɛsiburi cɛ ye lɛrɛkelenboli ye; a bɛ sira kan; turisimukɛyɔrɔ ɲumanba don; mobilijɔyɔrɔw bɛ yen minnu labɛnnen don lakɔlidenbisiw bisimilali kama, lakɔliden minnu bɛna tilekelenkɛ la ka bataki kalan min bɛ tali kɛAfiriki kura la. Fan wɛrɛ fɛ, ukalamba Darakɛnsibɛri siti n’a bɛ Kuwazulu-Natali ni Lesoto ni ɲɔgɔn cɛ dancɛ la, o ye kulukɛnɛ ye, farawo caman bɛ min na minnu masirilen bɛ ni pɛntirijiw ye. O pɛntirijilamasiri kɛra Sankaw (Busimaniw) fɛ minnu ka surun yɛrɛ banni na.
A lasɔrɔ ka gɛlɛn kojugu, waatijantaama don mobili la ani dafilakɛbungalo la. Yɔrɔ in ye turisimu kɛrɛnkɛrɛnnen yɔrɔ de ye min nabaa fanba ka ca turisi dunanw na ka tɛmɛ sigidamɔgɔw kan, olu minnu ka koba tɛ nin seko tigiw ye, u hakili la u ni minnu tɛ jɛ fosi la siya ani tariki siratigɛ la.

Dugumise

74Dugumise (walima dugu ka mise) ye so walima minɛn labɛnnen ye komini walima jɛkulu dɔ fɛ, wa n’a dabɔra forobaciyɛn seereyafɛnw lakanani, u dondalali ani u lasɔrɔdiyali a ka mara kɔnɔ walima a ka dugukolo kan. I n’a fɔ cakɛbolofara cɛmabɔlen bɛɛ, dugumise b’a kunnacakɛda ni sariya ka sɛgɛsɛgɛli kɔnɔ ka ɲɛsin a labɛncogo n’a labaaracogo ma ka da forobaciyɛn lakanani, labaarali ani a dondalali sariyaw kan.

75Dugumise dabɔkunba ye jamanaden ladamuni nɔgɔyali ye. Dugumisew dayɛlɛli bɛ tali kɛ hukumu fila la: mara cɛmabɔli ni yɛrɛye nafasɔrɔbaara ani dɔnko sabatili jamana kɔnɔ min sinsinnen don siyaw ka kelenya kan, n’a datugulen tɛ diɲɛ jamana tɔw ka dɔnkow ma. O siratigɛla mise cɛmabɔlen taabolo sigisenkanni ka kan ka sinsin mise nabagaw kunnafonni, kalanni, laɲɛnajɛli hadamadenya ani dɔnko siratigɛ la, bisimilali an’u bilasirali.

76Nin taabolo sugu in na, min bɛmise ka baara bila lakananiko ni kunnafoni ani lajɛnsɛnniko cɛma, n’a bɛsɔrɔ jiidili nɔgɔya sɔrɔ, dugumisew ye dɛmɛdon «kɛnɛw» ye ka ɲɛsin kunun ni bi dɔnkow ma: mise galabukɛnɛw, minnu bilala mɔgɔw ladamu sira kan ka ɲɛsin forobaciyɛn ani bɛn ma.

Dugumisew dɔgɔnɔjamana na
Mali la, dugumisebaw bɛ dɔgɔnɔduguw la. Fonbori, ende ani Soroli misew de ko don. Nin misew jɔra Banjagara ka lajnini kɔnɔ, ni bolodiɲɔgɔnma, dɛmɛdonjɛkuluw ka nafolodɛmɛ ye (INƐSIKO, adw.) ani dugumɔgɔw ka cɛsiri. Nin misew dayɛlɛli bɛ bila hukumu fila kɔnɔ: faantanya ni dɔnkofɛnw yuruguyurugufeere kɛlɛli, ani dugumɔgɔw ka cogoyaw laɲɛni ka t’a fɛ forobaciyɛn tɛmɛsira fɛ.

Dɔnkobanki

77Dɔnkobankiko nana Mali la san 1997. A mabɛnnen don bɔlɔba saba dafɛ: mise so, jurumisɛnnindonso ani dɔnko ni kalanso.

78Bi, dɔnkobanki ye 4 ye Mali la, wa a modɛli tara Togo ni Bɛnɛn fɛ.

79Dugumɔgɔw y’a kanu k’u yɔrɔjanya mise kɔrɔ la ka an yɛrɛ ka yɛrɛya dɔnko lakanani ni yiriwali bɛn ɲɔgɔnma fɛɛrɛw ɲini..

80Dɔnkobanki kuntilennaw ye ninnu ye:

  • Ka bolofɛnw lakana mise walima yɔrɔ lakananenw kɔnɔ, minnu bɛ ɲini ka sonya, bɔsi walima ka yuruguyurugufeere. Wantɛrɛsɛbɛn dɔ (diɲɛ wantɛrɛsɛbɛn modɛli) bɛ dilan;

  • Ka o bolofɛnw n’u bɔyɔrɔ tariki to ɲɔgɔn na, min bɛ kɔrɔ ni nafa d’u ma;

  • Bolofɛn kelen o kelen n’a ka wantɛrɛsɛbɛn” farintan” don, maanaw ni tarikiw maralen bɛ minnu kɔnɔ, ani ko kɛtaw diinɛ waleyali walima don o don latigɛli siratigɛ la.

  • Ka dugumɔgɔw dɛmɛ nafasɔrɔbaara dɔ kɛli la ni juru donni ye u la min kuntaala cayalenba ye san saba ye. Bolofɛntigi bɛ se, n’a ye tɔnɔ sara (3%), kelen, k’a ka bolofɛn sɔrɔ, kelen, ka juru wɛrɛ ɲini k’a sɔrɔ. Mɔgɔ minnu bɛ tila k’u bolofɛnw sɔrɔ, olu man ca.

  • Dɔnko ni kalanso b’u cɛsiri ka sekobaara kɛlenw lasankɔrɔta, ka dugumɔgɔw kalan (balikukalan, nafasɔrɔbaaradamisɛnnin labaaracogo ɲuman, turusiw ni lakɔlidenw bisimilacogo)

81«Dɔnkobanki» ye dugumɔgɔw ka fɔcɔgo ye, n’o ye daɲɛw ye, u ye minnu ta bi ka kɛ misew welelan ye, mise minnu bɛ tali kɛ Mali modɛli la, n’u sigira senkan Togo ni Bɛnɛn.

82Dɔnkobankiw bɛ dugu caman ka dɔnkojirawalew lakana k’u nafamaya; hakilifalen-falen ani ɲɔgɔnkumaɲɔgɔnya kɛyɔrɔw don; jama ka bɛn sinsinkɛnɛw don, dɔnko sugucaman bɛ jira minnu kan.

83Dɔnkobankiw bɛ lataama i n’a fɔ tɔnw, wa hali u ka baara ɲumanw b’u ɲɛsin gɛlɛya kura ma, n’o ye jurumisɛnnindon kɛli ye, ani bolofɛnw lamarali minnu bɛ ka caya ka t’a fɛ so kolonw kɔnɔ, n’o ye fana a tɔndenw ka baaradege ye, n’o ye tugun kɛrɛnkɛrɛnnenya la u lakodɔnni ye jamana masina ninnu dɔnkoɲɛmɔgɔw fɛ.

Faamuya min sɔrɔla Fɔnbori dɔnkobanki la, Duwansa, dɔgɔnɔjamana na, Mali la
Ale de ye Mali dɔnkobanki fɔlɔ ye, min dayɛlɛla san 1997. Dugumɔgɔw ka dɔnkofɛnlakanayɔrɔ don, dugu kɛsu bɛ min na jurumisɛnnindon kɛli kama; dɔnkokalanso dɔ fana b’a la nafasɔrɔbaaraw kɛli kama.
Dugumɔgɔw ka dɔnkoforobaciyɛn lakanani n’a dondalali n’a jɛnsɛnniso don, so min bɛ bolofɛnw sonyani n’u dasulafeere ani faantanya kɛlɛ, n’a b’a kɛcogo bɛɛ la walasa dugumɔgɔw ka dɔnkoforobaciyɛn ladonbaaraw k’u yɛrɛ nafa..
Fɔnbori dɔnkobanki koɲɛnabɔdaw ye: lajɛjama, koɲɛnabɔjɛkulu, sigida jurudonjɛkulu, fɔkabɛnjɛkulu.
A dayɛlɛtuma, baarakɛnafolo tun ye dɔrɔmɛ 40 000 ye. San 2002, Fɔnbori dɔnkobanki ka bolofɛn dalajɛlenw jateminɛna ka kɛfɛn 430 ye minnu bɔra dugu tan na.
Juru 450 ni kɔ de donna mɔgɔw la minnu wari mumɛ bɛnna miliyɔn 6 ani dɔrɔmɛ 100 000 ma. Juru 450 in na, 60% de ye dilen ye musow ma. Bi-bi in na, fɛn 1072 de bɛ Fɔnbori dɔnkobanki kɔnɔ, minnu bɔra dugu 24 na. Kabini san 2006 fo bi, juru 802 donna mɔgɔ 1700 la walasa k’u ka ɲɛnamaya n’u ka baara cogoyaw laɲɛ.

Nin bɛɛ kɔfɛ dun?

Ka i dege diɲɛ bɛnkanw bayɛlɛmani na Afiriki kanw na

84Kancamanko bɛna, tuma bɛɛ, ni daɲɛw bayɛlɛmani gɛlɛyaw ye, ka bɔ kan dɔ la ka taa kan wɛrɛ la. INƐSIKO bɛnkanw kɔnɔ daɲɛw n’u daɲɛkuluw bayɛlɛmani Afiriki kanw na, o ye baara gɛlɛn ye tuma bɛɛ, wa o de kosɔn a walanda ka ca. O la, min ɲininen don NƐSIKO tɔndenjamanaw ni NƐSIKO ɲɛmɔgɔw fɛ, o ye:

  • Ka dugumɔgɔw sendon dɔnkoporozew ni porogaramuw waleyali la dakun bɛɛ la;

  • Ka ɲinini waralenw kɛ sigidaw kanw kan, ani ka bayɛlɛmani kɛ olu ni barakɛkanw ni ɲɔgɔn cɛ (tubabukan ani angilɛkan);

  • Ka jɛkuluw (erosow) sigi senkan jamanaw kɔnɔ ka ɲɛsin forobaciyɛnko daɲɛw bayɛlɛmani n’u donni kama fasokannakalan porogaramuw kɔnɔ;

  • Ka INƐSIKO bɛnkanw bayɛlɛma dugumɔgɔw ka kan sɛbɛnnenw na;

  • Ka kalansenw kɛ waleyaw kan, minnu bɛ tali kɛ forobaciyɛn lakanani n’a lataaɲɛni na, ani olu kunkan daɲɛw;

  • Ka ɲinini kɛlenw kunnafoniw n’u lataaɲɛnisɛbɛn jɛnsɛn.

85Baara in man kan ka kɛ sababu ye ka diɲɛ forobaciyɛn daɲɛw ta k’u «tintin» kanw kɔnɔ; a ka kan ka kɛ sababu ye ka ɲinini kɛ ka bɔ ni cogoyaw ni kadara kɛrɛnkɛrɛnnenw ye.

Fɛn jirali an’i yɛrɛ jirali

86Andere Maloro y’a sɛbɛn, san 1947, “Le Musée imaginaire” (Mise bisigiyalen) ko: «Misew jɔyɔrɔ anw ni sekowalew ni ɲɔgɔncɛla la, o ka bon cogo la fo a ka gɛlɛn an ma ka d’a la k’a tɛ yen […] wa ko a dɔ bɛ an fɛ yan a tɛ san kɛmɛ fila bɔ. Sankɛmɛ XIXnan balola u la; anw fana bɛ ka balo a la halibi, wa an bɛ ɲinɛ ko misew ye kɛcogo kurabaw tintin filɛlikɛlaw u kun ka ɲɛsin seko waleya ma. U kɛra sababu ye ka sekofɛn dalajɛtaw bɔ u ka baara ka, u tun bɛ min kɛ a ɲɛma».

87Walasa ka bɔ ladegeli jalan gɛlɛya kɔnɔ min ni tiɲɛ lakika ka jan ɲɔgɔn na, an bɛ se ka mise ka baaraw tila-tila, bɛɛ ye minnu lakodɔn ka sɔn u ma, n’olu ye: dalajɛli, lakanani ani jirali.

88Nan y’an yɛrɛ bila o hukumu kɔnɔ, Afiriki mise bɛ se ka bɔ diyagoyaminɛn kɔnɔ n’o ye jamanamise ye.

89Afiriki mise bɛɛ, walima ka surunya o la, labɛnna faso mankutuli kama, o faso yɛrɛ min bɛɛ lajɛlen ye fɛn cookolen ye. U lamini de b’u kɛ fɛn koronnenw ni fɛn dansigilenw ye kɛnɛko ni waatiko nasira la. O kama, sanni u ka kɛ yɛrɛya tigiyalikɛnɛw ye min tigɛ-tigɛlen, u kɛra jamanamisɛnninw bayɛlɛmaniyɔrɔw ye k’u bila yɛrɛyaɲini banbali la.

90«jamana fɛn» minnu bɛ dalajɛ o hukumu kɔnɔ, olu ye o tuma na fɛn kɔrɔw ye minnu tɛ se ka kuma ni wasa ye Afiriki kura kan, o min kɔrɔtɔlenba don a ka yiriwali kɔrɔ. O misew, ni kɔdon kɛra u la, fo ka ɲinɛkɛ u kɔ, o misew nan’a faamuya ko miiri ni taasi kɛra u ma wajibi ye.

91Fɛn naani ka kan ka wajibiya faamuyali koɲuman kama:

  • fɛnkɔrɔdalajɛ ka kan ka ta ka bɔ siyaɲɛfɔlikalan kun kɔrɔ walasa ka dalajɛli kɛ fɛn bɛɛ la, fɛn o fɛn n’a bɛ se ka seereyali kɛ bɔw kan, bitaw ni nataw;

  • lakananibaaraw ka kan ka bɛrɛbɛn yɔrɔ bɛɛ n’a cogoyaw ma: lakananimodɛli kelen tɛ yen. Kɛrɛnkɛrɛnnenya la, Afiriki fɛn lakananenw ni misew ka kan ka tanga «yeelentigɛ» ma ni ɲɛsinni kɛli ye pewu tileyeelen ma;

  • Fɛn jirataw: dabila ka kan ka kɛ nin yɛrɛjirali in na min bɛ da ɲɛw kɔrɔ tuma bɛɛ Afiriki ka dɔntaw la a yɛrɛkan. Tiɲɛ don, mɔgɔ b’i yɛrɛ fɔ, i b’i yɛrɛ jira, nka i mago b’i mɔgɔɲɔ fana dɔnni na, bawo caya bɛ donɲɔgɔnna de la.

  • Erɔpu fɔlɔla de k’a ka ikɔniw lamara, o kɔfɛ, a y’i ɲɛsin seko ma, ka sɔrɔ k’a ka sojɔcogow lakana, ani ka siyaɲɛfɔlikalan misew labɛn ka dɔnkow sugucamanya jira, a ye minnu ye a ka taamaw senfɛ diɲɛ kɔnɔna na. Nka nin bɛɛ ye tariki ye, tariki min kɛra bɛɛ ta ye, an man’a kɛcogo o cogo. O forobaciyɛnw ye diɲɛ bɛɛ jɛfɛnw ye, a kɛra u lakanana Afiriki, walima Erɔpu, walima yɔrɔ wɛrɛ, kɛcogo wɛrɛ t’a la nin kɔ.

92O la sa, ka jirali kɛ bi, o ni yɛrɛjira tɛ se tugun ka taa ni ɲɔgɔn ye. Afiriki magoba bɛ diɲɛ dɔnni na, wa misew ka kan ka bɔ o numa. Erɔpu misew ye ɲɔgɔnkunbɛnkɛnɛw ye, ka d’a kan i mɔgɔɲɔgɔn dɔnni an’i yɛrɛ ka ɲɛtaa, olu tɛ ɲɔgɔnsɔsɔbagaw ye. Ka Afiriki mise lakuraya, o ye ka misew kɛ mɔgɔɲɔgɔn dɔnni kɛnɛw ye, ani diɲɛ dɔnkow dɔnni kɛnɛw, ani dilanni lataaɲɛni. Dakurunɲɛkelen na, Afiriki mise, n’a t’a fɛ ka silatunun, a ka kan ka kɛ, jijalenya na, «dilisaranni ani dayɛlɛli» kɛnɛ ye.

Mise ni fɛndilan: kɔrɔlen labɛnni cogo kura ye?

93Ka politikikunnafoniw lase tuma bɛɛ, o ka kan k’an bila ka sɔsɔli kɛ miiriya sɔrɔlenw na, Afiriki ladamunikɛcogo kɔrɔ tun ye kɛnɛ ye min bɛɛ tun kɛrɛnkɛrɛnnen don fɛndilan kama. An bɛ se k’a fɔ yɛrɛ ko Afiriki dilannikɛla tun tɛ tamatibuwati ani buwati sugu wɛrɛ dalajɛlikɛla ye ka tulonkɛfɛnw dilan; «denmisɛn dilannikɛla» ka Afiriki de tun don: Afiriki min kɔnɔ denmisɛnnin tun bɛ dakabana tulonkɛfɛn camanba dilan, don o don, a kɔrɔw ka degeliw n’u ka kɔlɔsili kɔnɔ, tulonkɛfɛn minnu tun y’a bolo fɔlɔ dayɛlɛlenw ye ka bila diɲɛ dɔnni kama, ani fɛnw ni hadamadenw ka diɲɛlabɔ kɔrɔ faamuyali.

94Nin yɔrɔ in, ni ladamunikɛlaw ka kan k’a dɔn, kɛrɛnkɛrɛnnenya la, misew kɔnɔ, o ni ko nafantanya ka jan. Tiɲɛ na, ni siga t’a la, ko Afiriki gɛlɛyaw sɔrɔla min fɛ, k’o ye ko fɛndun hakili bonyana ni fɛndilan hakili ye, ko fura na kɛ sira ɲinini ye min ye fɛndilan hakili ladamuni ye, ani i ka fɛn dilannen tɔnɔ bɔli daamu ni yɛrɛkunkanu donni ye dala. Ka denmisɛnninw ladamu ni fɛndilan hakili ye min bɛ tali kɛAfiriki dɔnkow la misew kɔnɔna na, o na kɛ fɛɛrɛ jɔnjɔn ye ka Afiriki den fɛnkuradilanna «dilidonnen» lataaɲɛ, Afiriki den min labɛnnen don ka fara kunnafonidibagajɛkɛlu kan, min tɛ sigikafilɛla ye, ni cakɛbaga don.

95Nin bɛɛ kɔfɛ, denmisɛn tulonkɛfɛndilannaba, minnu bɛ dɔnkokunnafonniw, tuma dɔ Afiriki dɔnkoforobaciyɛn, lajɛ kokura ye, dɔnkoforobaciyɛn min tulonw n’a tulonkɛfɛnw, an’a maanaw ni nsiirinw, ani dennaanidɔnkili dumanw tun ka kan ni labɛncogo kura kalankɛhukumu kɔnɔ min b’u bila Afiriki denmisɛnw ka kalanko bila la.

96Fɛɛrɛ fana don min bɛ dansigi danfara donni na kunnafonidicogo kura siratigɛ la Afiriki jamanaw ni diɲɛ jamana tɔw cɛ ni kunnafonidi fɛɛrɛ kuraw bilali ye misew yiriwali kama, ani dɔnkolaadalakow yɔrɔɲinini n’u bɛrɛbɛnni o kunnafonidicogo kuraw ma minnu kɛra fɛn kɔsagonbaliw ye.

Afiriki ni” Tubabula” ka ɲɔgɔnkumaɲɔgɔnya miseko kan

97K’a dɔn ko Afiriki misew ye tubabutile kɛ, o ye fana k’a faamuya cogo min u bi n’u sini bɛ se ka kumaɲɔgɔnya sugu wɛrɛ kɛli daminɛ u ni Tubabula cɛ– ka bɔ «tubabutile lahalaya» kɔnɔ ni miseko lahalaya ye, Zɔrizi Balandiye ka fɔla.

98A ma fɔ ka tariki nkalontigiya, a fɔra k’a kɛ tariki yɛrɛye; k’a ɲini k’a dɔn min ye mise ta ye a la, min bɛ se ka da kɛnɛ kan, min bɛ se ka jira, k’a kɛ tilata minɛn ye, seginkɔ minɛn ye – i n’a fɔ misali fɔlɔ b’a bisigi yanninnɔ – walima taama, dugutaa, i n’a fɔ misali filanan b’a jira cogo min. Jirali fila filɛ: kelen ka kan ka kɛ, kelen kɛra kaban.

99Fɔlɔ bɛ se ka wele ko: «Dakaro-Jibuti ka bɔ Dakaro fo Dakaro». Nin jiraliporoze in, n’a tun bɛ Senegali, a daminɛna, ni kɔfɛa bɛlasama ka taa kɔrɔnfɛyanfan na, munna a tɛ taa fo Ecopi Sanfɛ-Kulu la, o jiraliporoze in bɛ san 1930-1931 siyaɲɛfɔkalan taamaba kan ka tɛmɛ Afiriki bɛɛ fɛ. Dakaro-Jibuti, n’a ɲɛmɔgɔya bɛ Marisɛli Giriyoli ni Misɛli Leyirisi bolo” Hadamaden-ka-Mise tɔgɔla, Pari, a ye jɔyɔrɔba fa siyadɔnnikalan bayɛlɛmani na, ka bɔ laada kolonw ɲɛfɔli la ka taa hadamadenkalan na hadamadenya ni dɔnko siratigɛ la. Ale sɛbɛba ye kunnafoniɲini sɛgɛsɛgɛlenba ani fɛndalajɛ (minnu damatɛmɛnen don tuma dɔ). A kɛra sababu ye ka ɲinini dakun lasama ka tɛmɛ fɛn sure cɛɲiw walima kɔrɔkɔrɔw kan («Farafinseko») ka i kunda Afiriki jamanaw dɔnkofɛnw ni dɔnkojirawalew faamucogo caman kan.

100Sɛbɛn kɔrɔw, taamaw senfɛ sɛbɛnniw, jaw ani sɛbɛn kunfɔlɔ dalajɛlenw o waati la k’u lamara kabini o tuma tubabumisew kɔnɔ, olu jiracogo yɛrɛ Afiriki bɛsin ka nafaba jira.

101Duguw kɔnɔ, nin hakilina suguya bɛ na ni kiimɛni kɛli ye ni dɔnko masinaw la i n’a fɔ kɔlɔsili bɔra u kan cogo min na a ka ca ni san bi seegin ye.

102Hakilijagabɔ nasira la, a ka kan ka lajɛ, k’a jira, o yɔrɔnin bɛɛ la, cogo min dɔnniya dɔ jɔra dɔ kan, cogo min faamuya sɔrɔla sigidaw la, o forobayara, fo ka surunnya ka diɲɛbɛɛya ka kɛ faamuyacogo ye min sirilen tɛ lakɔlikalanfɛnw na, ka sɔrɔ ka i ɲɛmunu ka taa tubabutile kɔfɛko bɔlen ye.

103Misali filanan ta la, ko kun ye ka fɛn jira Afiriki, min t’a kɔnɔ: «tɔw» ka hadamadenya jujɔ an’u ka tariki. Ka da Huye mise, Bobo-Julaso mise, n’o bɛ Burukina Faso, ani Lateniyɔmu mise kan, n’o bɛ Nasatɛli, ka da olu ka hakilina talen kan, jirali dɔ labɛnna ka kɛ Bobo-Julaso ni Wagadugu ni Abijan misew kɔnɔ, Suwisijamana fɛntɔ kɔrɔw kan. Jirali in tɔgɔ tun ye ko:» Fanan jan na dɔɔnin, fanan surun na dɔɔnin». Nin jirali ye makɛtiw ni fifalikɛlanw ni fiyɛlikɛlanw dalajɛ ɲɔgɔn kan, ani fɛn wɛrɛw minnu bɔra dalamayɔrɔw ani bɔrɔnzi waati. Nin jirali nabaga caman bolo, mise ka hakilisɔrɔ kɛnɛ de tun don i n’a fɔ kodɔnyɔrɔ ani dayɛlɛyɔrɔ ka bila diɲɛ na, min bɛ dɔnniya ni hakilijagabɔ fila fara ɲɔgɔn kan.

104N’an ye taayɔrɔw falen siɲɛ kelen na – ka bɔ Erɔpu ka na Afiriki, o kɔkantaama ko tɛ – jirali b’a to n’an bɛ an jɛma dɔnko kɔrɔw bila ɲɛ, u n’u ka sekojirawalew ani u ni lamini ɲɔgɔncɛla, ani fana u ka sebagayako minnu sirilen bɛ u ka yiriwali yɛlɛmabolow la.

105O sen kelen fɛ, a jiratɔ ko Erɔpu tɔnw n’a mɔgɔw b’u sɛbɛ don u yɛrɛ ka fɛntɔ kɔrɔw la k’a ɲini k’u don ba la, jirali bɛ hakilisɔrɔ yɛrɛyɛrɛ dusu don mise nabagaw kɔnɔ.

106Afiriki fana kɔnɔ, seereya minnu kɛra ko tɛmɛnenw ni laadala bololabaarafɛnw kan, olu tɛ julakolonjiragafew ye taamadenw bɛ minnu dalajɛ («Dakaro-Jibuti» sitili), sekofɛn jagomafɛnw tɛ minnu labaara tiɲɛniba dɔ hukumu kɔnɔ, dɔnkofɛnw de don minnu nafa ka bon dɔnniya ani tariki siratigɛ la, forobaciyɛn yɛrɛyɛrɛ don min ka kan ka lakana teliya la, ani ka don ba la, ka lakodɔn. Nin waati kuntaalajan tɛmɛnen ni waati don ma kɛ kɛɲɛma kɛmin kow la dɔnkofɛnw sɔrɔli ni misew ni ɲɔgɔn taakaseginw siratigɛla tubabula ani Afiriki woroduguyanfanjamanaw ni ɲɔgɔn cɛ, bɛ se ka walanda d’an ma bi ni sini kama. An bɛ se ka d’a la cogo di ko bi seko forobaciyɛn fana tɛna ɲɛsin kokura Kɛɲɛkayanfanjamanaw ma? Hali n’a y’a sɔrɔ, o sen in na, dɔnkofɛnw ni sekofɛnw kundalen bɛ tubabula kan, sugu sariyaw kɔnɔ. Ni bololabaarako ni turisimu sɔrɔko tun ye tubabutile kɔkanjagofɛnw dɔ ye kaban, aritisi yɛrɛyɛrɛw ni dɔnko ni sekokalansow lakodɔnni, o ye bi waleya ye min ka ɲi kosɛbɛ, nka n’a ka gɛlɛn kojugu. An ka kan k’an janto kow taabolo la, ka d’a la, nafa min dalen bɛ o lakodɔnni kan ŋaniyajira ni nafoloko siratigɛ la (a fanba ye tubabula ta ye), n’o nafa tɛna kɛ tiɲɛni wɛrɛ sababuyalan ye min bɛna Afiriki bi sekomisew ntanya u kɔnɔkow la.

© Demopolis, 2014

Conditions d’utilisation : http://www.openedition.org/6540