La historiografía francesa del siglo xx y su acogida en España

 | 
Benoît Pellistrandi

Resúmenes

Abstracts

Texte intégral

1Jacques Dalarun
GEORGES DUBY
The importance of the work of Georges Duby lies not only its scope but also in its influence, which is not confined to mediaevalists but is known to a wide circle of non-specialist readers. The key to its success lies in the variety of subjects addressed: history of social and economic structures, history of mentalities, of women, of art, of sentiments and of particular events. Another reason is its coherence, which grew increasingly evident as more works were published. His polished style, his ability to intermesh interpretations and his own original intellectual insights have all earned Georges Duby a special place in the French school of history. Duby was adept at enlisting readers’ interest in aspects hitherto considered irrelevant –in marginal areas which eventually led to a radical rethinking of what we know about mediaeval societies.

2Reyna Pastor
THE WORK OF GEORGES DUBY IN SPAIN
In the 1960os, dominated by the history of institutions and laws, the work of Georges Duby –unlike other currents, and particularly the Anglo-Saxon approach– gave rise to a profound change in methodology and subject matter. This new intellectual stream coincided with the démocratic transition in Spain, and the debate thus turned to historical materialism and its application to the Middle Ages –that is, clergy and nobility as the upper classes. With decreasing delays between the publication of Georges Duby’s works and their translation into Spanish, his work became better known and indeed prompted a new current of research in the Iberian world. His reflections on the concept of mentality open up pathways that inexorably link up with historical anthropology. Spanish research centres may discuss new problems not originally addressed, but Georges Duby was and still is the prime promoter of the history of women in mediaeval Spain.

3Maurice Aymard
FERNAND BRAUDEL
This article presents a discussion of the structure of Fernand Braudel’s work, as represented by three books:
La Méditerranée, Civilisation matérielle, économie et capitalisme, and L’identité de la France. This corpus, written over a period of about fifty years, constitutes a project at once unique and differentiated. M. Aymard seeks to show its unity and its diversity through an analysis of the concepts of space and time developed by Fernand Braudel. The author places Braudel’s other works within the triptych of the three great productions, but at the same time he stresses that Fernand Braudel was after all the author of La Méditerranée, a book which had already been well received by the international scientific community, particularly the Spanish community, before it achieved publishing success in the seventies. Indeed it was in Spain –specifically the National Archive at Simancas– that Fernand Braudel considered his task as a researcher and had the brilliant inspiration of extending it to the entire Mediterranean world.

4Mona Ozouf
FRANÇOIS FURET
The work of François Furet raised immediate controversy. As a historian of the French Revolution he posited an anti-Jacobin interpretation of that world-shaking event and proposed a political reading of it. But is this reading –which saw the light in 1965 with the publication of his book in collaboration with Denis Richet– still valid today? Mona Ozouf s article ignores the paradoxical –one might almost say marginal– image of François Furet and instead highlights the various facets of the historian’s work: a broad understanding of the Revolution, not confined solely to the study of an event in its own time-frame but opening up wider perspectives, establishing a single historical cycle running right up to the present day. From this viewpoint Furet proposed a deeper analysis of political history in a combination of historiography and intellectual history that sought to eradicate the misleading concept of necessity from historical discourse.

5Antonio Morales Moya
FRANÇOIS FURET
The work of François Furet was late in reaching Spain. Furet opposed the thenprevailing Marxist interpretation of the French Revolution, confirming the insights of other research on 18th-century Spain, especially those that highlighted the notion of the State and reformist policies in the age of Enlightenment. Nevertheless, when Furet’s works became known in Spain under the impulse of the second centenary of the French Revolution (1789-1989), the level of criticism –some of it highly acrimonious– was such as actually to question the scientific value of his research. This is understandable in light of the situation of political transition in which Spanish historians found themselves at the time, so that the Revolution could be viewed only in strictly Marxist terms as the transition from feudalism to capitalism. Thanks to the profound changes in world politics and intellectual attitudes since 1989-1990, it is now possible to review the work of François Furet in a fairer and more accurate light.

6Pedro Ruiz Torres
HISTORICAL SYNTHESIS OF THE ANNALES. FRENCH INFLUENCE IN THE EARLY STAGES OF THE RENEWAL OF SPANISH HISTORIOGRAPHY.
It has frequently been stated that Spain lacks a historiographic tradition, much of the blame for which has been laid at the door of the Franco regime and its conservative ideology; however, now is a good time to appraise the first attempts at a renewal of historical science in the early 20th century. The key factors in this renewal were the narrowing gap between social sciences and history, and also a growing awareness of European debates, especially in France. The key historian in any analysis of the «new history» is undoubtedly Rafael Altamira. Other historians who participated in this renewal included Manuel Sales y Ferré, José Deleito y Piñuela, Pere Bosch Gimpera and Luis Pericot. Also relevant if less important are the teaching and writings of Jaume Vicens Vives and the influence of Lucien Fevbre, Marc Bloch and his journal. The progressive awakening of scientific historiography in Spain came about through the cumulative efforts of historians, masters and disciples, who passed on the task of renewal from one generation to the next.

7Gérard Chastagnaret
IS FRENCH ECONOMIC HISTORY STILL COMPETITIVE?
Is French economic history successful because it exports its concepts and methods or because of its past achievements? Gérard Chastagnaret proposes some answers to this question based on observation of how French economic historiography is received in Spain. Taking as given that the influence of this historiography is gradually waning, Chastagnaret shows how the difference in the training of economic historians in Spain and France produces areas of misunderstanding in the form of differing methods and identification of problems, and also divergent points of interest. Nonetheless, it is to be hoped that with the renewal of investigations and surveys the two communities will achieve more synergies through improved mutual acquaintance.

8Marc Lazar
POLITICAL HISTORY IN FRANCE
Under pressure from the sociology of Durkheim, the
Annales school and the vigour of Marxism and structuralism, political history in France is acquiring new life. This is also helped by the consolidation of the history of present rimes in the scientific sphere, and by those whose work has served to set the problems in new lights (René Rémond, François Furet, Maurice Agulhon...). Split into several different fields, political history in France is the subject of numerous debates as to what it is, how it relates to other social sciences and the nature of the phenomena that it examines. Although currently vigorous and dynamic, if it eschews comparison with the history of other countries, political history in France runs the risk of becoming imprisoned within the boundaries of internal political debate and addressing only specifically French national issues.

9Elena Hernández Sandoica
SPANISH POLITICAL HISTORY AND CONTEMPORANEISM
Contemporary political history in Spain has altered in tune with changes in Spanish society in general. Inseparably linked to the democratic transition, the transformation of the universities and more specifically to the institutionalization of contemporary history, it reflects a diversity that is at once real and fictitious, The key to the paradox lies in the survival of a kind of political history that renders any problems of
«retour de» meaningless as happens in France, and in the disagreements among historians as to the content and methods of political history.

10Yves-Marie Bercé
THE RECENT EMERGENCE OF «CULTURAL HISTORY»
«Cultural history» is in fashion. However,– the fact that it is in the limelight does not make its definition any less vague and imprecise. We need first of all to recall its origins (in literary history), the way it has developed, by way of the history of mentalities and the exploration of new fields (history of books, history of plays), and finally the enrichment of its textures as a direct result of specific variations in each period studied. A cultural history of the Middle Ages neither has the same objects nor pursues the same ends as a history of contemporary rimes. In the latter case, cultural history is of greater interest and is more successful because studies of cultural phenomena can be given a political dimension. The non-French bibliography on the cultural history of France, and likewise the methods applied, like
Alltagsgeschichte or microhistory, has been decisive. Given its richness and success, will cultural history become all history?

11Manuel Peña Díaz
FRENCH HISTORIOGRAPHY IN THE CULTURAL HISTORY OF THE SPANISH MODERN AGE
Far from being a history of culture, normally confined to the study of elites or folklore, cultural history is a new way of looking at concrete experiences. This kind of history was long held at arm’s length; it gained recognition and a measure of prestige thanks to the works of Antonio Maravall, Miquel Batllori and Julio Caro Baroja, but these had no true disciples. The influence of French hispanists, including Marcel Bataillon, Joseph Pérez, Augustin Redondo, François Lopez, Bartolomé Bennassar and others, has been decisive in mapping out the problems and defining subjects and methodology. This is true of the history of books, which is proving a fruitful field of research thanks to the works of other researchers like Roger Chartier. The history of mentalities as expounded in the
«nouvelle histoire» in France has been the subject of debates and adaptations in Spain. The challenge facing Spanish historiography today is to come up with a discourse capable of reflecting the plurality and polysemy of cultural practices in Spain in the modern era.

12Pierre Guichard
FROM MUSLIM SPAIN TO AL-ANDALUS
In 1976 Pierre Guichard’s book
Al-Andalus. Estructura antropológica de una sociedad islámica en Occidente marked a turning-point in the historiography of Muslim Spain. In this article the author examines the trajectory of his own prior contributions, the perspectives that he has opened up and the criticisms that he has received. The retrieval of the term al-Andalus implies a restriction in that the scope of the work excludes the Muslims under Christian dominion and the Moriscos. On the other hand, it provides a way out of an excessively nationalistic historiography and makes it possible to address the problems relating specifically to an Islamic political, territorial and social dominion. French and Spanish historiography run side-by-side in their parallel or common exploration of al-Andalus. What were once scientific relations between prominent personalities have developed into institutionalized relations between research centres. Developments also reflect the importance of the European presence in the Maghreb and decolonization. Finally, Pierre Guichard highlights the growing role of archaeology, in which numerous French researchers have been involved, with the assistance of the Casa de Velázquez. Archaeology has considerably enriched the fund of knowledge and has generated hypotheses for future research. Pierre Guichard gives an account of the latest research on the subject within this general framework.

13Bernard Vincent
THE PARIS SEMINAR OF PIERRE VILAR
The influence of Pierre Vilar in Spanish historiography has outshadowed his influence in France, the country where he taught. From 1951 to 1976, Vilar directed a seminar at the École Pratique des Hautes Études, which was attended by historians from France, Spain and other countries. The debates were highly productive. Pierre Vilar always managed to extract theoretical lessons from his research on Catalonia and Spain and to place it within a wider geographical context. In this sense he was an exemplary teacher.

14Rosa Congost and Jordi Nadal
THE INFLUENCE OF THE WORK OF PIERRE VILAR ON SPANISH HISTORIOGRAPHY AND SPANISH CONSCIOUSNESS
The life and work of Pierre Vilar hinge upon Catalonia, a region and a reality through which he made the connection to the history of Spain. He consistently endeavoured to combine his praxis as a historian with theoretical reflections on history, for which he almost always drew on examples from the situation in Catalonia, This peculiarity can only be understood in the context of Pierre Vilar’s, long sojourns in Catalonia and the friendships that he developed there. His importance in the world of the Spanish universities earned him first academic recognition and later success with readers. It is worth highlighting the value of Pierre Vilar’s work at a time when the contributions of Marxism tend to be undervalued. Pierre Vilar’s books still provide Spaniards with enormously helpful insights for reflection on their own history.

15Jaime Contreras
A CERTAIN LIFE-STYLE. REFLECTIONS ON THE WORK OF BARTOLOMÉ BENNASSAR
Bartolomé Bennassar «invented» Valladolid, in the original sense of the word. His thesis on this Castilian city was born of a more general concern of the newly-fledged historian as to the fate of Spain from its apogee in the 16th century to its decline in the 17th. Living among the people of Valladolid in the post-war years (the 1950s), Bennassar fell in love with the city, of which he drew a highly detailed portrait He later went on to interpret the history of Spain. Already discernible in his thesis, the focus on mentalities –and especially can be learned of these from the workings of the Holy Office– lay at the core of his later research and writings. The historian also drew attention to the political nature of the Inquisition Tribunal and the ideological and spiritual consequences of its work. The conclusions of his research are set forth in the book
L’homme espagnol. Attitudes et mentalités du XVIe au XIXe siècle. Jaime Contreras highlights the coherence of Bartolomé Bennassar’s work and the elucidating role that it played in the great historical and historiographic debates of Spain.

16Pierre Chaunu
MY SPAINS
In this autobiographical article, Pierre Chaunu recounts his relationship with Spain, from his thesis on the Atlantic trade of Seville to the biography of Charles V, which was published in 2000 in collaboration with Michèle Escamilla.

17François Chevalier
THE CASA DE VELÁZQUEZ: A CENTRE FOR TRAINING AND DISSEMINATION OF FRENCH RESEARCH (I)
In this article, François Chevalier, director of the Casa de Velázquez from 1967 to 1979, describes his main goals as director: enlargement of the institution’s scope to take in other fields of research (economics, sociology) and the introduction of more up-to-date methods (information technology). A good example of the results of his policy was the creation of a cross-disciplinary group in Seville to examine the problems of Southern Spain. Annexed to the article is a detailed summary by Antonio Miguel Bernal of the results of the research carried on by the group in Seville.

18Didier Ozanam
THE CASA DE VELÁZQUEZ: A CENTRE FOR TRAINING AND DISSEMINATION OF FRENCH RESEARCH (II)
Didier Ozanam gives an overall view of his three sojourns at the Casa de Velázquez (1947-1950, 1963-1969, 1979-1988), first as a scholar, later as general secretary and finally as director. He provides an account of the current state of relations between Spanish and French scientists, how they have developed and the catalysing role that the Casa is called upon to play in connection with its own remit (organization of conferences, collective research, publications) and with the scientific input of its members.

19Joseph Pérez
THE CASA DE VELÁZQUEZ FROM 1989 TO 1996
Joseph Pérez was director of Casa de Velázquez at a time of renewal marked by a major change in the law relating to university organization (Savary Act of 1984, which altered the French doctorate system). One of the products of the new legal framework was the approval of a new statute for the Casa de Velázquez. The main achievements of Joseph Pérez’s directorship were stricter selection of members, reinforced cooperation with Spanish scientific institutions, more frequent scientific conferences, definition of an editorial policy and the modernization of facilities.

20Miguel Ángel Ladero Quesada
TRENDS AND GENERATIONS. A CRITICAD APPRAISAL: THE MIDDLE AGES
M, Á. Ladero Quesada offers a personal appraisal of his relations with French historiography from his years as a student at Valladolid to his appointment to a chair at the Universidad Complutense in Madrid, although he does not see them as standard for a whole generation of Spanish historians. While stressing the beneficial influence of the works of Lucien Febvre, Marcel Bataillon, Fernand Braudel and Pierre Vilar on the regeneration of historiography in Spain, Ladero Quesada recalls that this influence was mediated by the research in progress and the foci of interest of the Spanish scientific community –which also explains the role and influence of other schools of historiography. With that qualification, Ladero Quesada reviews the analytical and documentary achievements of Spanish and French researchers, which happily expanded the fund of knowledge about Spain’s mediaeval past. Such positive results should not be allowed to obscure the crisis currently affecting historical science in a culture where the speculative and the literary is progressively giving way to the intuitive and the visual. In this critical context, collaboration between historians of both nations is more imperative than ever.

21Pablo Fernández Albadalejo.
«ET EGO IN ARCADIA»
In the 1970s, French historiography brought to modern historians in Spain a new methodology and a change in focus which jarred with the Franco regime’s official vision of «Imperial Spain». While there is no denying the importance of Jaime Vicens Vives as a promoter of historiographic renewal in Spain, the French influence was decisive on two fronts: dissemination of the works of Pierre Vilar and Fernand Braudel, and a new approach to the history of Spain espoused by a rising generation of students. This turned the focus to the «history of the vanquished», while the metaphysical inspiration behind official history gradually disappeared. The
Annales school furnished an example and a method with which research students were able to develop a fresh new approach to modern Spanish history.

22Jordi Canal
ADMONITIONS, MYTHS AND CRISES. REFLECTIONS ON FRENCH INFLUENCE ON CONTEMPORARY SPANISH HISTORIOGRAPHY AT THE CLOSE OF THE 20TH CENTURY
As a young historian, Jordi Canal presents his personal reflections rather than claiming to speak for his generation. He began his career as a historian at a time when the French influence in the field of contemporary history was waning. He identifies three principal factors in this decline –the vigour of the Anglo-Saxon school with such personalities as Raymond Carr, the consequences of the Marxist critique of the
Annales school, and the democratic transition in Spain. Other factors include the problem of translations and circulation of information in the Spanish university System. However, in Catalonia especially, the dissemination of the work of Pierre Vilar promises more hope for the future. At all events, he argues, there is a current of Marxist-inspired sectarianism that needs to be addressed if we are to overcome the ambiguities and weaknesses of historiographic debate in Spain.

23Julio Aróstegui
THE THEORY OF HISTORY IN FRANCE AND ITS INFLUENCE ON SPANISH HISTORIOGRAPHY
Spanish historiography has been influenced by the French, German and Anglo-Saxon schools, and the chronology of each of these influences can be traced. The theory of history –a term introduced by the French– refers to the capacity of historians to theorize about their science and praxis. Few historians have theorized in Spain apart from the Marxists. Any theory of history is much more a theory of society and social sciences than a discourse on historical method. Nevertheless, there are authors whose works address the theoretical construction of history and reflect external influences but are original contributions for all that. Julio Aróstegui invites us to read the works of three historians who are all landmarks in Spanish historiography: Rafael Altamira (1866-1951), Jaime Vicens Vives (1910-1960) and Manuel Tuñón de Lara (1915-1997).

24Juan-Sisinio Pérez Garzón
THE HISTORIAN IN SPAIN: CIRCUMSTANCES AND TRIBULATIONS OF A PROFESSION
In both France and Spain, the emergence of socio-cultural conditions necessary for the existence of historians was a direct consequence of the entrenchment of the liberal State in the 19th century. In Spain, developments were very much influenced by political swings in the 19th century and by the determination of historians to define a Spanish identity at all costs. The intellectual drain of exile post-1939 brought the historiographic renewal of the first third of the 20th century to a drastic halt. It was not until the 1970s that some isolated figures, struggling to throw off the intellectual oppression of the dictatorship, succeeded in providing fresh impetus to historical science. Today, historians and teachers of history work in a context of mass access to university education and modernization of secondary education. The absence of theoretical debate, the subjection of the teaching profession to rules and regulations and the compartmentalization of specialities and historical periods, all combine to stifle a free and untrammelled examination of the challenges facing historical praxis. Without a thoroughgoing reform of these conditions, all more or less implicit, Spanish historians today will be unable to address the demands of the new Spanish society.

25François Bédarida
THE HISTORIAN IN FRANCE
Backed up by unquestioned prestige, French historians know that it is their duty to contribute to a definition of the national identity. The privileged position of historians in the national debate is born of a dual tradition originating in the 19th century. The «revolution» of the Annales helped to define the place of historical science in intellectual debate; but paradoxically, this dominant position coincided with a decline in the social status of historians. Today, the status of the historian is again in flux under the pressure of contemporary history and the changes of perception in the French historical memory with the passage of time: the historian is apparently required to be a «régisseur du temps», an expert in social issues, a disinterested scholar and a guardian of the collective memory. The role may change in response to the sensibilities and the discourse of the protagonists of society, but it is still essential. The role assigned to the historian depends on our own relationship with the past.

© Casa de Velázquez, 2002

Conditions d’utilisation : http://www.openedition.org/6540

Cette publication numérique est issue d’un traitement automatique par reconnaissance optique de caractères.