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Judíos y musulmanes en al-Andalus y el Magreb

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Maribel Fierro

Abstracts

Texte intégral

1David J. Wasserstein
Languages and Frontiers between Jews and Arabs in al-Andalus
I stress two themes in this paper: first, the fact of language change among the Jews of Iberia; and second, the specific choices of language that they made when changing language. They adopted Arabic, as being the new dominant language, politically, socially and culturally, in the Peninsula; but alongside it, and in this like Jews elsewhere in the Islamic world, they revived and adopted also Aramaic and Hebrew. On the one hand, via language change, they sought with considerable success to create for themselves a space to occupy in the world created by Islam; on the other, via language choice, they sought to set out the frontiers and to delimit the nature of that space, to set it off as an integral but distinct part of the world of Islam.

2Ross Brann
Reflections on Arabic and the Literary Identity of the Jews of al-Andalus
This essay attempts to re-conceptualize aspects of the cultural universe of Andalusi Jewish literary intellectuals. It questions the methods and terms with which scholars engage a critical manifestation of our subject across the disciplines: the arabization of the Jews of al-Andalus and its implication for their literary history and cultural identity. Asserting that the Jews’spoken language cannot be isolated from the world of culture within which it is situated, I refer to four types of evidence: Arabic works by Jews directed to a general audience; reports of «close cultural encounters» among Jews and Muslims in al-Andalus; Jewish literary activity conducted in Arabic; and most significantly, the internalization of Arabo-Islamic paradigms in the articulation of Andalusi Jewish culture. Rather than viewing thejews’ arabization as a sign of external influence or assimilation, the essay suggests it can be taken as evidence of a certain cultural convergence within Andalusi society.

3Ángel Sáenz-Badillos
Intellectual Contact between Muslims and Jews: Grammar and Exegesis
This article examines, from the standpoint of a Hebrew scholar, the parallels and contacts which arose during Middle Ages in the intellectual activities of Muslims and Jews in the fields of philology and exegesis, two disciplines which were closely linked from their very beginnings. There is a parallel analysis of the origins of these sciences in either community, highlighting the points of coincidence and the peculiarities of each one. Particular attention is devoted to ideas about the origin and nature of language, the intellectual contacts between Jewish and Muslim linguists in East and West, and the points of view on linguistics developed by each group. Attention is also drawn to the similarity of the Jewish and Muslim approaches to the study of holy writings, from the fixing of the text and the development of hermeneutical rules, to the use of various types of exegesis. The article closes with an examination of the knowledge that either community had of the other’s holy writings. Bibliography on this question.

4Esperanza Alfonso
The Bounds of Knowledge. The Reaction of Jewish Intellectuals to Culture of Islamic Origin
One of the main characteristics of Hebrew literature written in al-Andalus is its capacity for adopting and adapting the cultural Arabic-Islamic models with which it is in contact. This article analyzes cases in which the Judeo-Andalusi literary system reacts towards knowledge borrowed from the majority’s culture, the nature of these reactions, and the contexts and times in which they emerge.

5Raymond P. Schleindlin
Old Age in Hebrew and Arabic Zuhd Poetry
Although the Hebrew poetry of al-Andalus was largely modeled after Arabic poetry, it developed a distinctive character of its own. This paper studies the differences in the treatment of the theme of old age in Arabic and Hebrew zuhd poetry by comparing the works of two medieval Granadine poets: Arabic poems by Abū Isḥāq al-Ilbīrī and Hebrew poems by Moses ibn Ezra.The differences in tone and message are shown to result from the different cultural backgrounds of the poets. The Arabic poetry is shown to be firmly grounded in Islamic pietism, while the Hebrew poetry, though drawing on the same language and imagery, reflects a neoplatonic outlook quite foreign to Islamic zuhd poetry.

6Joseph Sadan
A Jewish Intellectual at the Confluence of Two Cultures. Yehūda al- Ḥarīzī and his Arabic Biography
In all of mediaeval al-Andalus one can find no more than two or three Jewish poets who wrote in Arabic. All the more astonishing, then, is the case of Yehūda al-Ḥarīzī, a Jewish poet born in Christian Spain who became famous throughout the eastern Arab world (Mašriq) for his poems in Arabic. In the light of information deriving from a little-known Arabic biography of al-Ḥarīzī, this article questions some aspects of the life of the poet, considers the last years of his life in the Mašriq and examines his relationships with the various cultural spheres with which he was in contact. Reflecting as it does the judgments of Arab contemporaries of al-Ḥarīzī, this biography prompts a fresh look at past critical views of his poems in Arabic. The article includes the original text of the biography and a French translation.

7Sarah Stroumsa
Between Ḥarran and al-Maghreb. The Maimonist Theory of the History of Religions and its Arab Sources
Born a Jew in the Maghreb and spending most of his life in Egypt, Moses Maimonides (d. 1204) lived in a time of outstanding intellectual splendour, and his thought should therefore be analysed within that context. In several of his writings Maimonides uses the Shebans (a generic term that he used in his works to refer to ancient pagans) as exemplars to explain the biblical laws, a totally original approach to the history of religious ideas. This article examines the various sources in circulation in the Maghrib at the time, which Maimonides could have used to develop his ideas about the nature of pagan religions and the role that they played in the history of Judaism.

8Dominique Urvoy
Ibn aldūn and the Notion of Alteration of Biblical Texts
Ibn Ḫaldūn occupies an ambiguous place in the history of Muslim interpretation of the Koran’s accusation that Jews and Christians altered the revealed texts. I le does not subscribe entirely to the maximalist view that they «altered the actual texts»; but he only excuses the Jews –to whom he was closer for personal reasons– to further blacken the Christians. Again, although his doctrinal writings seem to accept the minimalist view that «the meaning of the texts was altered» and hence that the texts themselves were authentic, he only does so insofar as they are historical documents, deliberately ignoring their religious import. Despite his reputation for independence of spirit, his thoughts on this subject are guided by the specific rhetoric of the polemic verses of the Koran.

9Camilla Adarng
A Jewish Reply to Ibn Ḥazm. Solomon b. Adret’s Polemic against Islam
This article deals with, and presents sections from a tract written by the Barcelonan rabbi, Ibn Adret (d. 1310), in refutation of the arguments that had been raised more than two hundred years earlier by the famous Andalusi writer, Ibn Ḥazm (d. 1064), against Judaism in general, and against the Torah in particular. Ibn Adret’s intended readers were either Jews living under Muslim rule, or Jewish rationalists to whom the Muslim writer’s criticism of the Hebrew Bible might have appealed.

10Mercedes García-Arenal
Jewish Messianic Movements in the Era of the Mahdi-s
This article describes a number of Jewish messianic movements which arose during the 12th century at the same rime as equally messianic Muslim movements opposed to the Almoravids, culminating with the mahdī Ibn Tūmart. The author proposes that these Muslim movements of rebellion in the name of a mahdī were inspired by and closely tied to Sufism and the cult to the figure of the Prophet Muhammad. Sufism in these centuries, which shared ismā‘īlī views and concepts, provided a field of Muslim/Jewish symbiosis which helped inspire the apocalyptic trends in both faiths.

© Casa de Velázquez, 2002

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