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La historia alfonsí: el modelo y sus destinos (siglos xiii-xv)

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Georges Martin

Summaries

Texte intégral

1Georges Martin

2The Alfonsine Historiographic Model and its Background

3The Alfonsine political vision, with its Christian and Romanist precepts reorganised in the light of Neoaristotelianism, introduced not only a new epistemological concept of history, complete with attendant goals and communicative resources (intentio), but also a way of thinking about, evaluating and approaching the recording of history (inventio), and ultimately a semantic and expositive organisation of the subject (dispositio).

4Inés Fernández-Ordóñez

5Variation in the Alfonsine Historiographic Model in the 13th Century. The Versions of the Estoria de España

6The Estoria de España commissioned by Alfonso X around 1270 was completely redrafted around 1283, at his personal command, in a new version known as the Versión crítica. Ideologically, this redraft is a radical departure from the original in its persistent affirmation of the power of the monarch, in its rejection of any compromise with the estates and in its opposition to Portuguese sovereignty and the interests of the diocese of Santiago. The two Alfonsine versions of the Estoria de España defend the same political model of absolute monarchy (if more extreme in the second version); however, in 1289, in the reign of Sancho IV, there was a new, ostensibly rhetorical redraft which defended the co-responsibility of monarchy and estates in the governance of the kingdom in ideological terms. The variations in the Alfonsine versions of the Estoria de España should be viewed as they relate to the variation in writings belonging to the corpus juris (Fuero real, Espéculo, Siete partidas and Setenario) and should be interpreted as a direct outcome of the monarch's personal and political development.

7Diego Catalán

8Aristocràtic Monarchy and the Manipulation of Sources: Rodrigo in the Crónica de Castilla. The End of the Alfonsine Historiographic Model

9The study of the complex textual tradition of the Estoria de España of Alfonso X has recently given rise to a new, more solidly-based assessment of the History as a narrative that profoundly influences the interpretation of related historical texts. However, a painstaking review of the body of historiographic material generated within that textual tradition comes up against special difficulties when faced with the task of understanding the Crónica de Castilla, for here there is a confluence of revolutionary reforms from various sources. This paper presents hypotheses and conclusions which are quite new. As part of a study currently in progress, it examines the way in which the chronicler manipulated the information derived from two gestas — Las particiones del rey don Fernando and Mocedades de Rodrigo.

10Fernando Gómez Redondo

11From General Chronicle to Royal Chronicle. Ideological Changes in Crónica de Tres Reyes

12This article analyses the process of construction of the royal chronicle in response to the ideological changes that took place in the latter years of the reign of Alfonso X and which influenced the drafting of the Estoria de España itself. The key formal and thematic elements that went to build up the generic model of the royal chronicle are in fact all present in the first general chronicle, and all the narrative pieces of that model are compiled as a continuation of the web of events comprising the chronicle of Alfonso. The main difference lies in the fact that the Estoria de España is a compilation of the thought of the King in chronicle form; its successors, on the other hand, are presented as works of the historian's craft, which means that they interpret the ideology of the monarch and hence make judgements about the events that they relate. This explains the contradictions arising in the transition from the Crónica de Alfonso X to the Crónica de Sancho IV, and also the reason why the full authority of Alfonso XI had to be re-established in order to lay down a historical narrative that properly reflected his kingly power. Ferrán Sánchez de Valladolid was the craftsman chosen for this task, and hence has a fair claim to being the first master of the art to write a chronicle of his own time.

13Michel Garcia

14The Alfonsine Model in the Chronicles of Chancellor Ayala

15With the Royal Chronicle, Alfonso X had produced a model of historical writing which was taken up by his immediate successors without altering its basic premises. When Pero López de Ayala resumed the task on his own account a century after the death of Alfonso the Wise, the political circumstances had changed greatly and the original schema was in need of updating. The new chronicler successfully kept up the appearance of fidelity to the model, but in fact he introduced modifications which would call into question the concept of history prevailing up to that time. Our aim here is to define the nature and the scope of these changes, highlighting a number of essential aspects inherited from the Alfonsine tradition.

16Jean-Pierre Jardin

17The Alfonsine Model and the Transtamaran Revolution

18The author's purpose is to examine what remained in Castile of the Alfonsine historical model in the wake of the Trastamaran revolution and the change of dynasty in the 14th century. This is based on a global study of the summaries of general chronicles, a product of the 15th century. The study provides the first precise definition of the corpus of these texts. It then goes on to show how, starting with the Alfonsine chronicles and using the same method as Alfonso the Wise and his collaborators, the authors of these summaries (who are anything but anonymous) strove to serve the new masters of Castile by adapting this legacy of by then remote times to a new ideology that favoured the nobles and their values. Thus, the Alfonsine historiographic corpus was saved in body, but not in spirit.

© Casa de Velázquez, 2000

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