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Os caminhos-de-ferro de Sul e Sueste e o relatório do engenheiro C. F. White (1868)

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Hugo Silveira Pereira

O relatório de C. F. White

A description of the line and works of the South Eastern Railway of Portugal as far as executed, By m. C. White, M. I. C. E.

Note de l’éditeur

Versão original

Texte intégral

1When it is considered how prosperous Portugal was when her first King Dom Affonso Henrique [sic] ascended the throne in the year 1139, the lofty position she held in the fifteenth century when Vasco da Gama set out from Lisbon to astonish the civilized world on his return by his successful discovery of a passage to India by the Cape of Good Hope, her contained brilliancy until ambition prompted that fatal step, the acquisition of the Brazils, the point in her history whence her downfall dates, and her position among Nations at the present day, material for reflection of the most interesting and instructive character is furnished.

2While other nations with few exceptions have continued to progress in the attainment of wealth and importance, Portugal has on the other hand palpably receded.

3The extension of Railways upon the Continent of Europe has done much for the countries composing it, where they have been judiciously laid out and administered, but even in this respect Portugal is behind hand, and it is only lately she has become alive to the importance of the introduction of an improved system of Locomotion within her Realms.

4The progress of the Railways of Portugal is calculated to prove especially interesting to the English Nation, so large an amount of English Capital being invested in them, a circumstance which perhaps has not a parallel elsewhere upon the continent.

5Still, notwithstanding the facility with which English Capital has generally found its way into Portugal, and the field there has been of late years for its employment in the construction of Railways, it is somewhat strange to observe how small a proportion the mileage of Railways in Portugal bears to its superficial area when compared with other Countries of Europe.

6For instance at the present day there are

Square miles

Miles of Railway

In

France

200,270

6,731

Spain

176,627

2,300

Italy

68,671

2,387

Prussia

152,000

5,625

Austria

245,300

3,400

Portugal

40,876

487

7Still it is gratifying to think that a commencement has been made in Portugal and that her Government has it in contemplation to extend the Railway system materially, provided adequate foreign Capital is forthcoming for the purpose.

8The existing Railways of Portugal, the gauge of which 5’ 6’’ are two in number, the Northern and Eastern being the first in importance. This Railway leaves the right bank of the Tagus at Lisbon and proceeds easterly to Badajos [sic] on the frontier of Spain, a distance of 282 Kilometres, with a ramification to Oporto leaving the main line at a point 107 Kilometres from Lisbon on the Badajos [sic] line from the junction to Oporto the distance is 226 Kilometres, thus the whole Northern Eastern system measures 508 Kilometres, the works of art being constructed for a double line of Rails while the Earthworks are at present taken out but for a single track.

  • 1 Não encontramos o mapa, nem os outros desenhos mencionados à frente.

9The direction of this line is indicated upon the Map of Portugal accompanying this paper and is distinguished thereon by a single black line1.

10The only other Portuguese Railway at present constructed is the South Eastern, of which this paper is intended particularly to treat.

11The metropolitan terminus of the South Eastern Railway is situated at Barreiro, a point in the left Bank of the Tagus opposite Lisbon, the communication between it and Lisbon being effected by Steamers belonging to the Railway Company.

12After leaving Barreiro, the South Eastern Railway proceeds easterly to a point called Casa Branca, a distance of 90 Kilometres from Barreiro, when it divides into two lines, one containing its course to Beja 64 Kilometres from Casa Branca and the other proceeding easterly to the City of Evora, situated 26 Kilometres from Casa Branca, to this distance of 180 Kilometres has to be added 13 Kilometres, the length of the Branch to Setubal, which leaves the main line at 15 Kilometres from Barreiro, making the whole system equal in length to 193 Kilometres, the direction of this Railway is also shown upon the Map of Portugal and is distinguished by a double black line.

13Before proceeding to a more detailed description of the line and works of the South Eastern Railway, a brief account of the manner in which it came into existence is necessary, it having been made in sections at different periods under different companies, and it is but lately the whole became amalgamated under one management.

14In the year 1854 when the Government of Portugal conceded to what was termed a National Company, the privilege of constructing a Railway from Barreiro to Vendas Novas a point in the province of Portugal termed the Alentejo, a distance of 57 Kilometres, with a Branch to Setubal of 13 Kilometres more.

15By the terms of the concession the state granted this Company a subsidy of £1,755 per Kilometre, the supply from the Government Forests of all Timber required for the construction of the Railway gratis, the importation free of duty of all material not procurable in Portugal, together with exemption from all taxation municipal and general for a term of 99 years, at the same time requiring the Company to construct a single line of Railway of the most simple character only, stipulating however that the minimum radius of curves should exceed 300 metres while the maximum rate of gradients was not to be greater than 1 in 150.

16The weight of the Rails to be used was laid down to be not less than 60 lbs. per yard, and the gauge was to be 4’ 8 ½’’ in width.

17Under these circumstances this line through a country extremely favourable for its construction, was accomplished, and opened for public traffic in 1859 at a cost per kilometre slightly in excess of the subsidy.

18In the year 1861 the Government of Portugal purchased the South or Barreiro and Vendas Novas Railway with its Branch to Setubal from the then Proprietors (Portuguese) paying for it with its Rolling Stock £208,829 or £2,984 per Kilometre nearly, and it continued to be maintained and worked by the Government from the period of its purchase until 1864.

  • 2 Na verdade, South Eastern of Portugal Railway Company.

19In the year 1860 an English Company styling itself the South Eastern Railway Company of Portugal2 applied to the Government for a concession, and obtained one, to make a Railway from Vendas Novas the provincial terminus of the South Railway to Evora and Beja to be called the South Eastern Railway of Portugal.

20The conditions upon which the South Eastern Railway was to be constructed were mainly similar to those imposed upon the South Railway Company, with the difference that the gauge was to be 5’ 6’’ instead of 4’ 8 ½’’, the minimum radius of curves 500 metres and the maximum gradient 1 in 100, the State at the same time granting the Company a subsidy of £3,555 per Kilometre payable upon each individual Kilometre as completed.

21The Works on this line were carried out by an English Contractor and the Railway was opened for public traffic in 1863. The Contractor having been paid for constructing the line and stocking it at the rate of £5,326 per Kilometre, the amount required by the Company for this purpose beyond the subsidy being with the sanction of the Government raised by bonds in the English market, and so formed the Capital of the Company.

22In 1864 the Government desirous of being relieved of the working of the South Railway, disposed of it to the South Eastern Company with all its fixed and rolling Stock, for the sum of £224,000 or at the rate of £3,200 per Kilometre, the South Eastern Company undertaking to widen the gauge of the South Railway to the width of their own viz. 5’ 6’’, to relay it with Vignoles Rails, weighing 75 lbs. per yard and to new[?] Sleeper it throughout, the gauge of the Setubal Branch being relayed to the same width with the Rails then existing there, but without new Sleepers.

23The South Eastern Company also undertook upon certain conditions to extend their system from Evora to Estremoz & Crato, and from Beja to the Guadiana River in one direction and from Beja to Faro in another, these extensions which have been commenced at points, are shown upon the general Map of Portugal and are distinguished thereon by red lines.

24These several engagements in the part of the South Eastern Railway Company having been duly ratified by the Government, the South Railway became incorporated with the South Eastern, and the whole in the year 1864 became one system – denominated the South Eastern Railway of Portugal.

25A brief account having thus been given of how the South Eastern Railway came into existence, it is now proposed to proceed to a description of the line and works upon it, and for the convenience of reference it is intended to divide the Railway into two Sections.

26That from Barreiro to Vendas Novas with the Branch to Setubal being one, and that from Vendas Novas to Evora and Beja being the other.

27On the tracée [sic] of the Railway which accompanies this paper, are shown the Contour lines of the Country through which this Railway passes, and the Sections into which it is divided are distinguished by letters.

28The first section being considered as AB & the second as BCDE.

29To proceed then to a description of the first section, AB.

30The principal work of magnitude upon this Section is the terminal Station of Barreiro, a building both large and imposing in appearance, in the centre are the platforms and lines of Rails, and upon either side are Sheds, the one on the North side, as will be observed from the ground plan No. 3 of this building being used as a fitting and Machine Shop, while that on the South side is employed as a running Engine Shed.

31The central portion of the Station is covered by a noble Iron Roof with a clear span of 104 feet, the trusses being placed 12 feet apart, while the the [sic] side building are roofed by extremely light and somewhat elegant Timber trusses placed 12 feet asunder, with a clear span of 58 feet. The Roof in the centre is covered with corrugated Iron, but the side buildings are roofed with Tiles laid upon planking previously bolted down to the trusses. The Rooms at the West end of the building being used as Offices and waiting Rooms for passengers.

32Detailed drawings of these trusses (Nos.: 4 & 5) accompanying this paper.

33The Station yard at Barreiro is laid out with every convenience for the efficient working of the line, and practice has proved it to be in every way suited to the requirements of the traffic, a plan No. 6 of the Station yard as at present arranged accompanies this paper and embraces the property of the Company situated between the first level crossing beyond the Station and the commencement of the Timber Pier on the river side, where passengers embark on board the Steamers on their way to Lisbon, and disembark no their arrival at Barreiro.

34On leaving Barreiro the direction of the line may be followed by a reference to the contour tracée, curves occuring [sic] at intervals where the direction of the Railway changes, and the section which is shown below the tracée furnishes the means of ascertaining the frequency of the change of gradient.

35The following tables give the number and length of gradients and curves upon the first or Vendas Novas and Setubal Section of the South Eastern Railway, and from which it will appear, that of the 70 Kilometres of which this Section consists, there are 63 Kilometres of Railway on inclinations ranging from 1 in 200 to 1 in 1000, leaving 7 Kilometres only of level line.

36The table of curves shows, that of the 70 Kilometres, 11 are on curves ranging in radius from 500 to 3000 metres, while 59 Kilometres are straight.

Table of gradients from Barreiro to Vendas Novas with the Setubal Branch

From

To

Length of Inclination

Kilometres

Metres

1 in 100

1 in 200

35

12

1 in 200

1 in 300

14

85

1 in 300

1 in 400

3

93

1 in 400

1 in 500

8

15

1 in 500

1 in 1000

95

63

00

Table of curves upon the first Section of the line situated between Barreiro & Vendas Novas & Setubal

From

To

Length of Curves

Metres

Metres

Metres

0

500

149.00

500

1000

2623.72

1000

2000

5513.66

2000

3000

2713.62

Total length of Curves

11,000.00

37The soil throughout the first Section of the South Eastern Railway is wholly of sand, thereby rendering the construction of the line extremely easy, while the same material answered as ballast thus relieving the projectors from an expense which in England has not infrequently turned the scale, by rendering a contract unremunerative [sic], while the presence of ballast might have made the same undertaking an eminently successful speculation.

38Upon the Setubal branch of this section a free red sand stone is occasionally met with well suited for building purposes, but as it only occurred in isolated position its presence offered no real obstacle to the carrying out the undertaking, while it proved useful in the construction of those works of art situated in its vicinity.

39There was however a great scarcity of building material generally on the South Railway, thus necessitating the rise in frequent instances of Iron Tubing for Culverts and Drains.

40The following is a statement of the whole of the Culverts and Drains upon the first or Barreiro, Vendas Novas and Setubal section of the South Eastern Railway illustrated by drawing No. 7.

41Round Iron Tubing

18 Tubes 2 feet in diameter

1 “ 3 “ “ “

2 “ 3’ “ 6’’ “ “

42Brick & Rubble Culverts

6 Semicircular [sic] Culverts 2 feet wide

1 “ “ 2’6’’ “

1 “ “ 3 feet “

2 “ “ 5 “ “

3 Square Drains 2 “ “

5 “ 2’6’’ “

2 “ 3 feet “

3 Square Drains 3 feet 6’’ wide

2 Cattle Arches 13 “ “

43The permanent way with which that portion of line situated between Barreiro and Vendas Novas is laid, is similar to that shown upon Plan no. 8, submitted with this paper. The Rails as already observed are of the form known as Vignoles, 5 inches in height, with a bottom flange of 4 ½ inches in width. They are 24 feet in length; fishplated [sic] at either end with plates 1 foot 6 inches in length each, and 3 ¼ inches in depth, secured to the Rails with four one inch bolts and nuts.

44Each pair of Rails is supported by eight Sleepers semicircular [sic] in shape, measuring each 9 feet x 9 inches x 4 ½ inches, and placed 3 feet 1 inch apart, leaving 1 foot 3 inches between the centre of the last Sleeper and the end of the Rail, the Rails are secured to the Sleepers by square dog bolts 6 inches long and ½ an inch square, except at the ends of the Rails, and at the two middle Sleepers, where the Rails are secured by bolts passing through the Sleeper and tightened by a flanged washer at the under side, the fang bolts being 4 ½ inches long by 5/8 of an inch in diameter.

45The Sleepers employed in this road are of Baltic Timber prepared with sulphate of Copper, but as they have only been in use for three years no opinion can be here expressed upon their probable durability.

46Although this kind of permanent way is extensively used in Spain, and would seem from its comparative simplicity to recommend itself for adoption upon Railways with light traffic, and not the best workmen, the author feels called upon to condemn it as unfit for traffic of the most ordinary character unless greater expense than would be justifiable were gone to in laying it thus bringing it up very nearly to the price of a Chair Road.

47It has been found in the present case that with fang bolts at the ends, and in the centre of each Rail only, the road is very liable to, and does get out of gauge to an alarming extent, although the trains are not heavy, and the speed of them does not exceed 20 miles an hour under ordinary circumstances.

48The only way to remedy this defect appears to be, either to increase the number of fang bolts, which however are not altogether the best mode of fastening or to drill the flanges of the Rails, substituting twisted square spikes 6 inches in length for the Dogs, an arrangement which is about to be adopted experimentally and introduced gradually throughout the line laid with this description of permanent way, the outside Rail of all Curves being first dealt with the dogs being very carefully watched in the mean time, and the road frequently gauged.

49The cost of laying 57 Kilometres from Barreiro to Vendas Novas with this description of permanent way was as follows:

Rails 4242 tons @ 9:0:0 pr. Ton

38,178

Sleepers 63,360 @ 2:6 e@

7,920

Spikes

1,818

Labour

1,584

£ 49,500

or £865 per Kilometre.

50As already stated The Setubal Branch, forming a part of this section was, when the gauge was widened from 4 feet 8 ½ inches to 5 feet 6 inches, relaid [sic] with the old material, new Sleepers only, 9 feet long x 9’’ x 6’’ being introduced.

51The Rails here weigh 60 lbs. per yard, and are 18 feet in length, and 5 inches in height, secured in cast Iron Chairs with wooden Kegs, the Chairs weighing 20 lbs. each, and are affixed to the Sleepers with round Iron Spikes, the ends of the Rails being confined by a double fish plate going from one side of the Rail to the other, of wrought Iron 12 inches long, fastened to the Rails by one one inch fish plate bolt only, in each Rail end.

52A drawing No. 9 of this permanent way is submitted with this paper showing the fish plate [sic] to a larger scale.

53The only peculiarity of this description of way is the fish plate, which is quite new to the author, and would appear in its present form to be of little use beyond keeping the ends of the Rails from passing, or fouling each other.

54There are but eight miles of this description of road on the South Eastern Railway and as the trains are few and light upon the Setubal Branch, where it exists, it answers every present practical purpose, without proving extraordinarily costly to maintain.

55Since the author has had charge of this Railway he has caused a long joint Key as it were, to be inserted within these wrought Iron double fish plates below, for the Rails to rest upon, and at the same time prevent them, owing to the existence of one fish plate bolt only at either end, from working vertically as they did previous to the use of the Key.

56The Sleepers with which the Branch was relaid on the widening of the gauge, were of pine wood, procured from the neighbouring Forests in the country and were of the best quality for that description of Timber, but unprepared by any chemical process.

57The reckless manner in which Timber has been cut down in Portugal during the last few years has had the effect of rendering good and large Timber exceedingly scarce, and when a large quantity is required it frequently proves less expensive to import it, than to procure it on the spot, land carriage from the absence of roads being costly in the extreme, short lengths such as Sleepers are however still procurable at from 2s/0 to 3s/0 each.

58The expense incurred in widening the gauge of the Setubal Branch of the first section of the South Eastern Railway with the existing Material, but with new Sleepers, and replacing throughout the 13 Kilometres or 8 miles, the chairs broken during the process of taking up the old line, was as follows.

Sleepers 14,080 @ 3s/0 e@

£ 2112

Spikes & Chairs

1108

Labour per yard @ -/6d

352

£ 3,572

or £ 446 per mile.

59It has been observed that when the Government sold the South Railway to the South Eastern Company, the fixed and rolling Stock passed simultaneously to the South Eastern Company with the line.

  • 3 Refere-se à bitola de 1.44 m, mais estreita que a adotada posteriormente (de 1.67 m). Não confundir (...)

60The whole of this Stock has lately been carefully valued and the tables which will be met with presently give in detail the number of each class of vehicle, as also the particulars of the narrow gauge3 Locomotive Stock as taken over, with the value placed upon it.

61With the widening of the gauge of the South line, or first section of the South Eastern Railway, the rolling stock had also to be increased in width, by arrangement with the Government, and this change has already been effected as regards six of the seven Engines given in the annexed return of Locomotive Stock, but the widening of the Carriages and Waggons is not yet completed, a few Vehicles only having been so treated, there having been sufficient rolling stock on the South Eastern Railway for all purposes when the gauge of the two lines were assimilated.

62The six Engines alluded to were widened by the addition of near Axles, and Axle Boxes, and by slight alterations in the frames at an average cost each of £ 193, the value of the Material being precisely the same in each case, there having been a slight difference only in the cost of labour when taking one Engine with another.

63The following table then, furnishes the particulars of the Locomotive Stock on the South Railway when sold to the South Eastern Company by the Government of Portugal, with its value.

Particulars and value of South line Locomotive Stock

Nos.

Names

Description

Maker’s Name

Size of Cylinder

Stroke

Size of Driving Wheel

Value

Total

Inches

Inches

Feet

£

s

d

£

s

d

1

Barreiro

4 Wheels coupled outside Cylinders

Railway Foundry Leeds

14

18

5

1,060

2

Vendas Novas

4 Wheels coupled outside Cylinders

Railway Foundry Leeds

14

18

5

1,080

3

Setubal

4 Wheels coupled inside Cylinders

Sharp Roberts & Co.

14

21

5

500

4

Elvas

4 Wheels coupled outside Cylinders

Railway Foundry Leeds

14

18

5

1,100

5

Beja

4 Wheels coupled

Railway Foundry Leeds

14

18

5

1,100

6

Badajoz

4 Wheels coupled

Railway Foundry Leeds

14

18

5

1,050

7

Evora

4 Wheels coupled

Railway Foundry Leeds

14

18

5

1,080

£

6,970

64Drawings Nos. 10 and 10A, which are submitted with this paper represent one of the six tank Engines purchased from the South Company, and particularized in the foregoing table.

65In consequence of the size of their Cylinders, 14 inches, and their limited water capacity, these Engines are not adapted to heavy trains, they however prove exceedingly useful for Branch lines and special trains, and for these purposes they are retained, and their employment in that manner admits of considerable economy in working while they are not so detrimental to the permanent way as the larger Engines would be.

66They are moreover exceedingly well proportioned and cost comparatively little to maintain, while they are capable of moving a greater load in proportion to the size of their Cylinders than the larger Engines are, a circumstance the author attributes to their perfection of design, they have a Wheel base of 14 feet, while their Boilers are 10’ 6’’ in length with a heating surface of 734 square feet.

67The annexed table gives the number, character, and value of the Carriages & Waggons, originally, the property of the South Railway Company now in course of alteration from the narrow to the broader gauge.

Description and value of Carriage and Waggon Stock on the South line section of the South Eastern Railway

No.

of each class

Description

Value

[1]

Royal Saloon

800

3

First class Carriages

1,050

3

Composite 1st & 2nd Classes

960

2

Composite 1st 2nd & 3rd

600

4

Second class Carriages

1,120

10

Third “ “

2,000

2

Passenger Break Vans

360

5

Goods “ “

1,000

14

Cattle Trucks

1,680

12

Horse or Cattle Waggons

1,320

23

Low sided Trucks

2,300

4

Cattle Waggons

440

12

Covered “

1,680

2

Low sided Trucks

160

12

Timber “

720

9

Ballast Waggons

630

1

Third class Carriage

150

1

Powder Van

100

2

Carriage Trucks

160

68The following statement furnishes the estimated value of the South Railway 70 Kilometres in length, with the Setubal Branch, showing how very little the cost of the line must have exceeded the subsidy.

Description

Quantity

Rate

Value

Earthworks

C. metres

790,432

d

8 3 /

28,817

16

8

Masonry

3,588

s

2/-

355

16

Rails

Tons

4,149

£

9

37,341

Chairs

1,383

£

5

6,915

Sleepers

(free)

Land

(“)

Barreiro Station

111,000

Six smaller Stations

6

£

200

1,200

Engines

7

[≈ 995£]

6,970

Carriage & Waggons

17,230

£

209,829

12

8

69It is now proposed to proceed to a description of that portion of the South Eastern Railway situated between Vendas Novas Evora and Beja, forming the other or second section of this Railway, and upon which the works of the same class are similar in type & workmanship.

70After leaving Vendas Novas the South Eastern Railway pursues an easterly course, and by the aid of curves not exceeding 500 Metres in radius, and by means of gradients of a maximum inclination of 1 in 100 reaches Casa Branca Junction, where the line divides into two, one Branch as it were continuing to the City of Evora, a distance of 26 Kilometres from the point of departure, and the other running in the direction of Beja a distance from the junction of 64 Kilometres which with 33 Kilometres from Vendas Novas to Casa Branca junction, and 26 Kilometres from the same point to Evora, makes the length of this section 123 Kilometres in all.

71The following tables here inserted give the lengths of Curves and Gradients on this portion of the the [sic] South Eastern Railway; and from which it will be noticed that of 123 Kilometres 91 ¼ Kilometres are straight, the remainder being on curves of radii ranging from 500 to 5000 metres. As regards the gradients it will be seen, that of the whole 123 Kilometres there are but 20 ¾ Kilometres of line horizontal, the remaining 102 ¼ Kilometres being in gradients of from 1 in 100 to 1 in 600.

Table of curves on the second or BCDE sections of the South Eastern Railway of Portugal [sic]

From

To

Length of inclination

Metres

Metres

Kilometres

1 in 100

1 in 200

81.33

1 in 200

1 in 300

8.99

1 in 300

1 in 400

4.29

1 in 400

1 in 600

7.76

Total length of inclination

102.34

Table of gradients on the second section of the South Eastern Railway

From

To

Length of curves

Metres

Metres

Kilometres

50

500

.43

500

1.000

10.53

1.000

2.000

12.00

2.000

3.000

2.44

3.000

5.000

6.39

Total length of curves

102.34

72The character of the Soil on this section of line differs somewhat from that of the material meet with on the South Railway, being more of a Gravelly nature, while a considerable quantity of whin [sic] Stone was meet with where the cuttings were of any depth and owing to the undulations of the Country being more abrupt on this, than on the first or western section, the quantity of excavation was proportionately increased with reference to the distance, a fact which is observable from a comparison of the estimates of the two sections (of line) in the case of the first section there are 70 Kilometres with an average quantity of 11,291 Cubic Metres of Earthwork upon each, while upon the South Eastern section there was an average quantity of 12,424 Cubic Metres of Earthwork upon each of the 123 Kilometres of line, or 1,133 centimetres per Kilometre in excess of the quantity on the first section.

73The Works of Art also increase in number and magnitude upon this section, although they cannot be said to be excessive in either case.

74The following classified list contains the whole of the Works of Art situated upon this portion of the line with their dimensions, while Drawing No. 7 gives a representation of each class of work, with the exception of the Iron Bridges, one of which is shown separately upon Drawing No. 11, the quantity and value of the whole of the masonry and Iron Work upon the line being contained in the attached estimate of the cost of this section.

75Classified statement of the Works of Art upon the second section of the South Eastern Railway

6 Arched Bridges with spans varying from 10 feet to 23 feet in width

13 Wrought Iron Girder Bridges with spans varying from 20 feet to 34 feet in width

57 Arched Culverts with spans varying from 3 feet to 10 feet in width

66 Barrel Drains with spans varying from 1’ 3’’ to 4 feet

4 Double barreled [sic] Drains with spans varying from 2 feet in width

4 Open topped Drains with spans varying from 2 feet to 4 feet in width

26 Square Culverts with spans varying from 1’ 6’’ to 2’ 9’’ in width

76This line throughout is excavated, and the embankments are formed for a single pair of Rails, though the Bridges and other Works of Art are constructed to admit of the addition of a second line when such a measure may become necessary.

77The permanent Way here is constructed of double headed Rails 21 feet long each, weighing 75 lbs. per yard, supported in cast Iron chairs 22 lbs. in weight each, the Rails being secured in the Chairs in the ordinary manner by modern Keys, and the Chairs fastened to the Sleepers by one wooden Treenail and on Iron Spike.

78The Sleepers employed are rest(?)-angular in form measuring 9 feet in length by 10 inches in width and by 5 inches in depth, the material being of creosoted Mennel(?).

79A drawing of this permanent Way distinguished as No. 12 is submitted with this paper.

80The author considers that the use of Treenails for permanent Way in warm climates, is highly objectionable an opinion he has arrived at after a careful consideration of the subject both here and in India. He has found that Treenails after the age of from four to six months become extremely brittle and consequently unsafe, especially in curves, and the South Eastern Railway is, owing to this circumstance now being respiked [sic] throughout, wholly with Iron.

81The difference in thickness between that of a Treenail and of an Iron spike is provided for by the insertion of an Iron Thimble or Ferrule carefully made and filled into the Chair before driving the Spike in order to avoid the bursting of the Chair which is generally the result of the Spike and ferrule do not fit the hole in the Chair exactly.

82Platelayers as a rule are fond of Treenails, as they consider a road may be spiked more truly with them than with Iron, and this is perhaps the case, but after a line has been opened for traffic Iron Spikes cannot be employed too soon, if accidents are to be avoided, and Treenails have been originally used in the construction of the Railway.

83The chemical action of the Iron rust of the chair, produced by rain water percolating between the chair and the neck of the Treenail, produces rapid and certain decay, and the Author has frequently met with portions of line when & to all appearances the Treenails have been perfectly sound, while upon a narrow inspection of the junction between the chair and the Sleeper where the Treenail usually gives way, owing it is supposed to the action of the sharp edge of the Chair hole upon the Treenail in its partially decayed state, produced by the motion of the trains & he has found that the Chair has been merely kept in its position by the sunken seat it has made for itself in the Sleeper, and the most alarming feature in the case is that it is only by the most careful inspection that the breach in a Treenail can be discovered the outward appearance of as much of the Treenail as may be exposed leading to the supposition that it is sound throughout.

84The gauge of the second section of the South Eastern permanent Way as drawing No. 12 indicates is 5 feet 6 inches between the Rails, while the Sleepers are placed at average intervals of 3 feet 5 inches, there being six Sleepers to each pair of Rails, which are jointed by fish plates 1 foot 6 inches in length, secured to the Rails by four fish plate bolts and nuts.

85It has been already observed that this section of the South Eastern Railway was originally constructed for a fixed sum per mile, but as it may be interesting to know the exact amount of work upon the line and its detailed cost an estimate is given of the expense that attended its construction and which may be taken as a fair basis for all similar operations in Portugal.

86The following tables containing a description and the value of the rolling stock forming part of the annexed estimate is here given.

Statement of Locomotive Stock supplied to the second section of the South Eastern Railway and its value

Nos.

Names

Description

Maker’s Name

Size of Cylinder

Stroke

Size of Driving Wheel

Value

Total

[Inches]

[Inches]

[Feet]

[£]

[s]

[d]

[£]

[s]

[d]

8

Dom Luiz

Single Engine

Beyer Peacock & Co.

16

22

7

3,000

9

Ourique

4 Wheels coupled

Beyer Peacock & Co.

18

24

4.6

2,800

10

Alentejo

4 Wheels coupled

Beyer Peacock & Co.

16

22

5

2,900

11

Guadiana

4 Wheels coupled

Beyer Peacock & Co.

16

22

5

2,950

12

Tejo

4 Wheels coupled

Beyer Peacock & Co.

16

22

5

2,950

13

Loule

4 Wheels coupled

Beyer Peacock & Co.

16

22

5

2,900

14

Dona Maria Pia

4 Wheels coupled

Beyer Peacock & Co.

16

22

5

2,900

15

Algarve

4 Wheels coupled

Beyer Peacock & Co.

16

22

5

2,900

£

23,300

87And the Carriage & Waggon Stock with which the same section was supplied at its opening is detailed with its value in the annexed statement

No.

of each class

Description

Value

6

First class Carriages

3,000

6

Composite “

2,700

10

Second class “

4,200

30

Third “ “

9,000

6

Passenger Break Vans

1,920

2

Carriage Trucks

380

2

Horse Boxes

500

20

Covered goods Waggons

5,000

40

Cattle Waggons

10,000

37

High sided goods Waggons

8,880

4

Goods Break Vans

1,040

28

Coal or Mineral Trucks

6,160

43

Ballast Waggons

6,250

10

Timber Trucks

1,500

£

60,530

88The whole of this section 123 Kilometres or 77 miles long may then be taken as having cost with its Rolling Stock as follows

Description of Work

Quantity

Rate

Value

Land

Kilomts.

123

£

133

16,359

Earthwork

C. Mts

1.528,139

s

1/-

76,406

19

Masonry

C. Mts

25.512

s

2/-

2,551

4

Telegraph

Miles

77

£

50

3,850

Ironwork in Bridges

Tons

270

£

25

6,750

Ballast

361,149

d

-/11

16,552

13

3

Stations

6,500

Rails

Tons

10,000

£

9

90,000

Sleepers

149,072

s

8/-

59,628

16

Chairs

Tons

2928

£

6

17,568

Keys

271,040

d

-/1

1,129

6

8

Mugs

542,080

d

-/1

2,258

13

4

Fish Plates

Tons

436

£

15

6,540

Fencing

Miles

77

£

400

30,800

Engines

23.300

Carriages & Waggons

60,530

£

420,724

12

3

89It will be noticed from the statement of the Engines supplied to the second section of the South Eastern Railway that with the exception of one express Engine, and one Goods Engine, the other six are similar in character.

90These six Engines may be described as having four Wheels coupled with smaller trailing Wheels under the foot plate, Cylinders of 16 inches in diameter with 5 feet driving Wheels, a heating surface of 1140 square feet, Boilers 11 feet long & with a Wheel base of 14 feet 6 inches.

91The Tenders attached are of the ordinary character and are supported by three pairs of Wheels each 3 feet 9 inches in diameter and the Water they are each capable of carrying equals 1,600 Gallons.

92Without in anyway intending to depreciate the design of these Engines shown on Drawing No. 13 which for ordinary Railway purposes is excellent, they do not appear to be in all respects suited to a line such as the South Eastern Railway will at least become, when its extensions now in course of formation are open.

93It has been found from experience that much power is lost and Fuel wasted with these Engines in ascending the gradients with which they now have to deal with heavy trains at a speed of even 10 miles per hour.

94For instance, supposed that Steam enters the Cylinders at a pressure of 100 lbs. per square inch, cut off at a quarter of the stroke, by the time the Piston has arrived at the end of the Stroke the pressure has fallen from 100 lbs. to 25 lbs. per square inch, and is exhausted through the Chimney with a velocity and force equal to that pressure, when the steam is cut off at half stroke the velocity is of course greater as the steam enters the exhaust at 50 lbs. pressure per square inch and the draught thus created is proportionately intensified.

95The effect of all this, is that under circumstances such as it has been attempted to explain, the Fire is lifted from the fire Box before it has been sufficiently burnt or done its work, and is carried through the Tubes to the smoke Box, whence it has to be removed in the shape of Cinders, more or less frequently upon the Road.

96This is attributable in the Authors opinion to an insufficiency of heating surface necessitating a draught that shall generate the requisite quantity of steam, but which has an effect upon the Fire it is desirable if possible to remedy.

97Upon the extension line beyond Beja towards Faro in the Algarve province the minimum radius of curves will be 200 metres while the maximum gradient will be equal to 1 in 40 and in order that this line may be worked with facility and economy it is proposed to construct an Engine that shall combine the qualifications for traversing sharp curves with those for ascending steep gradients with heavy loads consisting of mixed trains of goods and passengers.

98The bogie Engine at once presents itself as being adapted to the purpose, but to the bogie Engine there are objections. In the first place although it may be unnecessary to raise the Boiler to an inordinate height above the frame still, in order to insert sufficiently large Wheels under the bogie itself, it is necessary to raise it so far above the Rails as to imperil the steadiness of the Engine, moreover it is submitted that bogie Engines, where they can be dispensed with should not be employed, as they are liable to become deranged at the junction between the Boiler and the bogie itself, and in foreign Countries on Railways with light traffic or few trains they become expensive Engines to maintain especially where mechanical appliances for lifting are not admissible, it being generally allowed by those who have had to deal with this class of Engine, that they require more frequent lifting and adjusting than any other class of Locomotive.

99Having then these objections to the bogie Engine in view, as well as the construction of an Engine suited to the purpose of traversing Curves of 200 Meters with the least amount of lateral friction with the requisite power of ascending gradients of 1 in 40 with ordinarily heavy trains at a speed of 20 miles per hour, the Author has prepared a design for an Engine which it is thought will meet the case.

100This Engine which is represented on Drawing No. 14 is intended to have a Wheel base of 15 feet, the extreme curviture [sic] of the line being provided for by furnishing the leading Wheels with Slaughter & Caillet’s translation apparatus, a most simple and apparently well designed contrivance admitting by means of controlling springs attached to the centre of the leading Axle the ends pressing against the inside of the Engine frame, of a transversal displacement of the leading Wheels which by means of a slight amount of play in the journals adjust themselves to the curviture [sic] of the Rails, while upon regaining the straight line the spiral springs bring the Wheels back to their normal position without shock or disarrangement to the distributed weight of the Engine upon its centres.

101In order to enable these Engines to ascend steep gradients with heavy loads without their fires becoming disturbed it is proposed as already stated to give them a Wheel base of 15 feet outside Cylinder 17 inches in diameter a stroke of 22 inches driving Wheels 5 feet 6 inches in diameter, the leading Wheels fitted with the translation apparatus being 3 feet 9 inches in diameter, Boilers 12 feet long, with a heating surface of 1418 square feet.

102The additional power these Engines will possess over those now in use will be at once apparent from the annexed calculation of the comparative merits of both, based upon Pambour’s formula for comparing the tractive forces of Locomotives, while the draught created will not be so suddenly ejected as with the present Engines.

d = diameter of Cylinders

S = length of Stroke

P = mean pressure on Pistons in lbs.

D = diameter of driving Wheel

T = tractive force

of tractive force, while in the case of the altered design of tractive force so that in the newly designed Engine an increased tractive force over that of the existing Engine of 247 lbs. will be obtained thus enabling the former to move a load of 30 tons more than the Engines now in use.
  • 4 Esta linha foi de facto estudada entre 1865 e 1872, mas no início da década de 1880 o governo portu (...)

103The extension lines of the South Eastern Railway, shown upon the accompanying Map of Portugal by Red lines, will when finished be 300 Kilometres in length, the first being from Evora by way of Estremoz to Crato, the second from Beja to Guadiana River, with the ultimate object of its being carried forward to Seville in Spain4, and the third and last from the same point Beja to Faro on the South Coast of Portugal, will, when fully completed it is considered, not only increase the trade of the Country by the greater facilities it will afford but prove also remunerative to the Railway Company.

104The Country surrounding Estremoz also is extremely rich in Copper ore, and several important Mines are now in full work in that district, whence a large & increasing quantity of Ore is annually exported.

105The object of the extension line from Beja to the Guadiana River is to connect Seville and Cadiz with England and the Brazils by the way of Lisbon, and it is at the same time possible that a mineral traffic may result from its construction, the frontier of Spain in its direction being rich in Copper and Iron Ore.

106The line from Beja to Faro is being constructed not only with a view to a mineral traffic in Manganeze [sic] which exists in abundance throughout the first 50 miles traversed by this extension after leaving Beja, but it is also supposed that the produce of the rich province of the Algarve will, in place of being shipped at Faro and other ports on the South Coast, none of which are capable of receiving, without inconvenience, vessels above 300 tons burthen, find its way at Lisbon and there be shipped for its ultimate destination, a result which if fully realized will go far to make this extension remunerative, while at the same time employment will be afforded by the existence of the Railway, for a large proportion of the population which the Government now finds it difficult to maintain profitably, or pay adequately.

C. F. White.

Lisbon January 2, 1868.

Notes

1 Não encontramos o mapa, nem os outros desenhos mencionados à frente.

2 Na verdade, South Eastern of Portugal Railway Company.

3 Refere-se à bitola de 1.44 m, mais estreita que a adotada posteriormente (de 1.67 m). Não confundir com a bitola estreita (inferior a 1.1 m) usada em diversas partes do mundo (onde a construção era mais difícil e o tráfego previsto pouco volumoso) com o objetivo principal de reduzir o custo de construção (Puffert, 2009).

4 Esta linha foi de facto estudada entre 1865 e 1872, mas no início da década de 1880 o governo português pôs termo ao projeto, temendo que a linha colocasse o Alentejo mais perto de Huelva do que de Lisboa (Pereira, 2012a, 191-192).

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