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Igreja, caridade e assistência na Península Ibérica (sécs. XVI-XVIII)

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Laurinda Abreu

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On the poor, bishops and missionaries. Other ways of poor-relief in early-modern Portugal

1Federico Palomo

2The diocesan authority was an essential base to develop religious reforms, as they were considered in Trent. Besides obligations as residence and, especially, pastoral duties and government, Bishops were also constrained to make gifts and to help those who were more deprived. In order to achieve this charitable duty, they founded and improved all sorts of institutions, but, frequently, they were also assisted by other institutions, such as religious orders. By different apostolic means, as the so-called «popular missions», the members of these orders developed'other'ways of poor-relief. Actually, this emphasis on a hypothetical'otherness'of poor-relief practices carried out by religious orders, is more related to historiographical and methodological questions, than to a real'otherness'of those practices. On the one hand, the analysis of different aspects related to charitable activities developed by the Jesuits during their missions in Portugal allow us to underline the role played in the domain of the Portuguese assistance by other actors than the traditionally studied Misericórdias. On the other hand, a special attention to some categories of the religious discourse about charity allows us to analyse Jesuit missionaries'charitable activity from a cultural perspective, showing the weight that specific practices, as spiritual assistance, had in the understanding of poor-relief.

Church, poor relief and hospital asssistance in the Habsgurg Madrid (1561-1700): some reflexions

3Teresa Huguet Termes

4The aim of this paper is to analyze the role and socio-religious manifestations of the Madriddean Church within the foundation and development of the health care institutions of Madrid between 1561 and 1700. Particularly it is possible to appreciate the madiatizing character of such an institution, the Church, between civil strategies and daily welfare activities. As we will see those welfare activities will be reflected in performance, apropiation and commintment models by bodies close to the Church. All of these analysis should lead us to reconsider the topic which has circulated till now and has given to the Madriddean Church a secondary role in the context of welfare of the poor and sick at the'Villa y Corte'in the 16th and 17th centuries.

Hospitals in the churches of the royal patronage in the Early Modern Period: the Granada dioceses

5Tiguel Luis López Munõz

6After the conquest of Granada by the Catholic Kings several hospitals were born in the reign of Granada, under the system of patronato regio (royal patronage). These hospitals held themselves up with ecclesiastical incomes managed by the State. This public sanitary system extended their hospitals over rural areas, but always with a great need of money. Heading the State's sanitary policy of intervention and centralization, there was no lack of defence of the traditional model in the eighteenth century.

The church and welfare in the crown of Castile in the Early Modern period. Myth and reality

7Alberto Marcos Martín

8This paper questions how responsibility for welfare and charity work in early modern times has been treated as the exclusive function of the Church. A review, such as the one carried out here, of the main institutions (brotherhoods, hospitals, charity work, cooperatives and charity funds) that made up the old charity network institutionalised in Castile under the former Régime, reveals, in contrast, by no means an inappreciable role played by individual laymen and women in the setting up, funding and maintaining of the charity and welfare system. In consequence, the historical reasons that led to this social duality of Church/Welfare becoming a virtually unquestioned reality until the present day are also analysed.

The assistance action of the Cardinal Henri: guidelines of his pastoral intervention model

9Amélia Maria Polónia da Silva

10Our aims are to approach the Cardinal Henri's assistance action as a bishop in the dioceses of Evora. We'll try to: 1. analyse the guidelines of an assistance model developed by the Cardinal, as they are presented by "cronística" and panegyric literature; 2. identify his effective assistance guidelines, developed by the practice of charity and by a real and global social assistance to the population of his dioceses; 3. analyse his assistance practice directed to a specific universe - that one of the students of the Espirito Santo College and the Évora University.

11We intend to discuss the bishop's preferential orientation in the assistance dominion, in articulation with his personal profile and the central guidelines of his pastoral programme.

The archbishop D. Teotónio de Bragança and the restructuring of the poor relief and health care system in Early Modern Évora

12Laurinda Abreu

13Already studied from the administrative reforms and catechetical investment point of view, D. Antonio de Bragança, who was identified as the typical Counter Reformation bishop, was the creator of a vast social programme that is practically unknown. As we research deeper on the Évora poor relief and health care system in the Early Modern Period we are becoming more convinced that D. Teotónio de Bragança acted according to a previously meditated plan — where the influence of Miguel de Giginta and of Cristobal Pérez de Herrera is evident - though if not completely realized throughout his life, he created conditions for that.

The concern for the relief of the needy in the Enlightenment Navarre: the work of Bishop Úriz

14Pilar Léon Sanz

15Joaquín Xavier Úriz y Lasaga (1747-1829) organised and administered, in a large sense, the welfare assistance to the poor throughout the diocese of Pamplona during the last quarter of the 18 th century. He was member and later president of the board of directors of the General Hospital, and in this function he played a role in improving assistance to the poor and in creating a new children's home in Pamplona. In addition to lending financial assistance, he sought to reduce child mortality, he gave the Orphanage new statutes, and promoted the introduction of smallpox inoculations and later, the vaccinations.

The episcopate and the "assistence" in Portugal, in the Early Modern Period

16José Pedro Paiva

17The purpose of this paper is to assess the role of the bishops in the welfare field (charity), during the 16th and 17th centuries, a period during which, according to the most recent historiography, the Misericórdias assumed a leading role in this area.

18The study concentrates on the doctrine of the ideal bishop, in order to justify the bishop's participation in these charity tasks, then a definition of the practical forms of the episcopal actions will be proposed and, finally, the memory produced about the episcopal charity activities will be analysed.

The relationship of the Archbishopric with the Évora Misericórdia between 1552 and 1643

19Rute Pardal

20Working on the principle that the Misericórdia s acquired de jure the prerogative as confraternities under immediate royal protection in the Council of Trent, which means that they were freed from administrative dependence from the respective diocese, this paper seeks to find out whether there were institutional conflicts between the Santa Casa da Misericórdia and the Archbishopric of Évora. The aim is also to analyse the individual relationships which may have existed not only between the members of the Chapter and the Archbishop on the one hand and the Misericórdia on the other hand but also between the former and the brotherhood of Piedade, a hospice for the poor set up by Archbishop D. Teotónio de Bragança in 1587. In fact, the management practices of the Misericórdia and the brotherhood are notably similar. The examination of their administrative bodies will also enable the reconstitution of part of the social assistance network in the city of Evora in the Early Modern Period.

The protection of the Braga Archbishops to the Viana da Foz do Lima Misericórdia (1527-1615)

21Maria Marta Lobo de Araújo

22There was always a strong link between Misericórdia s and the Church even though Misericórdia s were lay institutions under strong protection of the Crown. However, these confraternities being true vehicles of evangelical values associating an interest in Christian spirituality to charitable practices also became beneficiaries of protective measures by the archbishops'agents.

23This work studies the protection dispensed by the archbishops of Braga to the Misericórdia of Viana da Foz do Lima between 1527 and 1615. The archbishops of Braga were particularly keen on helping the Santa Casa in matters of religious cult, in its charitable practices and in strengthening its finances. The measures taken by the archbishops of Braga were indeed crucial for the development of the Misericórdia of Viana da Foz do Lima.

Royal power and Episcopal tutelage in the poor relief and health care institutions in the Early Modern Period: the Lisbon Conservatoires

24Maria de Fátima Dias dos Reis

25Created in order to protect the female honor or to rehabilitate the sinners», the conservatoires assured the preservation of chastity and regeneration, well defended values by the Counter Reformation Church. Institutions of social normalization, the conservatoires kept the social order by reintegrating the sheltered women through marriage or through the help for fragile women, such as widows. In Lisbon, in the Early Modern Period, there were several conservatoires to shelter and bring up the orphans and "sinners". Most of them were founded under the crown protection and Episcopal tutelage after the Council of Trent. Through a comparative analysis of the statutes of some of those conservatoires, we intend to understand the aims, the resources and the subjacent management criteria.

Trento, women and social control: the Conservatoire of S. Manços

26Marco Liberato

27When in 1591, D. Teotónio de Bragança, emitted the foundational decree of the Colegio de S. Mancos, he was working in the same wave length as the intents of the global reform foreseen by the Church of Rome. In fact, the Council of Trent gave the bishops the main responsibilities for the confessional unity in their jurisdiction area. Among them, a major control over the poor relief institutions was foreseen, namely over the womem conservatoires. It is one of the above, the Colégio de S. Manços, that we intend to study.

The Évora conservatoire of the Nossa Senhora da Piedade: a post Council of Trent institution

28Sílvia Mestre and Marco Loja

29The post Council of Trent period takes us, among other aspects, to the deep reform that the church promoted at the assistance field.

30It was in that context that the Evora bishop, D. Teotónio de Bragança, Archbishop came about, promoting the diffusion of the Trento values in what concerned poor relief. Among the institutions that he created-Colégio de São Manços, Recolhimento da Madalena and Hospicio, afterwards called Recolhimento de Nossa Senhora da Piedade (1587) - we intend to analyse some aspects of the last one: an institution that initially sheltered men and women of the lowest layers of society, but ending up by lodging only young ladies.

Fragments of required final considerations

31Caio Boschi

32Although these words are written as final, they are not of conclusive character. Due to exposed reasons, in order to do this text it was important to have access to the previous ones. In this way we have a dual purpose: on the one hand to highlight the ideas presented and debated during the seminar; on the other hand, and starting from the concepts and themes then shown, to point out some questions deriving from them, and, above all, consider some perspectives that we think are important in order to continue the research around such a rich, vast and complex thematic universe.

© Publicações do Cidehus, 2004

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