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Ecclesiastics and political state building in the Iberian monarchies, 13th-15th centuries

 | 
Hermínia Vasconcelos Vilar
, 
Maria João Branco

Part II - A Power among Powers

Leges et canones. Portuguese law students in 14th and 15th century Italy. Methodological horizons and problems

André de Oliveira Leitão

Note de l’auteur

This paper is funded within the scope of the project DEGRUPE: The European Dimension of a Group of Power: Ecclesiastics and the Political State Building of the Iberian Monarchies (13th-15th centuries), with the FCT reference PTDC/EPH-HIS/4964/2012, funded by national funds through the Portuguese Science and Technology Foundation/Ministry of Education and Science (FCT/MEC), and co-funded by the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) through COMPETE – Operational Programme « Thematic Factors of Competitiveness » (POFC).

Texte intégral

Introduction

  • 1 Veríssimo Serrão, Joaquim - Portugueses no Estudo Geral de Salamanca (1250-1550). vol. I., disserta (...)
  • 2 Matos, Luís de Matos - Les Portugais à l’Université de Paris entre 1500 et 1550. Coimbra: Universid (...)
  • 3 Veríssimo Serrão, Joaquim - Les Portugais à l’Université de Montpellier (XIIe-XVIIe siècles). Paris (...)
  • 4 idem - Portugueses no Estudo de Toulouse. Coimbra: Universidade de Coimbra, 1954; idem - Les Portug (...)
  • 5 One refer mainly to the studies on the Portuguese presence in Bologna by Sousa Costa, António Domin (...)

1From the early-12th century, with the establishment of the first studia generalia through Christendom, the students’ mobility (the so-called peregrinatio academica) become a key-point of the university life. Several studies on the Portuguese peregrinatio were published (regarding the universities of Salamanca1, Paris2, Montpellier3 or Toulouse4); however, an overall study on the Portuguese peregrinatio academica in 14th and 15th century Italy has not yet been done, despite the existence of various studies addressing the Portuguese presence in the studium of Bologna, commonly considered as the oldest studium generale in Christendom5.

2One can identify two different phases in the Portuguese peregrinatio, marked by the foundation of the studium generale in Lisbon, sometime between 1288 and 1290. Despite the cultural relevance of certain monastic centres, such as the Augustinian Monasteries of Santa Cruz of Coimbra and Saint Vincent of Lisbon or the Cistercian Monastery of Alcobaça, there was nothing like a higher school worthy of the name studium generale in Portugal before 1288. Therefore, all those who wished to expand their knowledge before that date had to travel to other places of Christendom where there were studia generalia – either in Hispania (Salamanca), France (Paris, Orleans, Montpellier or Toulouse), the Italian Peninsula (Bologna, Padua, Rome and Siena) or in the British Isles (Oxford and Cambridge).

  • 6 Rashdall, Hastings - The Universities of Europe in the Middle Ages, vol. 2 (Italy, Spain, France, G (...)

3However, after the granting of several privileges by King Denis to an incipient university corporation based in Lisbon (through the royal letter Scientie thesaurus mirabilis, dated March 1st, 1290), soon followed by the papal recognition of the new university (bull De statu Regni Portugalie, dated August 9th, 1290), the Portuguese Kingdom had finally an institution of higher education within its borders (despite its multiple relocations between the cities of Lisbon and Coimbra throughout the entire 14th century – a unique circumstance among the European studia, as noted by Hastings Rashdall in his remarkable work The Universities of Europe in the Middle Ages6).

4Therefore, one can argue that the establishment of the Portuguese studium might had avoided the need for these scholars to travel abroad in order to get their degrees. That was certainly accurate in the case of the graduates in liberal arts, medicine or civil and canon law, as in the early stages of the Portuguese university, theology was not part of the subjects recognised by the Papacy, and therefore future theologians should continue to go abroad to get their degrees until the late-14th century (when teaching of theology was finally endorsed in the studium of Lisbon).

  • 7 Farelo, Mário - "A universitas no labirinto: poderes e redes sociais". In Fernandes, Hermenegildo ( (...)

5However, the Portuguese studium, both at Lisbon and Coimbra, was often seen as a strange corporation within the cities where it was established, often giving rise to conflicts, either with the municipal authorities, or with the citizens (which were the cause of two of the first two relocations of the studium, in 1308 and 1338), due to the significant number of privileges held, not only by students and masters, but also by the university corporation itself. In Portugal, as in other parts of Christendom, university and city often grew back to back; only at a very later stage did the urban oligarchies of Lisbon understand the importance, both real and symbolic, of owning a studium in the city7.

  • 8 Moreno, Humberto Baquero - "Um aspecto da política cultural de D. Afonso V: a concessão de bolsas d (...)

6Thus, the attractiveness of the Portuguese university seems to have failed to meet the King’s expectations, who was interested in having a centre to train the Kingdom’s managerial officers; most of the students seems to have preferred to continue their education in other areas of Christendom, something that, ultimately, may explain the continuous policy of granting royal scholarships in order to finance higher studies abroad8.

  • 9 Farelo, Mário - ibidem, p. 204.
  • 10 , Artur Moreira de (ed.) - Chartularium Universitatis Portucalensis, vol. II (1377-1408). Lisbon: (...)

7The peripheral position of the Portuguese university (in fact, it was the westernmost European studium generale, far from the main centres of knowledge of the Latinitas, located between France and Italy) made it difficult to attract foreign lecturers to teach in Portugal; although there are records regarding a few professors of French origin who taught in Lisbon and Coimbra (such as Pierre de Corbigny, known in the Portuguese documents as master Pedro das Leis, who also acted as a royal counsellor in the court of King Afonso IV9), King Ferdinand justified the final relocation occurred in 1377 precisely with the need to attract masters from other realms of Christendom to the studium that was, from that point on, headquarted at the major city of the Kingdom, Lisbon10.

  • 11 Farelo, Mário - "Lisboa numa rede latina? Os escolares em movimento". In A Universidade Medieval em (...)

8Regarding the Portuguese peregrinatio, one should also take into account a certain "functional specialisation" of some studia generalia, which became renowned for the subjects they taught. In fact, an old aphorism attributed to Saint Thomas Aquinas said that "quattuor sunt urbes caeteris praeminentes: Parisius in scientiis, Salernum in medicinis, Bononia in legibus, Aurelianis in actoribus"11, acknowledging the pre-eminence of some studia in certain fields of knowledge. In fact, Paris was for a long period associated with the queen of medieval sciences, theology (due to its quasi-monopolistic position, as the teaching of this subject was not allowed in many other studia), while Salerno and Montpellier were mainly sought after by medical students, and Bologna and the other Italian universities were, in general, specialised in civil and canon law.

9So, this study will seek to determine the paths of some of the Portuguese students who attended the Italian universities in the 14th and 15th centuries and obtained their education (either one or more academic degrees) in the areas of civil and canon law (or, as it was known back then, Roman and Pontifical law).

The Portuguese peregrinatio academica in Italy

10The Italian Peninsula was the birthplace of some of the oldest universities in the world. Its fragmentation into several small communes with political autonomy gave rise to the creation of almost as many universities as independent cities that, not rarely, competed against each other. So, in addition to Bologna (the so-called Alma Mater Studiorum, whose date of foundation has been traditionally set in 1088), in the Pontifical States, other studia generalia were created in Padua (in 1222, founded as a result of the split of a group of professors and students from Bologna), Naples (the studium generale of the Norman Kingdom that encompasses Italy’s Mezzogiorno, founded by the Emperor Frederick II, in his capacity as King of Sicily, in 1224 – the first example of an university established by royal letters, later emulated by the Portuguese King Denis), Siena (1240), Rome (the Curia’s studium in 1244 and the city’s studium in 1303), Perugia (1308), Pisa (1343), Pavia (1361) or Ferrara (1391), among others.

11Polarised between different regional powers, experiencing the different conflicts between the Pope and the Emperor (like the well-known investiture controversy) and the respective spheres of influence, it is not surprising that law (both canon and civil) was the subject in which the Italian studia generalia specialised; undoubtedly, one can argue that the vast majority of the Portuguese students who travelled to Italy obtained some sort of legal academic degree.

  • 12 The complete list of students who studied law in the Italian universities can be found in table 1.
  • 13 CUP, VIII, 3157 and 3165.
  • 14 CUP, VII, 2764.
  • 15 CUP, III, 573 and 588.
  • 16 CUP, VII, 2605, 2608 and 2609.
  • 17 CUP, VI, 1962, 2009, 2045, 2096, 2115, 2182, 2209, 2222and 2325; VII, 2509, 2510, 2511 and 2512.
  • 18 CUP, V, 1674.
  • 19 CUP, VI, 2110.
  • 20 CUP, VII, 2562.
  • 21 CUP, VII, 2786.
  • 22 CUP, IV, 1041.
  • 23 CUP, IX, 3470, 3506, 3517 and 3676; X, 3913.
  • 24 CUP, 2228; VII, 2460, 2575 and 2627.
  • 25 CUP, III, 880, 922 and 923.
  • 26 CUP, IV, 1104 and 1275.

12Analysing the paths of 61 individuals mentioned in documents from this period as having studied a branch of law in an Italian studium (performing that which, in the academic tradition, came to be known as the iter Italicum)12, one can define three main axes of the Portuguese peregrinatio academica: students who attended the studium in Lisbon and later followed the Italian universities; students who studied in Lisbon, thereafter in Salamanca (or any other Hispanic studia) and later in Italy; and finally students who went exclusively to Italy. Among the former, one can mention Henrique Coutinho (Lisbon and Pisa13), João Peres (Lisbon, Ferrara, Perugia, Pisa and Siena14), Lançarote Esteves (Lisbon and Bologna15), Luís Teixeira (Lisbon and Siena16), Pedro de Sousa (Lisbon, Bologna and Perugia17) or Pedro Lourenço (Lisbon and Rome18) ; regarding the second category, one should mention Diogo Gonçalves Botafogo (Lisbon, Salamanca and Bologna19), João da Silveira (Lisbon, Salamanca and Pisa20), João Lopes Basanta (Lisbon, Salamanca and Siena21) or Pedro Esteves (Lisbon, Salamanca and Bologna22) ; finally, in the third category, we find Álvaro Teixeira (Bologna, Ferrara and Siena23), Gomes Pais Ferraz (Perugia and Rome24), João Beliágua (Bologna and Siena25) and Luís Coutinho (Padua and Rome26).

13Even though all these men travelled abroad to graduate, not all of them took on a full mobility (despite the existence of a prescription in the statutes of most studia generalia of the time, which compel all the students to publicly teach in another studium in order to get their licence degree); in fact, from the 61 individuals mentioned, 45 seem to have attended only one studium generale in Italy; 7 attended two studia (Gomes Pais Ferraz, João Beliágua, João Lopes da Costa, Lançarote Esteves, Luís Coutinho, Luís Teixeira and Pedro Lourenço), 8 attended three (Álvaro Teixeira, Diogo Gonçalves Botafogo, João da Silveira, João Gomes, João Lopes Basanta, Mendo Peres, Pedro de Sousa, Pedro Esteves) and, as an exceptional case, there is a record regarding an individual who attended five studia generalia (João Peres) – the perfect example of a life spent in an endless peregrinatio.

14Of these 61 individuals, almost half of them (29) attended the studium of Bologna (Álvaro Pais, Álvaro Teixeira, Brás de Portugal, Cristóvão Álvares, Diogo de Portugal, Diogo Gonçalves Botafogo, Domingos Esteves, Estêvão Afonso, Fernando de Portugal [I], Fernando de Portugal [II], Fernando Martins, Gil Martins, Gomes Pais, João Afonso das Regras, João Álvares, João Beliágua, João Cardoso, João Eanes, João Pereira, Lançarote Esteves, Lopo Afonso de Lisboa, Lourenço de Portugal, Luís Eanes, Martim Afonso da Charneca, Martim Anes de Figueiredo, Mendo Peres, Pedro de Sousa, Pedro Esteves and Vasco de Portugal) ; there were also 15 who attended the studium of Siena (Aires Dias, Álvaro Afonso, Álvaro Gonçalves [II], Álvaro Teixeira, Diogo Pinheiro, Gaspar Correia, João Afonso de Aguiar, João Beliágua, João Garcia, João Lopes Basanta, João Lopes da Costa, João Peres, Luís Teixeira, Pedro Vaz and Rodrigo Álvares), 9 who went to Rome (Gomes Pais Ferraz, Gonçalo Eanes, João Gomes, João Gonçalves, Lourenço Rodrigues, Luís Coutinho, Mendo Peres, Pedro Lourenço and Rodrigo Lourenço), 6 to Perugia (Álvaro de Freitas, Álvaro Gonçalves [I], Francisco da Costa, Gomes Pais Ferraz, João Peres and Pedro de Sousa), 5 to Padua (Afonso Garcia, Fernando da Guerra, Fernando Martins Coutinho, João Afonso and Luís Coutinho), 5 others to Pisa (Fernando Coutinho, Henrique Coutinho, João da Silveira, João Peres and Rodrigo Leitão) and 2 to Ferrara (Álvaro Teixeira and João Peres).

Academic degrees

  • 27 Including, in this case, two theology graduates (Friar Álvaro Pais and João Garcia) and a liberal a (...)
  • 28 Curiously referred as a "peritus in iure canonico" at the early age of 16.

15Regarding the typology of the academic subjects, 28 individuals achieved a canon law degree27, 15 accomplished a civil law degree, and the remaining 18 obtained a degree in both laws. Dividing these numbers into academic degrees, we find that 12 obtained a doctoral degree in laws (Álvaro Gonçalves, Diogo de Portugal, Diogo Pinheiro, Gil Martins, João das Regras, João Álvares, Lançarote Esteves, Lopo Afonso, Lourenço de Portugal, Martim Afonso and Vasco de Portugal; one of them, João Beliágua, was also a bachelor of canon law), 7 in canon law (Cristóvão Álvares, Estêvão Afonso, Gomes Pais and Pedro Lourenço; Aires Dias was also a bachelor of civil law and João Lopes da Costa was a bachelor of both laws) and 12 in utroque iure (Brás de Portugal, Diogo Gonçalves Botafogo, Fernando Coutinho, Fernando de Portugal [I], Fernando de Portugal [II], João Cardoso, João Peres, Luís Teixeira, Martim Anes de Figueiredo, Pedro de Sousa, Pedro Esteves and Rodrigo Leitão; this list includes also a licentiate in theology, the bishop of Silves, Franciscan Friar Álvaro Pais); 5 obtained a licence degree, 2 of which in civil law (João Pereira and João Lopes Basanta, who was also a student of canon law), while the other 3 graduated in canon law (Fernando Martins, Luís Eanes and Mendo Peres); 3 obtained a bachelor’s degree in canon law (João Gomes, Rodrigues Lourenço and João Garcia, who was also a licentiate in theology); in the documents there is also a reference to a master (Domingos Domingues), to whom one should add the students who did not have a degree – 3 civil law students (Afonso Garcia, Álvaro Gonçalves and Fernando da Guerra), 16 canon law students (Álvaro Afonso, Álvaro de Freitas, Fernando Martins Coutinho28, Francisco Costa, Gaspar Correia, Gomes Pais Ferraz, Gonçalo Eanes, Henrique Coutinho, João Afonso, João da Silveira, João Eanes, João Gonçalves, Luís Coutinho, Pedro Vaz, Rodrigo Álvares and Álvaro Teixeira, who was also an art student) and 2 students of both laws (João Afonso de Aguiar and Lourenço Rodrigues).

16Regarding their allocation by the different studia, the University of Bologna is the one with the largest number of students, both in civil law (with 10 proven cases : Diogo de Portugal, Gil Martins, João Afonso das Regras, João Álvares, João Pereira, Lançarote Esteves, Lopo Afonso de Lisboa, Lourenço de Portugal, Martim Afonso da Charneca and Vasco de Portugal), and in canon law (9 cases : Friar Álvaro Pais, Álvaro Teixeira, Cristóvão Álvares, Estêvão Afonso, Fernando Martins, Gomes Pais, João Eanes, Luís Eanes and Mendo Peres), as well as in both laws (10 cases : Brás de Portugal, Diogo Gonçalves Botafogo, Domingos Domingues, Fernando de Portugal [I], Fernando de Portugal [II], João Beliágua, João Cardoso, Martim Anes de Figueiredo, Pedro de Sousa and Pedro Esteves). On the other hand, in Siena, only 2 students studied civil law (Álvaro Gonçalves [II] and Diogo Pinheiro), while 6 studied canon law (Álvaro Afonso, Álvaro Teixeira, Fernando Coutinho, Gaspar Correia, João Garcia, Pedro Vaz and Rodrigo Álvares) and 7 others studied both laws (Aires Dias, João Afonso de Aguiar, João Beliágua, João Lopes Basanta, João Lopes da Costa, João Peres and Luís Teixeira). In Rome, probably unsurprisingly, there was a clear predominance of the study of canon law; 8 students attended a canon law course (Gomes Pais Ferraz, Gonçalo Eanes, João Gomes, João Gonçalves, Luís Coutinho, Mendo Peres, Pedro Lourenço and Rodrigo Lourenço), and only one studied both laws (Lourenço Rodrigues); the same happened in Perugia, with 3 canon law students (Álvaro de Freitas, Francisco da Costa and Gomes Pais Ferraz), 2 utroque iure students (João Peres and Pedro de Sousa) and one law student (Álvaro Gonçalves [I]), and also in Padua, with 4 canon law students (Fernando da Guerra, Fernando Martins Coutinho, João Afonso and Luís Coutinho) and one law student (Afonso Garcia). In Pisa, 2 students attended a canon law course (Henrique Coutinho and João da Silveira), while 3 studied both laws (Fernando Coutinho, João Peres and Rodrigo Leitão); finally, in Ferrara, one student attended canon law (Álvaro Teixeira) and one other studied both laws (João Peres).

Royal service

17After a short analysis of the academic careers of these individuals, one should examine their careers in three main areas: the royal service, the ecclesiastical service and the academy. A significant part of the Kingdom’s court high officers, advisors and chief chancellors of the 14th and 15th centuries had made their peregrinatio across the Italian universities, which allowed them to obtain a solid legal education and certainly explains their recruitment for the highest court positions. Such are the cases of the chancellors João das Regras and Gil Martins (with a doctoral degree in civil law obtained at Bologna), Estêvão Afonso (with a doctoral degree in canon law obtained at Bologna) and, much time later, Luís Teixeira (who studied in Lisbon and later obtained his utroque iure doctoral degree at Siena).

18All these men combined their position of chancellor with that of royal counsellors, a position that was also held by other individuals with doctoral degrees in laws, such as Martim Afonso da Charneca (who would become bishop of Coimbra and archbishop of Braga) and Diogo Pinheiro (vicar of Tomar and later the first bishop of Funchal) – both with doctoral degrees in civil law obtained at Bologna – or Martim Anes de Figueiredo, with a doctoral degree in utroque iure obtained at Bologna. The above mentioned Gil Martins, Luís Teixeira, Diogo Pinheiro and Martim de Figueiredo were also judges of the royal court ("desembargadores"), like João Beliágua (with a doctoral degree in civil law obtained at Bologna and a bachelor degree in canon law) and João Pereira (with a licence degree in civil law obtained at Bologna); Luís Teixeira was also an "ouvidor" (royal judge) at the "Casa do Cível" (Civil Court), and Gil Martins served as royal ambassador to the Council of Basel-Ferrara-Florence (1431). For their services, two of these two men were knighted and granted a position in the Military Order of Saint James of the Sword – João Peres (with a doctoral degree in both laws) and Pedro Lourenço (with a doctoral degree in canon law).

Ecclesiastical service

19Regarding the ecclesiastical service, a significant number of these scholars played some kind of roles (though often ceremonial ones) in the Holy See, the political decision-making centre of Christendom. So, Álvaro Gonçalves (with a doctoral degree in civil law obtained at Siena), Fernando Martins (with a licence degree in canon law obtained at Bologna) and João Gomes (a bachelor in canon law who studied at Rome, Lleida and Salamanca) were abbreviators of apostolic letters ("abbreviatores"); Álvaro Gonçalves was also an apostolic protonotary, as well as Álvaro Teixeira and Luís Coutinho. Diogo Gonçalves Botafogo, Pedro de Lourenço and João Lopes da Costa were appointed as pontifical chamberlains ("cubicularii"), and the latter combined this position with the dignity of papal chaplain. João Peres and Lançarote Esteves were appointed for the prestigious position of Palatine Counts of the Palace of Saint John Lateran ("comes palatinus Lateranensis"), and Álvaro Teixeira was awarded the title of Knight of Saint Peter ("miles sancti Petri").

  • 29 Several members of the Coutinho family (who held the honorific position of marshals of Portugal fro (...)

20We should also highlight a series of scholars who rose to the episcopate, both in Portugal and overseas, after studying law in Italy. Still in the 14th century, one can find Friar Álvaro Pais (Alvarus Pelagius), the well-known bishop of Silves (1333-1352), author of De statu et planctu ecclesiae, with a doctoral degree in both laws obtained at Bologna; at the turn of the 15th century, one may find Afonso da Charneca, bishop of Coimbra (1386-1398) and archbishop of Braga (1398-1416), with a doctoral degree in civil law obtained at Bologna; João Álvares, bishop of Silves (1414-1418), also with a doctoral degree in civil law obtained at Bologna; Fernando Martins Coutinho, bishop of Coimbra (1419-1429), who attended the studium of Padua, being recognised as an expert ("peritus") in canon law; Luís Coutinho, who was in turn bishop of Viseu (1439-1444), Coimbra (1444-1452) and archbishop of Lisbon (1452-1453), studied canon law at Padua and Rome, and Fernando Coutinho, bishop of Lamego (1492-1501) and Silves (1501-1538), who obtained a doctoral degree in both laws at Pisa29. Finally, in the early-16th century, Diogo Pinheiro, with a doctoral degree in civil law obtained at Siena, exercised his episcopacy due to the erection of the territories nullius dioecesis of the Order of Christ that made up the Prelacy of Tomar (of which he had been the vicar since 1496) to the condition of Bishopric of Funchal (1514), which encompassed all the Portuguese overseas territories except for the so-called Algarve Beyond the Sea in Africa (that is, the dioceses of Ceuta, Tangiers and Safi, in Northern Morocco).

21Almost all these men had beneficiary careers in the Portuguese cathedrals, including deaconries (Álvaro Gonçalves, in Coimbra and Porto ; Diogo Gonçalves Botafogo, in Lisbon ; Domingos Domingues, in Braga ; Fernando Martins Coutinho, in Viseu ; João Álvares, in Viseu ; João Beliágua, in Guarda ; Luís Coutinho, in Lamego, and Mendo Peres, also in Lamego), chantries (Diogo Gonçalves Botafogo, in Lisbon, and João Lopes da Costa, in Coimbra), archdeaconries (Diogo Gonçalves Botafogo, in Sexta ; Estêvão Afonso, in Santarém ; Henrique Coutinho, in Vermoim), schoolmasteries (Domingos Domingues, in Braga ; Estêvão Afonso, in Coimbra and Rodrigo Leitão, in Porto), treasuries (Pedro de Sousa, in Lisbon), or simple canonries (Aires Dias, in Porto ; Álvaro Afonso, in Coimbra ; Álvaro Teixeira, in Lamego ; Diogo Gonçalves Botafogo, in Coimbra, Évora, Lisbon and Silves ; Domingos Domingues, in Braga ; Fernando Martins, in Porto and Silves ; Fernando Martins Coutinho, in Lisbon ; Gomes Pais, in Coimbra ; Gomes Pais Ferraz, in Coimbra ; João Afonso, in Porto ; João Garcia, in Évora ; João Gomes, in Braga ; Luís Coutinho, in Lisbon ; Luís Eanes, in Viseu ; Mendo Peres, in Lisbon ; Pedro de Sousa, in Lisbon, and Pedro Lourenço, in Lamego).

22Serving in noble houses was not a particularly significant activity among these men; one should only mention Pedro Esteves (with a doctoral degree in both laws), servant of Afonso, Duke of Braganza, in addition to the chaplains of the Queen of Castile, Isabella of Portugal (Aires Dias, with a doctoral degree in canon law) and of Prince Peter, Duke of Coimbra (Gomes Pais, with a doctoral degree in canon law).

Academic careers

23Regarding the careers within the studium, a significant number of professors from the University of Lisbon had travelled to Italy in order to complete their education and obtain their doctoral degrees. That was the case of Lançarote Esteves and Lourenço de Portugal, both with doctoral degrees in civil law obtained at Bologna, who were previously professors of the same subject at the studium of Lisbon; Diogo Gonçalves Botafogo, with a doctoral degree in both laws obtained at Bologna, who taught both laws for sometime in Lisbon before 1464; Pedro de Lourenço, with a doctoral degree in canon law, who taught in the same field at Lisbon, and, finally, Martim Anes de Figueiredo, with a doctoral degree in both laws, who taught oratory at Lisbon.

24In addition, João da Regras became the rector of the Portuguese studium, like João da Silveira, a student of canon law; João das Regras combined his positions with that of "protector" of the studium, appointed by King John I, a position for which Gil Martins would also be appointed when he was the Kingdom’s chief chancellor.

Final remarks

25While it is certain that the perspective we have presented here is still incomplete (being subject to further changes resulting from the development of our research on the issue of student mobility), we believe that this paper summarises, in broader terms, some guiding lines for understand the Portuguese peregrinatio academica during the Middle Ages. First of all, one can assert, with some reliability, the "functional specialisation" of certain universities: Bologna was, unarguably, the main studium attended by students of civil law (as a result of a century-old tradition, supported by great names of the medieval legal thought like Accursio, during the Duecento, and Bartolo da Sassoferrato or Baldo degli Ubaldi, in the Trecento), while those who wished to study canon law seemed to prefer Siena or Pisa. Canon law studies seem to have largely prevailed over civil law studies in terms of both number and relevance, something that is not surprising if we look at these men’s careers, which are predominantly ecclesiastical rather than civil; in fact, most of the scholars with an education in canon law quickly rose in the ecclesiastical hierarchy, but also within the royal administration.

Table 1. Complete list of students who studied law in the Italian universities

Table 1. Complete list of students who studied law in the Italian universities

Notes

1 Veríssimo Serrão, Joaquim - Portugueses no Estudo Geral de Salamanca (1250-1550). vol. I., dissertation presented for the position of Extraordinary Professor at the University of Lisbon, 1962; Marcos de Dios, Ángel - Portugueses en la Universidad de Salamanca. Doctoral dissertation presented to the University of Salamanca, 1975; Marques, Armando de Jesus - "Portugueses nos claustros salmantinos no século XV". Revista Portuguesa de Filosofia, 19 (2) (1963), pp. 167-186; idem - "Conselheiros portugueses na Universidade de Salamanca". Anais da Academia Portuguesa da História, II série, 25 (1976-77), pp. 418-420; idem - Portugal e a Universidade de Salamanca. Participação dos Escolares Lusos no Governo do Estudo. 1503-1512. Salamanca: Ediciones Universidad de Salamanca, 1980.

2 Matos, Luís de Matos - Les Portugais à l’Université de Paris entre 1500 et 1550. Coimbra: Universidade de Coimbra, 1950; Farelo, Mário - La peregrinatio academica portugaise vers l’Alma mater parisienne, XIIe-XVe siècles. Master thesis presented to the University of Montréal, 1999; idem - "Les Portugais à l’Université de Paris au Moyen Âge. Aussi une question d’acheminements de ressources". Memini. Travaux et documents publiés par la Société des Études Médiévales du Québec 5 (2001), pp. 101-129; idem - "Os estudantes e mestres portugueses nas escolas de Paris durante o período medievo (séculos XII-XV): elementos de história cultural, eclesiástica e económica para o seu estudo". Lusitania Sacra, Revista do Centro de Estudos de História Religiosa, 2.ª série, 13-14 (2001-2002), pp. 161-196, http://repositorio.ucp.pt/handle/10400.14/4424 (accessed 20-04-2015).

3 Veríssimo Serrão, Joaquim - Les Portugais à l’Université de Montpellier (XIIe-XVIIe siècles). Paris: Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian, 1971.

4 idem - Portugueses no Estudo de Toulouse. Coimbra: Universidade de Coimbra, 1954; idem - Les Portugais à l’Université de Toulouse (XIIIe-XVIIe siècles). Paris: Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian, 1970.

5 One refer mainly to the studies on the Portuguese presence in Bologna by Sousa Costa, António Domingues de - "Estudantes portugueses na Reitoria do Colégio de São Clemente de Bolonha na primeira metade do século XV". Arquivos de História da Cultura Portuguesa 3 (1) (1969); idem - "Portugueses no Colégio de São Clemente de Bolonha durante o século XV". Studia Albornotiana 13 (1973), pp. 211-415; idem - Portugueses no Colégio de São Clemente e na Universidade de Bolonha durante o século XV, 2 vols. Bolonia: Servicio de Publicaciones del Real Colegio de España, 1990.

6 Rashdall, Hastings - The Universities of Europe in the Middle Ages, vol. 2 (Italy, Spain, France, Germany, Scotland, etc.). Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1895, p. 102.

7 Farelo, Mário - "A universitas no labirinto: poderes e redes sociais". In Fernandes, Hermenegildo (coord.) - A Universidade Medieval em Lisboa (séculos XIII-XVI). Lisbon: Edições Tinta-da-China, 2013, pp. 195-197.

8 Moreno, Humberto Baquero - "Um aspecto da política cultural de D. Afonso V: a concessão de bolsas de estudo". Revista das Ciências do Homem, Série A, n.º 3, Lourenço Marques (1970), pp. 177-205; Silva, Maria João Oliveira e - "Bolseiros e bolsas de estudo no tempo de D. Afonso V". In Fonseca, Luís Adão da, Amaral, Luís Carlos and Santos, Maria Fernanda Ferreira (coord.), Os Reinos Ibéricos na Idade Média. Livro de Homenagem ao Professor Doutor Humberto Carlos Baquero Moreno, vol. III, Porto: Livraria Civilização Editora, 2003, pp. 1091-1099.

9 Farelo, Mário - ibidem, p. 204.

10 , Artur Moreira de (ed.) - Chartularium Universitatis Portucalensis, vol. II (1377-1408). Lisbon: Instituto de Alta Cultura/Centro de Estudos de Psicologia e de História da Filosofia, 1968, doc. 299 (herein after referred by using the acronym CUP, followed by the indication of the volume in Roman numerals and of the document number in Arabic numerals).

11 Farelo, Mário - "Lisboa numa rede latina? Os escolares em movimento". In A Universidade Medieval em Lisboa (séculos XIII-XVI)..., p. 248.

12 The complete list of students who studied law in the Italian universities can be found in table 1.

13 CUP, VIII, 3157 and 3165.

14 CUP, VII, 2764.

15 CUP, III, 573 and 588.

16 CUP, VII, 2605, 2608 and 2609.

17 CUP, VI, 1962, 2009, 2045, 2096, 2115, 2182, 2209, 2222and 2325; VII, 2509, 2510, 2511 and 2512.

18 CUP, V, 1674.

19 CUP, VI, 2110.

20 CUP, VII, 2562.

21 CUP, VII, 2786.

22 CUP, IV, 1041.

23 CUP, IX, 3470, 3506, 3517 and 3676; X, 3913.

24 CUP, 2228; VII, 2460, 2575 and 2627.

25 CUP, III, 880, 922 and 923.

26 CUP, IV, 1104 and 1275.

27 Including, in this case, two theology graduates (Friar Álvaro Pais and João Garcia) and a liberal arts graduate (Álvaro Teixeira).

28 Curiously referred as a "peritus in iure canonico" at the early age of 16.

29 Several members of the Coutinho family (who held the honorific position of marshals of Portugal from the late-14th century onwards and were later raised to nobility with the rank of counts of Marialva in 1440) were also important figures of the Portuguese episcopacy throughout the 15th century. At least three of them obtained an Episcopal rank, while another one get one of the most important priories of the kingdom – the notable collegiate of Our Lady in Guimarães.

Auteur

Centre of History, School of Arts and Humanities of the University of Lisbon (CH-ULisbon); Centre of Religious History Studies, Portuguese Catholic University (CEHR-UCP)
Has completed a B.A. in History (2007) and a M.A. in Medieval History (2011) with a thesis entitled O povoamento no Baixo Vale do Tejo: entre a territorialização e a militarização (meados do século IX – início do século XIV), both at the School of Arts and Humanities of the University of Lisbon (FL-ULisbon). Currently he is a Ph.D. candidate with a FCT grant (SFRH/BD/77835/2011) within the Interuniversity Doctoral Programme in History (PIUDHist), researching on the subject Portuguese scholars in Christianitas (12th -15th centuries): mobilities, networks, careers. He has been a researcher of the Centre of History of the University of Lisbon (since 2007) and of the Centre of Religious History Studies (Catholic University, Lisbon), since 2011. A former trainee of the project A Universidade Medieval em Lisboa (séculos XIII-XVI), coordinated by Hermenegildo Fernandes and funded by the University of Lisbon, he is currently a researcher of the FCT project DEGRUPE (PTDC/EPHHIS/4964/2012), and was previously also a member of the FCT project Resources for Portuguese Maritime History. 1200-1700 (POCI/HAR/61862/2004). His research interests are focused mainly on medieval history, with particular emphasis on the geospatial occupation, history of al-Andalus, military history and currently mobilities, history of education and universities and medieval literate culture. He has presented several papers in both national and international conferences (Poitiers, London, Bologna and Messina) and has published several articles in journals and collective books.

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