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OpenEdition Books

Masterpieces of History

 | 
Svetlana Savranskaya
, 
Thomas Blanton
, 
Vladislav Zubok

Index

Texte intégral

A

Abalkin, Leonid, 578

Aboimov, Ivan, 91, 515, 661-662, 665-667

Adamec, Ladislav, 82, 372, 411

speech by, 608-610 Afghanistan, 166, 263, 565, 635
Soviet intervention in, 133, 136,141
cost of, 112, 329, 422, 430
impact on non-interference
policy, 133, 136, 138, 141, 565
U.S. response to, 131, 141-142, 445
Soviet withdrawal from, 55, 134,261, 342, 393, 395-396

Aganbegyan, Abel, 239

Akhromeyev, Sergey, 37, 54, 92, 158, 214, 250, 625, 630, 639, 640, 673, 674

Albania, 169, 690

Aleksandrov, Chudomir, 574-576

Alksnis, Viktor, 158

Andreyeva, Nina, 115, 123, 166, 269

Andropov, Yurii, 126, 129, 133, 189, 570

Angola, 161, 238, 263, 340, 342

Arbatov, Georgy, 113, 150, 335

Aristov, Boris, 416

Arms control, 17, 339, 394, 637639
parity
vs. sufficiency, 249, 251, 254, 278, 289
Soviet-U.S. negotiations, 23, 86, 244-245, 263, 327, 401-402
CFE negotiations, 63, 79, 250, 252, 479, 480, 482-483, 513, 556, 614, 629, 638-640, 650
missile reductions, 623-624, 630
START Treaty, 23, 54-55, 81, 98, 187, 401-402, 443, 613, 639, 650
unilateral military cutbacks, 58, 60, 66, 73, 87-88, 244, 263, 311-12, 323, 330, 623

Arms race, 52, 189, 286-287, 289

Arms reductions, 53
chemical weapons, 278, 623, 641-642
missed opportunities for, 51-53, 57, 62, 69-70, 185, 187
Soviet proposals for, 54-55, 208, 498, 505

Atanasov, Georgi, 575

Axen, Hermann, 148

B

Babiuch, Edward, 147

Baka, Władysław, 300, 454

Baker, James, 67, 89, 191, 440, 442, 505
on the Baltic Republics, 562
cable to U.S. embassy, Bulgaria, 159, 660
on East German mass emigration, 159
and Gorbachev, 30, 69, 192, 480, 598, 675-684
guarantees on NATO, 93-95
statements on, 111, 200
letter to Helmut Kohl, 685-687
and NSC reform, 67, 197-198
and resistance to
perestroika, 73, 74, 193, 415, 438-439, 447
and Shevardnadze, 213, 613, 641
and Soviet-U.S. “condominium,” 64, 65, 177, 341
and U.S. “pause,” 196
and use of force in Romania, 91, 661-662
and “Western” values, 645-646

Balance of forces, 21, 249-250, 494, 509, 586

Balance of power, 2, 45, 64, 199, 566

Balkans, 255, 476, 478, 688-690

Baltic Republics, 27-28, 34, 47, 101, 167-169, 180
elections in, 450-451
political instability in, 325-326, 331, 561
secession of, 180-181, 212, 577, 578
Soviet nonuse of force in, 145, 165, 326, 451
U.S. comments on, 508, 635
Western noninterference in, 561562, 643

Barcikowski, Kazimierz, 455, 458-459

Batsanov, Boris, 213

Békés, Csaba, 151-154

Berecz, Janós, 313, 321-323

Berlin Wall, fall of, xxii, 21, 32, 3435, 44, 49, 82-84, 569, 582-583, 587

description of, 587-589 Berlinguer, Enrico, 108 Bil’ak, Vasíl, 9, 125, 260 Billington, James, 58, 60, 110

Bisztyga, Jan, 454, 455

Blanton, Thomas, xxi, xxiii, 24, 99, 102, 138-139, 159, 174, 194, 204-205, 209

Blatov, Anatoly, 133

Bogomolov Institute, 18, 24, 39, 44, 100-101, 151, 365-381

Bonn Declaration (1989), 33

Bozóki, Andras, 97-98

Brandt, Willy, 571, 673, 682

Brezhnev Doctrine, xxi, 3-11, 31, 41, 44, 123-124, 130-133, 136, 138, 140-141, 151-152
origins under Khrushchev, 152
origins under Stalin, 136, 152
revocation of, 18, 82, 121, 130133, 136-137, 139, 217, 268, 463, 466, 525, 527, 561, 614, 632, 669-671
and Romanian revolution (1989), 91, 662, 666-667

Brezhnev, Leonid, 112, 114, 133, 387, 531, 544
and comparison to Gorbachev, 149-150, 328, 330
and Czechoslovakia, 127, 149-150
and East Germany, 148
foreign policy of, 23, 114, 127, 129, 133, 148, 166, 286, 330
and ideology, 108, 328
and Poland, 129, 133, 136, 147-148
and reform, 114, 531
and Soviet economy, 184, 185, 211
and technology, 544

Brown, Archie, 12, 135

Brussels Summit (1989). See North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)

Brzezinski, Zbigniew, 21, 33, 72, 175, 178, 179, 299, 438, 563568

Bukur, I., 661-663

Bulgaria, 255, 257, 374-375
See also Zhivkov, Todor Communist Party plenum (1989), 574-576
democratization of, 591
and
perestroika, 651-652
Soviet aid to, 156, 417
Soviet nonintervention in, 149, 652, 660
and Soviet relations, 161

ush, George H.W, 22, 30, 33, 36, 46, 51, 75
See also United States administration of, 23, 196-197, 334-335, 341
compared to Reagan administration, 32, 61-62, 66, 67, 70, 75, 80, 185, 195, 463, 601
on “Common European home,” 73-74, 96-97
domestic pressures on, 180, 196197, 464
and Eastern Europe, 52, 56, 72, 75, 79-80, 484-487, 527
on fall of Berlin Wall, 82, 83, 86, 587-588, 595, 596, 619, 627
and German reunification, 33, 36, 46, 53, 73, 86, 89, 190191, 198, 657

and Gorbachev, 69, 74, 80, 81, 194, 347-348, 352
mistrust of, 53, 58, 60, 62, 63, 193
NSC monitoring of, 74, 101, 477
and Hungary, 76-79
leadership style of, 75, 96, 334, 337, 463-464, 465, 497
and Poland, 71-72, 75-79, 483, 497, 587
visit to (1989), 503-505
policy toward Soviet Union, 23, 53, 175, 194, 527-529
“pause” in, xx, 20, 23, 29, 32, 46, 52, 62, 66-71, 78, 98, 192195, 263, 333-334, 347-348
as president-elect, 57, 334
and support for
perestroika, 504, 621, 677
and “the vision thing,” 63, 64, 67, 73, 196

C

Canada, 598-601

Carlucci, Frank, 57, 187 Carter, Jimmy, 52, 61, 99, 141142, 182

Casey, William, 111, 184

Castro, Fidel, 13, 88, 192, 234, 237, 586, 630-631, 633, 684
See also Cuba
CC CPSU
See Soviet Communist Party Central Committee (CC CPSU)

Ceauşescu, Nicolae, 5, 10, 31, 49, 56, 91, 123, 147, 236, 238, 356, 373, 586
See also Romania
criticism of, 217, 226, 253-254, 409, 478, 490, 499, 586
and Gorbachev, 144, 218, 227228, 253-254, 476
overthrow of, 661-664, 691
and
perestroika, 258, 397-398

Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)
See also Intelligence estimates (U.S.)
destabilization of Soviet Union, 181-182, 188
Office of Soviet Analysis, 522
views on Gorbachev, 110-111, 261-263, 325-330

Chebrikov, Viktor, 250, 269-270, 328, 329
and Congress of People’s Deputies, 427-428

Chen Jian, 165

Cheney, Richard, 23, 66, 82, 650

Chernenko, Konstantin, 109, 126, 129, 133

funeral of, xxi, 4, 5, 111, 121, 130, 217-218

Chernobyl nuclear accident (1986), 26, 131, 213, 226, 228, 393, 422, 430
and
perestroika, 134-135

Chernyaev, Anatoly, xviii, 7, 12, 17, 35, 92, 99, 120, 199-200, 209
on the Baltic Republics, 167-168
on China, 166-168
diary of, 220-221, 309-310, 331, 542-543, 547, 548-549
on Berlin Wall, 586
on German reunification, 673-674
on Gorbachev’s state of mind, 449
foreword by, xvii-xxiv
on Gorbachev’s ambiguous statements, 163
on Gorbachev’s European policy, 143-144, 163-164
memoranda from, 222-223, 389
on nonintervention in Eastern Europe, 121-122, 125, 146, 149-150
on origins of Soviet “new thinking,” 103-104, 108-109
on Poland, 133-135, 138
on Soviet-U.S. relations, 189193

China, 221, 605, 626
See also Deng Xiaoping Gorbachev’s visit to (1989), 165-169
and
perestroika, 416
and Soviet relations, 227
Tiananmen Square protests (1989), 75, 165-166, 169-170

Ciosek, Stanislaw, 453, 455, 458

CMEA. See Council for Mutual Economic Assistance

COCOM. See Coordinating
Committee on Export Controls

Commission on Poland (Soviet Union), 130, 157
“Common European home,” xxii, 3, 11, 18-22, 33, 45, 96-97, 222, 227, 248, 290-291, 493-495
See also “New thinking” Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE), xxii, 20, 35, 495-496, 679
See also Helsinki Accords (1975)

Coordinating Committee on Export Controls (COCOM), 406, 683-684

Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (CMEA), 4, 7, 14-16, 228, 232, 236, 358-359
cooperation with U.S., 642-643
failure of, 265-266
integration with EC, 8, 14, 45, 495
and Poland, 603, 697, 536

reform of, 266, 321
Council of Europe, 20

CPSU. See Soviet Communist

Party (CPSU) Crowe, William, 70, 640

CSCE. See Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe

(CSCE) Cuba, 266, 415, 629

See also Castro, Fidel normalization of relations with
U.S., 630-631

Czarzasty, Zygmunt, 453, 457, 459

Czechoslovakia, 9, 372-373
and economic reform, 258
and
perestroika, 248, 259-260, 271-272, 373
and political instability, 436-437,608-610
mass demonstrations, 82 and political reform personnel changes in, 409, 411

Prague Spring (1968), 9, 127, 133, 149-150, 157, 248, 408-409, 670

Soviet non intervention in, 125, 127, 135, 149, 204
and Soviet relations, 229, 245,

247-248, 670

Soviet troop withdrawal, 43-44, 244-246

Velvet Revolution (1989), xxii, 31, 608

Czechoslovak Communist Party (CPCz), 411

Central Committee of, 608-610

and debate on use of force, 608-609
Czyrek, Józef, 23-24, 41-42, 453455, 461, 695
and Gorbachev, 292-305

D

Danchev, Petko, 575

Davis, John, 81, 482

Dawisha, Karen, 111-112, 149,

155-156, 174

Deng Xiaoping, 166, 169, 227,

586, 605

See also China

d’Estaing, Giscard, 349, 350, 56 619, 641

Developing countries, 152, 183,

261-263, 327, 328, 350

Dobrynin, Anatoly, 12, 23, 65, 195, 199-201, 203, 206, 228, 234, 239, 250, 311, 329, 345, 346, 637

on Socialist countries and perestroika, 241

Dolgikh, Vladimir, 217, 288

Dregger, Alfred, 566

Dubček, Alexander, 408-409, 437

compared with Gorbachev, 119, 138, 248, 286, 395

Dumas, Roland, 91, 594, 661, 680

E

Eastern Europe

See also Gorbachev, Mikhail,

Eastern Europe policy

See also Socialist countries

abandonment vs. neglect, 4, 7, 14, 363
democratization of, 29-31, 45, 49, 356, 542-543, 688-689
economic burden on Soviet
Union, 14-17, 156, 265-266, 416-417
and economic reform, 257-258, 281, 366
and political unrest, 284-285, 366-369, 553-554

Soviet military presence in, 251

Soviet nonintervention in 38-41, 45, 121-125, 153-154, 172-173, 203, 234, 259-260, 268

Soviet trade with, 16, 254, 671672

Soviet troop withdrawal from, 145, 251, 311, 331, 335-339, 379

Shakhnazarov’s proposal for, 555-557

strategic value of, 17

Western aid to, 558-560, 689

Western noninterference in, 465466, 477, 497, 532, 564-565, 645, 655

East-West relations, 153, 291, 693

and detente, 555-557
and economic relations, 404-405
and European stability, 64, 80, 206, 341, 377, 503, 504, 530, 675, 688

Environmental protection, 495,528, 624

Estonia, 168, 331, 451, 561, 577,698

Eurocommunism, 19, 102-103,

108-109, 152-153, 171-172

European Community (EC), 39,350, 595

European Free Trade Association, 495

European Union (EU), 46

F

Falin, Valentin, 35-36, 94, 168,170, 200, 209

Fedorov, Rafail, 673-674

Finland, 561-562

“Finlandization,” 376-378

Fischer, Oskar, 515, 517, 518-520

Foley, Tom, 464

France, 477

and perestroika, 489
and Soviet relations, 547

Frolov, Ivan, 578

Frost, David, 82, 87

G

Garthoff, Raymond, 59

Gates, Robert, 23, 72, 79, 83, 101,132, 183, 195

intelligence estimates of, 261-263
on Soviet “new thinking,” 55, 60, 68, 111, 261-263, 325, 390, 442, 479
on Gorbachev, 74

Gdula, Andrzej, 454, 456, 459

General Agreement on Tariffs and

Trade (GATT), 406, 622, 628

Genscher, Hans-Dietrich, 36, 8587, 90, 159, 482, 597, 680

and Gorbachev, 653-656, 658-659
Georgia (Soviet Union), 160-161

See also Tbilisi demonstrations

(1989)

Gerasimov, Gennadii, 82, 561

German reunification, xxii, 17, 3036, 85-87, 91, 94-95, 191, 200, 566, 593-594

and “2 +4” formula, 679, 681,686
opposition to, 547, 567, 571, 581,601, 690
pace of, 648-649, 656, 673-674,678-679
and Soviet “new thinking,” 223,309
and stability in Europe, 30, 33,35, 85, 92, 465, 476-477, 590592, 593-594, 685-686
and Western leaders, 33, 35-37,144-145, 175, 648, 649-650, 657
(See
also under specific leaders)

Germany (East), 34, 82, 374,615-616

democratization of, 90, 92, 582583
economic ties with West
Germany, 570

emigration from, 155, 515, 517, 518-520, 542, 553
and Hungarian relations, 515-516
and leadership of, 545-546
mass demonstrations in, 34, 82, 542
and pace of reform, 580-584 political opposition in, 552-554
and Soviet non intervention in,572
and Soviet relations, 461-462,554
Soviet troop withdrawal from, 37,246, 674

Germany (West), 8, 222, 227

“back-channel” communications to Soviet Union, 466-467,468
and East German refugees, 517,519-520, 559, 581, 584, 588, 590
and Hungarian relations, 486487
and Polish relations, 477, 484487, 580-585
and Soviet relations, 476-478, 590-592, 654
and U.S. relations, 558-560

Gierek, Edward, 128, 147-148, 266, 572, 698

Glemp, Józef, 294, 296, 305, 452,459, 694

Gonzalez, Felipe, 209

Goodpaster, Andrew, 59, 311

Gorbachev, Mikhail

See also Soviet Union

and Brezhnev Doctrine, 3-5, 9, 133-134, 138
foreign policy of, 146, 164, 199203, 250, 262, 327-328
critique of, 665-672
and German reunification, 34-35, 36, 89-96, 653-656, 673-674, 680-682
internal opposition to, 114-115, 126, 220, 282
leadership changes of, 325-330
leadership style of, 112-113, 135, 170-171
memo from, 230-233
political longevity of, 386-387,433-434, 523-524, 598, 613
and relations with Western leaders, 10, 32-34, 101, 162, 174-175, 177, 210, 250, 475, 488-489
(See also under specific individuals)
and socialism, 120, 607
and U.S. “pause,” 468-469
U.S. support for, 188, 400
values of, 131, 134-136, 145, 253, 328, 413
Gorbachev, Mikhail, Eastern Europe policy of, 1-3, 5-8, 1213, 24, 45, 353-364, 366-381

See also Eastern Europe

ambiguity of, 4, 13, 24, 141, 153, 166, 173, 339
and Hungary, 418-419
priority of, 141, 146, 150-151, 155-156, 230-233, 256, 306-308

and stability of Eastern Europe,13, 79, 141, 243, 266, 280-281, 378, 389, 412
strategy paper, 353-364

U.K. views on, 439-440 U.S. views on, 280-285

Gorbachev, Mikhail, speeches

Ministry of Foreign Affairs (1986), 224-225

Poland state dinner (1988), 290-291

Soviet ambassadors to Socialist

countries (1989), 414-417
Strasbourg Address (1989), 20, 389, 492-496

United Nations (1988), 11, 4144, 58-62, 142, 144, 311-312, 332

U.S. reaction to, 59, 61

Gorbachev, Raisa, 110, 275, 488489, 491

Gosplan, 208, 316, 321, 423, 534-535

Grachev, Andrei, 4, 29, 31, 39, 92

Grass, Günter, 682

Gromyko, Andrei, 111, 201, 249, 286, 288, 328-329, 330

Grósz, Karóly, 24, 163, 273, 283, 313-321, 412, 486, 499

and Gorbachev, 409-410, 418419, 511-514
and Hungarian roundtable negotiations, 470-471

Group of Soviet Forces in Germany, 338

H

Hager, Kurt, 148, 516, 551-554

Haig, Alexander, 141, 183

Havel, Václav, 49, 94, 166, 436, 437, 608

Helsinki Accords (1975), 21, 73, 90, 562, 619, 647, 648

See also Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE)

Hengsbach, Franz, 584

Hermann, Richard, 67, 196-198

Hershberg, James, 130-131, 138, 164-165, 203

Hitler, Adolf, 90, 485, 653, 655, 656

Hodnett, Grey, 522

Honecker, Erich, 10, 30, 32, 34, 42, 82, 122-123, 143-144, 163, 218, 226, 228

assessments of, 222, 476-477, 531-532
Gorbachev and, 127, 146-148, 221, 226, 548-549

perestroika and, 241-243
replacement of, 548, 570-573

Shevardnadze and, 460-462 and Soviet forces, 107

Honecker, Margot, 477

Horn, Gyula, 31, 162-163, 292, 515, 516

Hugo, Victor, 20, 21

Human rights, 45, 288, 312, 361, 401-403, 495

Hungarian Socialist Workers’ Party (HSWP), 313-324, 355, 471, 512-513, 565

Hungary, 16-17, 52, 371-372

border opening of, xxii, 24, 34, 72, 82, 154, 159, 162
East German response to, 517, 518-519

Soviet response to, 412-413

debt of, 133-134, 319-320, 322, 572

democratization of, 472-473, 511-514
economy of, 156, 229, 319 elections in (1990), 81
leadership of, 273-276, 314, 319 Political Executive Committee, 511-514
political unrest in, 255, 320, 419 reforms in, 30, 76, 132, 205, 319-323
revolution in (1956), 27, 76,152-153, 419

Roundtable negotiations (1989), 470-474

Soviet nonintervention in, 39, 129, 419, 465

and Soviet trade balance, 315316, 321
Soviet troop presence in, 106, 315, 513

and U.S. relations, 76-79, 82, 275
Hurd, Douglas, 47

Husák, Gustáv, 9, 127, 149, 217, 218, 227, 228, 236, 239, 242, 247, 248

and Gorbachev, 271-272
Hussein, Saddam, 162

I

Ignatenko, Vitaly, 122

INF Treaty, 54, 57, 63, 64, 69, 79, 185, 261, 263, 277, 393

Information security, 269, 338-340

Inozemtsev, Nikolay, 113

Institute of Europe (Soviet Union), 20

Institute of the Economy of the World Socialist System. See Bogomolev Institute

Intelligence estimates (U.S.), 5556, 60, 67, 139-140, 183-184, 186-187, 197, 257-258, 325-330

See also Central Intelligence Agency

disagreements on, 67, 444-445
on Eastern Europe, 186
on Gorbachev, 432-435

NIE 11-4-89, 442-445

NIE 11/12-9-88, 280-285

NIE 12-90, 688-690

on stability of Soviet Union, 522-524
“Team B,” 182

International Communist

Movement, 229, 238

International Monetary Fund

(IMF)

and Poland, 72, 560, 588, 596, 615
Iran and Soviet relations, 317

Iran-Iraq War, 317, 440, 642 Iraq, 188, 208

Iran-Contra scandal, 55, 67, 186187, 197

Israel

and Hungarian relations, 317, 412
and Soviet relations, 413

Italian Communist Party, 108-109,408

J

Jackson-Vanik Amendment (U.S.), 176, 179-180, 346, 402, 622

Jakeš, Miloš, 9, 42, 148, 203-204, 271, 283, 372, 608

Jaruzelski, Wojciech, 5, 29, 41-43, 77-79, 135, 155, 218, 226, 602, 680

on American and Soviet troops in
Europe, 93, 675, 680

and “Common European home,” 97
on East European leaders, 238, 461
and George Bush, 79, 81, 97, 503-505, 619
and German unification, 571
and Gorbachev, 97, 127-128, 163, 169, 290, 301-303, 533, 534, 548, 602, 606, 680, 691699
Gorbachev’s views on, 5, 30, 236, 237, 238, 477, 479, 490, 571, 603, 606

political strategy of (1988-1989), 204-205, 283, 292-305, 370, 491
and Polish elections (1989), 76, 81, 452-455, 459, 461, 536
and Soviet Politburo, 534
Thatcher’s views on, 440, 531

K

Kádár, Janós, 5, 8, 15, 123, 227, 314

death of, 512-513
and Gorbachev, 5, 57, 132, 163, 217, 218, 220-221, 226, 229, 238, 242, 273-276, 545

Karmal, Babrak, 565

Kashlev, Yurii, 21

Katushev, Konstantin, 317, 534

Katyń Forest massacre (1940), 178, 563, 605-606, 670, 691, 692, 695

See also Poland

Kent, Sherman, 187

KGB (Soviet Union), 40, 46, 74, 212, 214

and Tbilisi demonstrations, 447-448
Khrushchev, Nikita, 123, 255, 312
and arms race, 286
and Hungarian revolution (1956), 136, 152, 153, 242243
ouster of, 386, 387, 433
and reform, 105, 111-112, 114, 118, 242-243, 270, 297, 383, 531

Kim Il Sung, 586

Kimmitt, Robert, 197

Kirilenko, Andrei, 108

Kissinger, Henry, 22-23, 39, 176178, 337, 352, 468

and Gorbachev, 63-65, 192, 345-346, 350-351
influence of, 438-439

Soviet-U.S. “condominium”

proposal, 341-344, 349, 351, 627
Kiszczak, Czeslaw, 300, 303, 453-456

Kochemassov, Vyacheslav, 143, 517

Kohl, Helmut, xviii, 11, 30, 32, 35

and fall of Berlin Wall, 53, 77-79, 84
and George H.W. Bush, 53, 7779, 84-86, 463-464
conversations with, 558-560, 587-589, 595-597

About Gorbachev, 479-481

letters to, 484-487, 611618
and George H.W. Bush, Scowcroft, and Sununu, 647-650
and German reunification, 85, 89-90, 94, 548, 590-593

and Gorbachev, 32-33, 35, 7475, 85, 227, 309-310, 572
conversations with, 463-467, 475, 476-478, 548-549, 590-593
and Lech Wałęsa, 580-585

10-point speech, 36, 46, 85, 90, 209, 617-618, 634, 648-649, 653-656, 658

Koivisto, Mauno, 21 and Gorbachev, 561-562

Komplektov, Viktor, 195

Komsomol (Communist Union of Youth), 287, 312, 320, 430, 698

Kónya, Imre, 471-473

Kornienko, Georgy, 195, 201, 214

Korotich, Vitalii, 427

Kosygin, Alexey, 114, 118, 148

Kovacs, László, 162

Krenz, Egon, 34, 147, 566, 581, 588, 591

and Gorbachev, 569-574

and Helmut Kohl, 595

Krol, Marcin, 131

Krolikowski, Werner, 143, 148, 516

Kryuchkov, Vladimir, 181, 330, 447, 535

Kukorelli, Istvan, 473-474

Kulikov, Viktor, 158, 277-279

Kvitsinsky, Yuli, 122, 137, 515,

170, 517

Kwaśniewski, Aleksander, 76, 452, 454-457, 691

L

Labor unions, 408

Latin America, 192, 629, 632-633

Latvia, 698

Lenin, Vladimir, 118-119, 125

Levesque, Jacques, xv, xviii, xxv, 1, 14, 101, 117-118, 155

on Brezhnev Doctrine, 140-141
on Gorbachev’s East European
policy, 149, 212
on Hungary, 162-163

Ligachev, Yegor, 25, 27, 115, 267, 269, 287, 326, 339

on Congress of People’s

Deputies, 425-426 Lithuania, 697, 698-699

nationalism in, 694
repression in, 135

Lomakin, Viktor, 416

Lukyanov, Anatoly, 27, 430

M

MacEachin, Douglas, 56, 59-60, 67, 171-173, 186-187, 211-213, 442

on Poland crisis (1980-1981),139-140
on U.S. intelligence disputes, 182-186
on U.S. reaction to Soviet “new thinking,” 110-111, 116-117

McFarlane, Robert, 187

Machcewicz, Paweł, 131, 154

Malin, Vladimir, 152

Malta Summit (1989), 36, 52, 8789, 192, 596, 599, 606-607

and German reunification, 634635, 640, 645
and Helmut Kohl, 596, 612, 647-648
transcript of, 619-646
and “Western” values, 643-645, 648, 649

Mao Zedong, 123

Masliukov, Yurii, 430

Matlock, Jack, xxv, 12, 58, 62, 82-83, 95, 180-182, 194-195, 206-208, 337

and Aleksandr Yakovlev, 506-510
cables of, 99, 382-388, 390-396, 399-407
bankruptcy metaphor in, 6769, 127, 383
on origins of Soviet “new thinking,” 109-110, 117
on Poland crisis (1980-1981), 141-142
and Romanian revolution (1989), 665-667
on U.S. “back-channels,” 177-179

Mazowiecki, Tadeusz, 42, 81, 154, 164

on “Common European home,” 97
and Gorbachev, 157, 602-607

Soviet support for, 537-538, 692

Medvedev, Dmitri, 54, 113

Medvedev, Vadim, 6, 8, 12, 24, 212, 242, 251, 266, 328-329

on Baltic Republics, 450, 578
on Congress of People’s

Deputies, 424-426

and Kurt Hager, 551-554
Romanian visit of (1989), 397398

Meehan, Francis, 264

Middle East, 198, 201

Mielke, Erich, 516

Migranyan, Andranik, 18

Military-political alliances, 642

See also North Atlantic Treaty

Organization (NATO); Warsaw

Treaty Organization
dissolution of, 137-138, 532, 555-557, 567, 571, 690, 696

Miodowicz, Alfred, 205, 295

Mironenko Viktor, 430

Mitterrand, François, 21, 33-35, 389

and George Bush, 75, 491
and German reunification, 571, 593-594
and Gorbachev, 488-489, 490-491, 497-498, 593-594, 657-659

Mladenov, Petar, 149-150, 159, 161, 575, 660

Moisov, Lazar

and Gorbachev, 268, 651-652
Moscow Summit (1988), 12, 51, 56-57

Moynihan, Daniel, 59

Mujaheddin, 142

Mulroney, Brian

and Gorbachev, 598-601

Musgrove conference (1998), xvi-xxv, 99-214

Mlynář, Zdenĕk, 9

N

Nagy, Imre, 30, 76, 132, 462

Najibullah, Mohammad, 565-566

Nakasone, Yasuhiro, 120 National Intelligence Estimates.

See Intelligence estimates (U.S.) National Security Directive 23, 71, 175, 525-529

See also Soviet Union, U.S. relations with Németh, Miklós, 24, 34, 292, 313, 314, 321, 322, 410, 615

and Gorbachev, 412-413
“New thinking,” xix-xxiv, 3, 5, 12, 50, 52, 54, 144, 162, 309-310, 311-312

See also “Common European home”

and Eastern Europe, 102, 155-156
evolution of, 118
and freedom of choice, xxi, 4, 6-12, 38, 41, 140, 615, 644

and nonuse of force, 135-136, 144, 199-200

origins of, 103-104, 105-106, 108-110, 117

Soviet military views on, 158

U.S. views on, 110-111, 116-117, 392-393

News media and perestroika, 287-289, 333, 578

Nicaragua, 88, 631

Nishanov, R.N., 534

Nitze, Paul, 54

Nixon, Richard, 23, 56, 64, 182, 491

North Atlantic Treaty Organization

(NATO), 17, 18, 20, 34, 45, 47, 140, 641

See also Military-political alliances

Brussels Summit (May 1989) of, 36-37, 75, 507

Eastern European membership in, 145, 157

U.S. guarantees against, 37-38, 93-96, 208, 683, 686

and German membership, 37, 94, 654, 658, 680, 686
and troop reduction proposals, 70-71, 252

Novotný, Antonin, 149-150, 409

Nuclear deterrence, 279, 614

Nuclear disarmament, xx, 11, 51, 63, 80-81, 200, 309, 508-509

Nyers, Rezső, 314, 315, 518, 519

and Gorbachev, 511-514

O

Obama, Barack, 54

Oberdorfer, Don, 72

Occhetto, Achille

and Gorbachev, 408-410 Oil
prices, 15-17, 25-26, 267
production of, 25
sales to Eastern Europe, 156, 316, 358, 570, 605

Olszowski, Stefan, 147-148

Ortega, Daniel, 632

P

Paczkowski, Andrzej, 127, 130, 204-205

Palazchenko, Pavel, 45

Paris Economic Summit (1989), 483

Patiashvili, Jumber, 28, 447

PCC. See Warsaw Treaty Organization Political Consultative Committee

Perestroika, xxii—xxiii, 1-5, 11-13, 18-21, 23, 26 39, 43, 63, 119,

122, 144, 162, 202, 210

ideological basis of, 383-384
irreversibility of, 388, 393-394
limits of, 124-125
market economy and, 13, 18, 117-120, 206-207, 384-386, 672
opposition to, 384
pace of, 421-422, 531, 545-546
and private property, 124-125, 322, 678
and socialism, 118-120, 414417, 500-502
and Soviet public opinion, 421-424

U.S. views on, 283, 327, 333-334, 337, 376, 382-388, 391-396, 432-435

and Western interests, 438-439

Petrushenko, Nikolay, 158

Philippines, 632-633

Piłsudski, Józef, 550 Poindexter, John, 187

Poland, 17, 24, 370-371

See also Katyń Forest massacre (1940)

1989 elections, 29-31, 76, 154, 302, 452-459

Soviet response to, 533-536

and Catholic Church, 294-296, 452, 535, 539, 694
crisis (1980-1981), 133, 136, 139-140, 141, 156, 606

debt of, 134, 305, 572
democratization of, 127-128, 204-205, 695-696
economic reforms in, 604 and
perestroika, 297 Roundtable discussions, 41-42, 204, 302-303

Soviet nonintervention in, 129130, 133, 135-137, 550

and Soviet relations, 128-129, 290, 304-305, 533-541, 602607, 692
economic relations, 697
Soviet troop withdrawal, 505, 695-696

George H.W. Bush’s comments
on, 497, 507
Strikes in, 293

Western aid to, 477, 483, 485486, 504, 615

from U.S., 560, 595-596
from West Germany, 581

Western trade with, 72

Polish United Worker’s Party

(PUWP), 292-306, 355, 550

Central Committee of, 155, 452-459

impact of elections on, 536-537, 604
Ponomarev, Boris, 12, 104, 108

Popov, Gavriil, 194

Porębski, Tadeusz, 301

Portugalov, Nikolay, 36

Powell, Colin, 57, 187, 198

Prague Spring (1968). See Czechoslovakia: Prague Spring (1968)

Pravda, 221

Prečan, Vilém, 127, 203

Primakov, Evgeny, 521, 534, 692

Pudlák, Jan, 436-437

Pugo, Boris, 428-429

Putin, Vladimir, 54, 148

PUWP. See Polish United Workers’ Party

R

Rainer, Janós, 132, 205

Rakhmanin, Oleg, 123-124

Pravda article of, 5-6, 220-221

Rakowski, Mieczyslaw, 29, 127-129, 154, 205, 301, 304, 454-455

and Gorbachev, 548, 550
on Polish elections (1989), 454455, 458
and Soviet Politburo, 534

Reagan, Nancy, 110

Reagan, Ronald, xxv, 12, 83, 650

See also United States Eastern Europe and, 275

and Gorbachev, xix-xx, 17, 32, 51, 61, 96, 189, 192-193, 334, 628
and “winning” the Cold War, 50-51

Reykjavik Summit (1986), 17, 185

Rice, Condoleezza, 69, 74, 476

Ridgeway, Rozanne, 264

Rodionov, Igor, 160

Romania, 229, 373-374, 478

See also Ceauşescu, Nicolae and economic reform, 258
Gorbachev’s visits to, 253-254, 490-491, 670
humanitarian aid to, 666
and
perestroika, 397-398
revolution in (1989), 49, 91, 662-667
description of, 663-664

Soviet noninterference in, 663, 666-667

Ross, Dennis, 67, 197-198

Rusakov, Konstantin, 6, 12, 218, 220, 221

Russia, 46-47, 97

Ryzhkov, Nikolay, 16, 125

and Czechoslovakia, 259, 411
and Soviet economy, 26, 239, 267, 570
and Soviet Union’s dissolution, 578
and Tbilisi demonstrations, 448

S

Sakharov, Andrei, 27

Savimbi, Jonas, 161

Schabowski, Günther, 84

Schifter, Richard, 660

Schmidt, Helmut, 464

Scowcroft, Brent, 23, 62, 69, 78, 86, 194, 197, 345, 442, 625, 647

SDI. See Strategic Defense Initiative (U.S.)

SED. See Socialist Unity Party of Germany (SED)

Semenov, Vladimir, 137

Shakhnazarov, Georgy, xviii, 6, 8, 12, 16, 21, 43-44, 82, 114-115, 128-130, 168-171, 188, 200201, 209-210, 269

and Brezhnev doctrine, 136
and Gorbachev, 288, 311
on Gorbachev’s East European policy, 144-145, 151, 204, 312
memoranda of, 277-279, 306308, 555-557
on origins of Soviet “new
thinking,” 105-106
proposal for withdrawal from
Czechoslovakia, 244-246
on socialism, 120-121, 270
on Soviet economy, 156

Shalaev, Stepan, 535

and Congress of People’s
Deputies, 429-430

Shatrov, Mikhail, 427

Shcherbitsky, Vladimir, 29, 288, 424

Shepilov, Dmitri, 152

Shevardnadze, Eduard, 12, 20, 63, 98, 107, 170, 195, 239, 249, 288, 332

and arms control, 337, 641
and Baker, 213
and Bulgaria, 660
and Congress of People’s Deputies, 424-425
and East Germany, 155, 162163, 515-516
and Eastern Europe, 140, 145, 660
as foreign minister, 159, 162, 170, 172, 190, 195-196, 199, 201-202, 222, 327-330
and Gorbachev, 159-161, 662
and Hungary, 315
and Poland, 533-541
and Romania, 662
on socialism, 270
on Tbilisi demonstrations, 446-447
and use of force, 40, 142
visit to Eastern Europe of (1987), 222, 255-256

Shishlin, Nikolay, 133, 565

Shmelev, Nikolay, 20, 213, 571

Shultz, George, 62, 132, 184, 185, 187, 190, 195, 196, 211, 626

Simons, Tom, 264

Siwicki, Florian, 453, 457

Skubiszewski, Krzysztof, 533, 534

Skvortsov, Oleg, 126-127, 136, 143

Slyunkov, Nikolay, 429

Socialism

erosion of, 164, 229, 266, 270, 356, 366-367, 550

reform of, 13, 16, 105, 114-115, 117-119, 288-289

value of, 693

Socialist countries See also Eastern Europe

debt of, 267

democratization of, 103, 409-410

economic reform and, 232

leadership of, 306-307

and perestroika, 232-234, 236240, 350, 360-361, 414-417, 540

Soviet aid to, 156, 263

and Soviet relations, 134, 152, 157, 224-225, 227, 353-364, 365-380

economic relations, 571

Soviet trade with, 358

U.S. policy toward, 264

Western trade with, 265-266

Socialist Unity Party of Germany

(SED)

and Gorbachev, 544-546

Politburo, 515-516, 552

Sokolov, Sergey, 249

Solidarity (Poland), 41-42, 52, 81, 129, 156, 204-205, 694

popular support for, 294

and Soviet trade unions, 535

Soloviev, Yu., 337, 426-427

Soviet armed forces economic burden of, 387-388

military capability of, 339

military expenditures of, 158, 262, 339, 624

military policy of, 249-251, 262, 335-338

troop reductions of, 59-60, 171

use of force by, xxii, 1, 24, 28, 38-46, 82, 131, 165

estimates, 281, 285

Soviet Communist Party (CPSU)

election losses, 420-431

membership in, 287 and perestroika, 58

19th Party Conference (1988),

11, 26, 58, 109-110, 116, 286-289

Soviet Communist Party Central

Committee (CC CPSU)

International Department, 353-364, 668-672

Plenums, 5, 217 Soviet Communist Party Politburo, 230

on the Baltic Republics, 450-451 and Congress of People’s

Deputies, 420-431

meeting notes, 226-229, 234-235, 241-243, 247-249, 249-252, 259-260, 265-267, 269-270, 286-289, 349-351, 411

on perestroika, 332-340

Protocol 166, 533-541

on secession of Baltic Republics, 577-580

on socialist countries, 236-240

on Tbilisi crisis (1989), 446-448

Soviet Congress of People’s Deputies, 501

1989 elections, 26-27, 420-431

Soviet Defense Council, 251

Soviet economy conditions in, 15, 25-26, 50, 125, 213

consumer goods, 440-441
reform of, 257, 261-262, 384385, 523, 697-698
prices, 677

Soviet Union

See also Gorbachev, Mikhail Catholicism and, 694

democratization of, 421-422, 528
dissolution of, 126, 137, 182, 202, 578, 699
domestic policy of, 25, 326, 523-524
nationalism within, 27-29, 170, 331, 386, 523, 544-545
news media, 536, 578-579
place in Europe of, 690
political reform of, 151, 155, 188, 326-329, 697
presidential powers, 676-677
and Soviet Republics, 577-578, 698
stability of, 432-435, 568

Supreme Soviet, 509-510 technological development of, 134, 231, 267, 350, 544

U.S. economic aid to, 622 U.S. relations with, 189-196, 333, 506-510, 683

See also National Security

Directive 23

“back-channel” communications, 341-344, 345-346, 352

U.S. agenda for, 401-406

U.S. leverage on, 399-400

State Department Bureau of Intelligence and Research, 257-258

Stoph, Willi, 148, 515-516 Strategic Defense Initiative (U.S.), 52, 262

Štrougal, Lubomir, 125, 148, 203, 242, 259-260

Sununu, John, 647

Suslov, Mikhail, 104, 108, 112, 129, 157

Svoboda, Ludvík, 133 Szűrös, Mátyás, 313, 314, 315, 318, 321, 323

T

Tarasenko, Sergei, 106-108, 140, 158-163, 196, 200-202, 210-211

Tbilisi demonstrations (1989), 28, 135, 446-448

See also Georgia (Soviet Union)
use of gas in, 159-160

Teltschik, Horst, 36, 309, 463, 466, 559, 597

Thatcher, Margaret, 19, 30, 33, 51, 222, 309, 389

comparing Reagan and Bush, 440
and Evgeny Primakov, 521
and German reunification, 33, 51, 92, 532, 547, 649-650
and Gorbachev, 10, 19, 30, 73, 75, 250, 332, 438-441
conversations, 438-441, 530-532
and Western fears of Soviet

Union, 250, 332

Third World. See Developing

countries Tőkés, László, 661, 663

Trilateral Commission, 349-351

Truman Doctrine, 136

Truman, Harry, 508

U

Ukraine, 28-29

United Kingdom, 222
and Eastern Europe, 521, 531
and
perestroika, 439

United States

See also Bush, George H.W.

See also Reagan, Ronald
economic aid to Soviet Union from, 180-181, 191, 206-208
and end of Cold War, xxv, 49, 211
military capability of, 637
pressure on Soviet bloc from, 141-142
public diplomacy, 403, 529
relations with Eastern Europe, xvi, 52, 56, 264, 377, 527
(See
also under specific U.S. presidents and countries)
relations with West Germany, 479-481, 484-487
relations with Soviet Union.

See Soviet Union, U.S. relations

With
role in Europe, 640-641

troops in Europe, 37, 70, 93, 679-680
United States Embassy, Bulgaria, 101, 574-576, 660

Urban, Jerzy, 454, 456

V

Varennikov, Vitaly, 158

Vehres, Gerd, 518-520

Veres, Milan, 663-665

“Vladimirov” article. See Rakhmanin, Oleg, Pravda article of Volkogonov, Dmitry, xviii

Vorontsov, Yulii, 317, 395-396

Vorotnikov, Vitalii, 289, 332, 339, 340, 424, 578

W

Wałęsa, Lech, 41, 80, 84, 157, 205, 296, 580-585, 694

and Soviet Politburo, 534
Warsaw Treaty Organization, 4, 20, 37, 42, 45, 218, 376-377

See also Military-political alliances

Committee of Defense Ministers, 158, 160

Committee of Foreign Ministers, 515

and Gorbachev, 499-502
military policy of, 137-138, 277-279
and NATO, 234
and Poland, 603 Political Consultative Committee, 14, 226, 277
reform of, 106-107, 379
and response to Polish elections, 30-31

Summit (1989), 149 Webster, William, 132

Weizsacker, Richard von, 30, 682

and Gorbachev, 468-469
Werblan, Andrzej, 129

Whitman, Walt, 488

Wohlforth, William, 131

Wolff, David, 132, 166

World War II (1939-1945), 475, 514

Y

Yakovlev, Alexander, 7, 12, 21, 22, 62-63, 64, 113, 119, 151, 228, 241, 249, 327-330, 337-338

and East European leaders, 313-324
and Henry Kissinger, 341-344
and Zbigniew Brzezinski, 563-668

Yazov, Dmitri, 46, 158, 277, 332, 338, 340, 446, 448, 533, 535, 541

Yeltsin, Boris, 27, 116, 120, 202

and Congress of People’s
Deputies, 427-428, 431

Soviet support for, 415-416

U.S. support for, 145, 193-194, 210

Yugoslavia and perestroika, 255

political conditions in, 478
and Romania, 664-665
and Soviet nonintervention, 268

Z

Zagladin, Vadim, 24, 100, 108, 389, 436-437, 492, 547, 694

Zaikov, Lev, 250, 340, 428

Zhao Ziyang, 169

Zhivkov, Todor, 144, 149-150, 156, 159, 212, 236, 237, 242, 255, 355, 417, 478, 490, 491, 562, 574-576, 651, 652

removal of, 101, 586, 660
Zhurkin, Vitalii, 20

Zimyanin, Mikhail, 217-218, 221

Zoellick, Robert, 197-198

Zubok, Vladislav, 121, 135, 150151, 155, 165, 173-174, 213-214

and summary of Musgrove conference documents, 99-102

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