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Ideologies and National Identities

John Lampe
Mark Mazower

A Guide to Further Reading

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1The limited citations and brief comments that follow are intended to provide the general reader as well as students and non-specialist scholars with a guide to broader country studies or disciplinary approaches in which each of our volume’s chapters may prompt interest. A complete set of annotated bibliographies by country, beginning with Bulgaria in 1989 and proceeding with revised editions for Yugoslavia (1990), Albania (1997), Romania and Greece (1998), with new ones for Slovenia and Croatia added in 1996 and 1999, has fortunately been published for books and journal articles in English by Clio Press of Oxford and Santa Barbara, California. The one comprehensive regional bibliography of publications in all languages is from the Südosteuropa Institut, Bibliographisches Handbuch der ethnischen Gruppen Südosteuropas, ed. Gerhard Seewan and Petar Dippold, 2 vols. (Munich: R. Oldenbourg Verlag, 1997).

2Let me first supplement my own Introduction by noting several regional surveys that offer an accessible overview to the non-specialist reader and a reference book for the student or course instructor. For political and diplomatic history in particular, Stevan K. Pavlowitch, A History of the Balkans, 1804–1945 (London: Longmans, 1997) and R. C. Crampton, The Balkans since the Second World War (London: Pearson Education, 2002) provide the much needed new set of authoritative surveys. Mark Mazower, The Balkans (N.Y.: Modern Library, 2001) is a brief but wide-ranging introduction that emphasizes both the legacies of Ottoman domination and the European nation-state, both for good and ill. The recent evolution of respective national identities receives attention in the essays assembled in F. W. Carter and H. W. Norris, eds., The Changing Shape of the Balkans (Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1996), while the longer sociological history of the respective nationalisms is well surveyed and the scholarship well referenced in Victor Roudometof, Nationalism, Globalization and Orthodoxy: The Social Origins of Class Conflict in the Balkans (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 2001). For a theoritically instructive approach to the issue of ideology in the Yugoslav case, see Sinisˇa Malesˇevic´, Ideology, Legitimacy and the New State, Yugoslavia, Serbia a Croatia (London: Frank Cass, 2003).

3For Chapter 1, on interwar and wartime Romania generally, see the model survey volume by Keith Hitchins, Rumania, 1866–1947 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1994), especially Ch. 7, “The Great Debate,” pp. 292–334, on national ideology. On interwar identity politics, see Irina Livizeanu, Cultural Poli-tics in Greater Romania: Regionalism, Nation-Building and Ethnic Struggle, 1918–1930 (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1995). A relevant work from recent Romanian scholarship is Z. Ornea, The Romanian Extreme Right, The Nineteen Thirties (N.Y.: Columbia University Press, East European Monographs, 1999).

4For Chapter 2, on twentieth-century Croatian political ideology, see Mark Biondich, Stjepan Radic´, the Croat Peasant Party, and the Politics of Mass Mobilization, 1904–1928 (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2000) and Jill A. Irvine, The Croat Question, Partisan Politics in the Formation of the Yugoslavia Socialist State (Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1993). On the Ustasˇa regime during the Second World War, Jozo Tomasevich, War and Revolution in Yugoslavia, 1941–1945: Occupation and Collaboration (Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 2001), pp. 233–510, is the one detailed study in English.

5For Chapter 3, on the Croatian Catholic Church before, during, and after the Second World War, see Stella Alexander, Church and State in Yugoslavia since 1945 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1979) and her The Triple Myth: A Life of Archbishop Alojzije Stepinac (N.Y.: Columbia University Press, East European Monographs, 1987). A more critical view appears in Vjekoslav Perica, Balkan Idols, Religion and Nationalism in Yugoslav States (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001), pp. 17–42.

6For Chapter 4, informed but varied recent views on this mother of Bal-kan identity issues appear in Victor Roudometof, ed., The Macedonian Question: Culture, Historiography and Politics (N.Y.: Columbia University Press, East European Monographs, 2000), and Jane Cowan, ed., Macedonia, The Politics of Identity and Difference (London: Pluto Press, 2001). For recent approaches to the Greek experience, see Peter Mackridge and Eleni Yanakakis, eds., The Development of Greek Macedonian Identity since 1912 (Oxford: Berg, 1997).

7Chapter 5 deals with the political struggle to appropriate literary figures, rather than vanquished heroes as in Chapter 4. For more on Njegosˇ, see author Andrew Baruch Wachtel’s own Making a Nation, Breaking a Nation: Literature and Cultural Politics in Yugoslavia (Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1998). On the role of other writers from the former Yugoslavia, see David. A. Norris, In the Wake of the Balkan Myth: Questions of Identity and Modernity (N.Y.: St. Martin’s Press, 1998), and for a comparative perspective, Robert B. Prysant, ed., The Literature of Nationalism, Essays on East European Identity (N.Y.: St. Martin’s Press, 1998).

8For Chapter 6, on the role of folk epics in national poetry, see Milne Holton and Vasa D. Mihailovich, eds., Serbian Poetry From the Beginning to the Present (Columbus, Ohio: Slavica Publications for Yale Russian and East European Publications, 1988). The wider variety of repositories for folk or national memory across the region is treated in Maria Bucur and Nancy M. Wingfield, eds., Staging the Past: The Politics of Commemoration in Habsburg Central Europe, 1848 to the Present (West Lafayette, Ind.: Purdue University Press, 2001).

9For Chapter 7, on the political mobilization of youth and other social groups, see Melissa K. Bokovoy, Jill A. Irvine, and Carol S. Lilly, eds., State-Society Relations in Yugoslavia, 1945–1992 (N.Y.: St. Martin’s, 1997); and on the original Soviet model, Peter Kenez, The Birth of the Propaganda State: Soviet Methods of Mass Mobilization, 1917–1929 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985).

10For Chapter 8, on the evolution of Communist ideology, see John D. Bell, The Bulgarian Communist Party from Blagoev to Zhivkov (Stanford, Calif.: Hoover Institution Press, 1986). On social change since 1960, current Bulgarian scholarship has provided Nikolai Genov and Anna Krasteva, eds., Recent Social Trends in Bulgaria, 1960–1995 (Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 2001).

11For Chapter 9, Miranda Vickers, The Albanians, A Modern History (London: I. B. Tauris, 1997) affords a good readable survey. For well-researched detail on interwar and wartime Albanian politics, see Bernd J. Fischer, King Zog and the Struggle for Stability in Albania (N.Y.: Columbia University Press, East European Monographs, 1984) and his Albania at War, 1939– 1945 (London: Hurst & Co., 1999). An international range of authors explore national identity in Stephanie Schwandner-Sievers and Bernd J. Fischer, eds., Albanian Identities, Myths and History (Bloomington, Ind.: Indiana University Press, 2002).

12For Chapter 10, Joseph Rothschild’s chapter on Yugoslavia in his East Central Europe Between the Wars (Seattle, Washington, 1974), pp. 201–80, remains the best introduction to its interwar politics. For a sympathetic account of the leading Serbian political thinker, see Aleksandar Pavkovic´, Slobodan Jovanovic´: An Unsentimental Approach to Politics (N.Y.: Columbia University Press, 1993). Useful for comparative purposes is the classic study of interwar Greece’s politics, George Mavrogordatos, Stillborn Republic: Social Conditions and Party Strategies in Greece, 1922–1936 (Berkeley, Calif.: University of California Press, 1983).

13For Chapter 11, a perceptive Yugoslav analysis of the Communist regime’s theory and practice, with emphasis on the role of Edvard Kardelj, is Laszlo Sekelj, Yugoslavia: The Process of Disintegration (N.Y.: Columbia University Press, East European Monographs, 1993). Kardelj’s own version is in Edvard Kardelj, Reminiscences (London: Blond and Biggs, 1982). On the internal dynamics of the ideologically decisive Tito–Stalin split, see Ivo Banac, With Stalin, against Tito: Cominformist Splits in Yugoslav Communism (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1988) and Wayne S. Vucinich, ed., At the brink of war and peace: the Tito–Stalin split in historic perspective (Brooklyn, N.Y.: Brooklyn College Press, 1982).

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