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The Long Journey of Gracia Mendes

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Marianna D. Birnbaum

Appendix

From Dubrovnik to Constantinople

Texte intégral

ROUTES USED BY TRAVELERS IN THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY.*

1Lacking direct evidence regarding the route Gracia took, the reader can be helped by learning about the probable and most frequented routes. However, as Prof. Sima Čirković stated, it does not mean much to construct an “ideal route chronology,” because even two, chronologically close, travels may differ in their choice of resting places or for crossing a river etc.

2In. P. Matković’s Putovanja po Balkanskom polustrvu, there is a survey of travelers from the 16th century.

3Only a few had started or completed their travel in Dubrovnik. (Rad JAZU 42(1878), 49 (1879), 55 (1881), 56 (1881), 62 (1882), 71 (1884), 84 (1887), 100(1890), 105 (1891), 112 (1892), 116(1893), 124(1895), 129 (1896), 130 (1897), 136 (1898). But three Frenchman, Jaques Gassot (1547), Phillippe du Fresne-Caney (1573), and Pierre Lescalopier (1574), started out in Dubrovnik, heading for Constantinople. The second of them went to Skoplje, and then on to Custendil, the two others traveled through Niš and Sofia. They are commented upon in M. Dini’, “Tri francuska putopisć a XVI veka o našim zemljama,” Godišnjica Nikole Čupić a 49 (1940), 85–118.

4Another record, regarding sixteenth-century travels in the region, is of Martino Segono di Novo Brdo vescovo di Dulcigno. Un umanista serbo– dalmat del tardo Quattrocento, ed. A. Pertusi, Roma 1981, p. 87: Prima via superior ex traiectu Belgradi per superiorem partem Mysiae et Rhodopem versus Thraciam dirigens...p. 89: progresso fluvio Nisava a quo denominatur magnaque venalium copia rerum inter alios Mysiae et Triballorum pagos censetur preclara. Abest haec a traiectu Belgradi CCCXX milibus passuum. Exea postea ascendendo ad viam Pyrothy situm in montanis peragrato vasto montis Cunovicae iugo arduo atque difficili, … accessus per Sophiam metropolim Triballorum, emporium nostris saeculis memorandum … p. 90. Altera via inferior quae ex eodem Belgrado per Dardanos et Triballos montem Haemum transgressa prope Hebrum cum superiori via coniungitur … circa Ostervizae oppidum et Ravanicense monasterium adducit primo ad Moravam olim Moschium dictum ad latus arcis Crusevac fluentem … dehinc ad Basilicam Albam (= Bele Crkve, Kursumlija) et montes Mysiam inicem separantes … p. 91: Pertransitis itaque montibus sequitur campus Dubozicae frequenter undique inhabitatum; sed dimisso aliquantisper ad laevam tramite qui ad villam magnam Procopiae et Nisum dirigit, non procul offert se vallis Cosoviza cum Labo flumine per medium eius decurrente procedens ad latissimum Cosovum campum … p.93: Huius campi planities protenditur circa LXX milia passuum usque ad vicum Cazanici et fauces Clisurae, quae ad Scopia ducit … Ima i krak od Kosova prema istoku doulivanja u Carigradski drum. The above text was attributed to Feliks Petančić (Felix Petantius)

5A real itinerary from 1533, is “Missions diplomatiques de Corneille Duplicius de Schepper dit Sceperus de 1523-55” (ed. M. le Bon de Saint Genois - G. A. Yssel de Scepper, Memoires de l’Academie royale des sciences, des lettres et des beaux arts, 30 (1857). The author lists places and geographic details (p. 195). He and his party descended from “Kinorwitza” in the “ville de Nissa” (p. 196). Then they crossed the river “Murana” and went along that river through part of Serbia called “Toplitza.” There is mention of the village “Rosine,” the small river “Dracowitza, bourg Pritnoritze,” a pretty village “Gerghebir” (Grgure) (p. 197), left on the left side “ville de Scopia” and arrived in the “contree Saplana.” They spent the night in the village “Jerecain” (Djerekare), arrived in the village that belongs to the sandjak of “Zwonick” (Zvornik) and descended toward the river Ibar (p. 198). They reached the fortress “Zwelfa” (Zvečan), passed the village “Terboutzine” (Trbušine) and spent the night in tents. They crossed the river “Pinchia” (Pnucha) and arrived in the town of “Nomoposar” (Novi Pazar) and then in the province of “Cinitza” (Sjenica). The “bourg” is called “Zynitze” and the little river “Cina” (p. 199), the monastery of St. Sava (Milešova) is mentioned. They traveled to the “ville de Prepolye”(Prijepolje), crossed the river “Lym” on a wooden bridge and went to the “bourg Plenie” (Pljevlja) where they spent the night (p. 200). They proceded to a place called “Brachobb” (Pracha) and raised their tents there. Afterwards they crossed a small river “Thichotina,” arrived in “Gotza ou Hotza” and crossed the “Drinus” (p. 201). They then crossed the river “Bistriza” in the valley of Zagora, where is located the “bourg Zagoria” (p. 202). They crossed the river “Vissina” (Visheva), spent the night in the “bourg Postulyam” and continued on a plain to “Novipasar de Hertzegovina” (Mostar), reached the town of “Powsitel” (Pochitelj) on the Neretva and crossed on the bridge at “Vidnareca” (Vidova Reka). The group arrived in “Gabelle de Narenta” (Drijeva) where they encountered some Ragusans (Blasius de Sorgo). They then took a ship to Dubrovnik and from there to Zadar (I am most grateful to Academician, Prof. Dr. Sima Čirković who has provided me with the above information.)

6For further informsation the reader can also consult C. Jireček, “Handelsstrassen und Bergwerke von Serbien und Bosnien während des Mittelalters.” Historisch-geographische Studien, (Prag, 1879), pp. 73–78, describing the road from Dubrovnik to Niš.

7Although Urošević too describes an “inverse” itinerary, the journey he presents is yet another route leading to and from Constantinople in the sixteenth century.

© Central European University Press, 2003

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