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Divine Presence in Spain and Western Europe 1500-1960

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William A. Christian

Index

Texte intégral

Abraham, 38, 41, 246n66

Achas (Pontevedra), 239n30

Acuña, Maria Paula, 5

Ágreda (Soria), fraud 1665, 76

Agres (Alicante), 117

Aix-la-Chapelle/Aachen 1920, 86

Ajofrín (Toledo), vision in drought, 242n46

Alacoque, Marguerite-Marie, St. (Paray–le–Monial), 118, 133, 157

Alberti, Leon Battista, 97, 103, 265n35

Alcalá de Henares, Minims, 70

Alcanar (Tarragona), 116

Alcañiz (Huesca), 245n60

Alcobendas (Madrid) 1646, 66–71, 260n73

Alcolea de Cinca (Huesca), 246n69

Alcorisa (Teruel), 246n69

Alcoy (Alicante), 244n58

Alcudia (Mallorca), 250nl 3

Alfonso XIII, washes feet, 37, 245n64

Alicante, 255n41

Almería, pilgrim in, 244n58

altar cloths, animation relics, 57, 57, 65

Alzonne (Aude), visions, 162–63,167

anarchism, 81, 134

angels: 11, 41; Ayora, 24–25, 25; children as, 133,152–53; guardian, 133 150–52; as pilgrims, 38–39; in WWI 182

Anne, St., 16, 89–91, 89–93

Anthony of Padua, Oran 1677, 258n58

anticlericalism, 161, 133

Aparicio Buendía, Esperanza (El Bonillo), 77, 260n72

apparitions: Christ, 11; Mary, 5; oral retelling, 104; proofs, 14–15; signs for Catholic France, 133; vs. visions, 45; see also apparitions by place, visions

apparitions by place: Agres, 117; Álava 1931, 235n2; Alzonne 1913–1914, 162; Belgium 1932,119–20; California City (Our Lady of the Rocks), 5; Ezquioga, 6,124–25, 235n2; Guadalajara 1931, 23 5n2; Guadamur 1931,2 3 5n2; Hellín 1938, 78; Jafre 1460,25, 242n45; La Salette, 15; Mendigorría 1931, 2 39n22; Montserrat, 122–23; Navarra 1931, 2 3 5n2;

Orgiva 1931, 235n2; Rielves 1931, 235n2; Sigüenza 1931, 2 3 5n2; Torralba de Aragón 1931, 2 39n22

Ariño (Teruel), 241n36

Arjona (Jaén) 1628–1646, 249nl 2

artists, and animated images, 51,63, 95, 255n38

Augustinians, and animations, 52–53, 61, 62, 78

Auñón (Guadalajara), 241 n36

Austria, 263n6

Axpe y Sierra, Martin de, 250n21

Ayora (Valencia), 24–25, 25, 43

Badajoz, drought saints, 16–17

Baños de la Encina (Jaén) 1641, 255n39

Barbastro (Huesca), 246n69

Barcelona, 19, 104,161

beards, holy, 35, 35, 51, 55

beatas, frauds by, 73

beatification procedures, 51

Beauraing (Namur), 31,119–20

beggars: 34, 36–39, 42, 245n62, 245n64

Beirut, Christ of, 249n11

Belchite (Zaragoza), 241n36

Belgium: apparitions, 31,119–20; composite family images, 202, 215, 218–19, 231; Delcampe, 100; Siracusa devotion, 88, 88

Bellême (Orne), 131

Bellpuig de Urgel (Lleida), 239n31

Belsue (Huesca), 241n40

Berbinzana (Navarra), Christ 1920, 261n81

Bernadette, see Lourdes

Bernardo, San, vision, 115

Bible, 36–39, 246n66

Bitel, Lisa, 5

Blacker, Carmen, 40–42

blasphemy, and animated images, 59, 90

blood on images: from fingers, 50, 74, 89–93 91,92; history 48–19, nature of, 49–50, 52, 76–77; as relics, 86, 92. See also images with blood, sweat or tears, by place.

Bordeaux, 85, 85, 162

Borox (Toledo), 2 38n20

Brihuega (Guadalajara), battle 1710, 258n60

Brittany, 170

brotherhoods, 21, 49, 52–53, 64–66, 259n64

Budapest, 83,137

bullfights, 12

Burgos, Christ of, 21, 48, 51, 78, 79, 249nl 1; see also Cabra del Santo Cristo (Jaén)

Burguillos de Toledo (Toledo), 31, 31–34, 233

Bynum, Caroline Walker, 48

Cabra del Santo Cristo (Jaén), 21, 54, 79, 255n39

Calatayud (Zaragoza), 59, 60, 246n69

Caldes de Montbui (Barcelona), 37

Capuchins, mission Limpias 1919, 82

captives in Africa, 50, 75

Caravaca, cross of, 30

Carcassonne, 162

caridades (ceremonial food handouts), 13, 20, 39, 241n40

Carmelite friars, 54

Carrascosa del Campo (Cuenca), 239n26

Casar de Talavera, El (Toledo), 241n36

Casas de Benítez (Cuenca): attitudes to vision, 30; caridades, 13, 39; evil eye, 40, 247n73; fiesta, 11–12; hail 1929, 12, 41; image to Cuenca, 239n29; images burned, 233; Holy Week, 16; La Poza, 10, 43, 44; politics, 238n21; Roma beggars, 40; shrines and devotions, 45; transhumant route, 74; visión 1931,6–8

Casellas, Ramon, 240n32

Catalonia, 9, 61,71–72

catechism, and pilgrims, 36–39

Catherine, St., in Alzonne visions, 162

celestial anomalies, 15, 62,121

children: and angels, 133,150–53; and evil eye, 40; and Father Christmas, 133,155–56,180; as holy, 85; with parents, 220, 222, 224–29, 231; with parents absent, 191–92, 205, 201–208, 213, 215–16, 218–19; as pilgrims, 84, 91; as seers, 119–20, 126,144, 162

Christ: apparitions, 8–9, 11; devotional shift to, 71; image less dressed, 257n54; image and pilgrims, 38–39, 245n60, 246n69; image punished, 18,71; meets Mary, 16; Montmartre, 118, 170,173; prayers to, 190–91; Sacred Heart, 118,153,170–73; WWI, 170–73,184–85. See also Christ, specific images;
Christ, visions; emotions; images with blood, sweat or tears.

Christ, specific images: Agreda, 76; Alcaniz, 245n60; Alcobendas (de la Columna), 66–71; Alcolea de Cinca, 246n69; Barbastro (de los Milagros), 246n69; Beirut, 249nl 1; Berbinzana, 260n81; Burgos, 21, 48, 51, 78, 79, 249nl 1; Cabra del Santo Cristo, 21, 54, 79, 255n39; Calatorao, 246n69; El Bonillo, 61–64; Galtelli, 252n25; Gelsa, 246n69; Henarejos (de la Salud), 240n33; Igualada, 52–53; Ixmiquilpan, 252n25; Limpias, 81–83, 83; Linares (Cabra), 255n39; Madrid (Injurias), 71; Mañeru, 261n81; of Martínez, 74–75; Medina de Rioseco (de Castilviejo), 54–58; Miguelturra, 78; Mirebeau-en-Poitou (Sacred Heart), 85–86, 86, 264nl9; Monlora (de la Columna), 81, 260n79; Oran, 258n58; Piedramillera, 261n81; Piera 26–29, 27,28; San Carlos del Valle, 246n68; Sant Quirze de Besora, 261n82; Sisante, 45, 237n8; Tembleque, 246n68; Vic hospital, 60–61; Villalba del Rey, 246n68

Christ, visions: Burguillos 1935, 32; El Bonillo 1638, 62; Emmaus, 38; Paray-le-Monial 1673–1674,118, 151. See also Casas de Benitez

Christmas, 37, 23, 133,152,154–56, 164,180–81

Ciudad Real, Siracusa shrine, 87–88, 88

Civil War, Spanish, 12, 26, 33, 47, 78, 232–33

Civil War, US, missing and dead, 265n34

Civitavecchia (Italy), blood on Marian image, 93, 95

Claret, Antonio Maria, 36–39

clergy: examine animations, 52–53, 54–57, 60, 62–64, 65, 67–70, 72; first mass, 153; killed, 47; as manipulators, 22–23, 49–50; and rain processions, 10, 21–22, 26, 21, 21, 29; promote animations, 85–88; skeptical of animations, 50–51, 74–77,81, 89,90, 92; wash beggars’ feet, 37; see also religious

Cocentaina (Alicante) 1520, 71, 82, 257n55

Cohen, Lynne, 263nl

Cold War, and animations, 88

collecting, 98–99

Compiegne (Oise), 131

composite photographs: absence and presence, 132; battles in sky, 162–63,161–69; Bernadette 1864, 133,144; commercial vs. private, 202; dreams, 133,140,141,195–91; family photographs, 202–203, 205–19, 231; ghosts, 132–33, 141; living and dead, 132–33,142–43,148; people like saints, 166, 202; postcards, 1896–920, 202,149–56; postcards of prayer, 145–46,190–91; postcards in WWI, 169,111–80,182–83, 188,190–201; prisoners of war, 202, 215–16, 218–19, 231; separated persons, 132, 205–19, 231; soldiers and families, 132,209–19, 231; Spiritualist, 132–33,143,148; stereo 1894, 146, 141; studio, France, 212, 213; studio, in WWI 212–19, 231; studio, Italy, 211; studio, Spain, 206–10; visions, 132–33, 141,181–88,198, 201

conflict, and image animation, 71–72

conversion, Siracusa, 86

Copts, and image animation, 93

coronation of images, 82, 239n29

Corporal Works of Mercy, 36, 31, 39, 36–39

cotton, relics of animated image, 81, 87–88, 88, 92, 95

Croatia, 169

Cubas (Madrid), 247n74

Cuenca: beggars feet washed 1928, 245n64; bishop, 66, 74, 245n64; coronation image, 239n29; newspapers, 6; synod, 66

Davis, Natalie, 1–2, 42–43

de Belluga, Luis Antonio, 258n59

de Huelves Crespo, Léon (poet), 235n3

de la Cruz, Deirdre, 264nl8

de Valera, Cipriano, 51

dead: and living, 97; in photographs, 142–43; visions of, 43

death, 62, 157 158 174,191

del Castillo, Elena (Burguillos), 33

del Castillo, Fausto (Burguillos), 31, 31–34, 40–41

del Val, Toribia (“la Vaquera”), 6–11, 30, 39–10, 98, 247n73

Delcampe.com, 100

devil, 159, 162

devotions, 46–48; 21, 48, 51, 78, 79, 80, 249n11

Diana, 43

Díaz, Anton (El Bonillo), 61, 62–63

Dijon, 111

diocesan investigations, 53, 54, 54–57, 63–64, 66, 69–70, 72, 82, 86–87,89, 250n21, 254n31, 255n39, 255n41, 256n47, 258n59

discernment of liquids, 62–63, 65, 68

doctors, as evaluators, 52, 54, 87, 90, 91, 95, 254n36

Dominicans, 65, 70, 76–77

Domrémy (Vosges), 105,128–31

dreams, commercial images, 133,140,141,194191

drought: Ajofrín 242n46; Alcobendas 1646, 66; Alcudia 1507, 54; Andalusia el728, 29–30; animation context, 49; Badajoz, 16–17; Cabra del Santo Cristo 1698, 21, 54; Casas de Benítez 1931, 7–9; Medina de Rioseco 1602, 54; Piera, 26–29; procedures, 18–21; visión during, 242n46; vows, 19; vs. epidemic, 25–26; see also processions for rain

Duchenne de Boulogne, Guillaume, 103

Dufour, Paul (Tarbes), 133

Eastern Europe, state socialism, 233

Ecija (Sevilla), 247n74

El Bonillo (Albacete) 1640, 61–64, 77, 77–78

El Milacre (Riner, Lleida), 116, 247n74

Emmaus, 38

emotions, of animated Christ images: afflicted (afligido) 252n24, 252n25; agony (agonia), 53, 82, 83, 249nl6; angry (enojado, ayrado) 66, 252n25, 256n46; anguish, anguished (congoja, congoxado) 67, 252n24, 65 256n42; favorable (favorable) 252n25; happy (alegre) 252n25; sad (triste) 65, 252n25, 255n42; tired (cansado, fatigado) 65, 254n34, 256n42; travail (treball) 53, 250nl6; upset (desfigurado, demudado), 55, 250n21, 252n24

emotions, of observers of animated images: devotion (devoción), 68,257n50; as discernment, 62–63; fear, awe (temor, terror), 52, 64, 68, 252n25, 255n38, 257n50; joy (contento), 68,257n50; mercy (misericordia), begging for, 52, 65, 68; reverence (reverencia), 68, 255n38, 257n50; shock (espanto), 251n24; solace in heart, consolation (consuelo) and comfort 62, 63; tenderness (ternura), 59, 68, 257n50; wonder (admiración), 57,68, 76, 252n24, 252n25, 257n50 end times, and image animation, 94

England, 49–51

Entrecruces (A Coruña) 1954, 88–89

Entrevaux (Alpes-de Hte-Provence) 1953–1961, 89–93, 90–91, 96

epidemics: animation context, 49; Ayora, 25, 25; Jafre 1460, 25, 242n45; Oran 1677, 258n58; Osa de la Vega 1914, 77; Vic, 61; and visions, 23–24

Escalona (Segovia) 1490, 249nl2

Escalonilla (Huesca), 245n60

Estampa (Madrid), 31, 31, 33

Ethiopia, 59

evil eye, 13, 40

exvotos, 1, 69,116

eyes: sweat placed in, 62, 65, 68; upturned in vision, 102,101–13

Ezquioga (Gipuzkoa), apparitions 1931–1934: 104,124–25; and Casas de Benítez, 6, 14, 23; and Mirebeau-en-Poitou, 86; photos of seers, 31, 102,109–10, 262nl00

fairy tales, 40

Fañanás (Huesca), 241n40

farm laborers, 11, 12, 34,168, 257n51

farmers, and WWI, 168,114,188

Fatima, 23, 31 121

Fedele, Anna, 235nl

Feijóo, Benito Jerónimo, 76

Ferchaud, Claire (Loublande), 164

Fernández de Madrigal, Alonso, 50–51

Ferrer, Francisco, 161

film: 23, 91–92, 94, 99, 105,261n90

fingernails, of images, 51

flagellants, 21, 52–53, 65, 68–69, 73, 259n63

flowers, as animation relics, 69, 81,87

food and drink: alcohol, 141; bread, 14, 26–27, 40, 40; broad beans (habas), 6, 11, 34; codfish, 12; for strangers, 26–27, 29, 31–32 34, 40–11; water, 29, 31, 32 36, 36–37; see also caridades

Foulds, Mrs. R., 143

Foz (Mondoñedo, Lugo) 1954–1955, 89

France: allegories in postcards, 151–60, 164,114–18; animated images, 85–86, 85, 86; daughter of the Church, 170; family photos, 190,192,194–98, 200, 202, 213–14,216, 220, 223–28, 230–31; God protects, 151–59,171–73; heroes in sky, 118–19; and Jeanne d’Arc WWI, 171–72,179,188–89; postcards, 163–64, 263n6; visions, 157

France–Dimancbe (Paris), 91,92, 93, 92–93

Francis, St. painting with blood 72, 72–73

Franciscans, 20, 61–62, 72, 87

fraud: Agreda 1665, 76; confession of, 92, 93, 92–93; Gandía

1918, 84; inquests rule out, 53; Martinez, 73–75; possibility

dismissed, 70; Salvadé, 89–93; serves enemies of the faith,

53; by shrine keepers, 72, 73; textile town, 261n82; and

trembling, 50, 74; warning against, 72

Freedberg, David, 48

Freemasons, 86, 134,157,159

Fresno, Diocese, 5

Gainer, Matt, 5

Galicia, 43

Gallur (Zaragoza), 242n41

Galtelli (Sardinia) 1612,2 52n2 5

Gandhi, Mohandas, 91

Gandía (Valencia) 1918, 84

García Rodero, Cristina, 17, 239n30

García Rubio, Ana, beata (Honrubia), 255n41

Garlaschelli, Luigi, 262nl01

Garmendia, José (Legazpia), 109

Gell, Alfred, 48

Gelsa (Zaragoza), 246n69

gender, and human liquids, 95; of witnesses, 54,63, 70–71

Germany: 9, 163–64, 262n6; illustrated postcards, 263n6; image

animation, 248n5; photos 227, 221–22, 226, 231; postcards

136,140–41,145,149,152,169,183,193,199, 201

ghosts, 43, 133,141

Goa, 58, 252n25

God, proofs of existence, 22, 237n7–8

Golden Legend, 38

Gonne, Maud, 162, 264nl9

grace, alertness to new, 46, 47, 96

Granada, Sacromonte, 249n12

grottos, 23, 93,127

Guadalupe (Cáceres), 34, 48

Guadamur (Toledo), 235n2, 241n38

Gyor (Hungary), 58,252n25

Habsburgs, and Limpias, 83

hail, 9, 12, 18, 22–23, 41, 65, 238nl8

hair, on images grows, 51

handkerchiefs, with sweat as relics, 68

Hecho (Huesca), 241n36

Hellín (Albacete), visions in jail, 78

Henarejos (Cuenca), 18

herders, 28, 34,117,119, 242n43, 242n46

hermits, pilgrims as, 244n59

holy cards, and visions, 23,117

Holy Week: images Alcobendas, 66; Burguillos, 31; Casas de

Benítez, 16; Igualada, 51–53; Jerusalem as model, 79; Osa de

la Vega, 64–65

Hondón (Alicante), 246n69

honey, as blood, 49. 50, as tears, 50

Honrubia (Cuenca) c. 1630, 255n41

hosts, bleeding, 50

Hungary: animation Győr 1697, 58; devotion to Limpias, 83;

emigrant to South America, 203; folklore, 40,247n72;

pilgrim saint, 244n59; postcards, 191,199

Huss, Monique, 165

iconoclasm, 37; 232–33

idolatry, 50

Ignatius Loyola, St., 58–60; 59

Igualada (Barcelona) 1590, 51–53

images animated: devotion grows, 56,77, 81,81; draw alms,

55–56; pedigrees, 58–62, 76, 79–80, 257n55; private, 80, 93;

speak, 71, 80; specialness, 58, 77; wood to flesh, 252n25; see

also emotions

image animation: arguments against, 55, 72–73; color changes,

65; and conflict, 71–72, 77; and conversions, 59; as fraud,

49–50; fraud confessed, 73–75, 92, 93,92–93; history, 48–49;

as kinetic energy, 60; geography of, 248n5,248n7; judicial

confirmation, 51, 53, 63–64, 66, 69–70, 249nl2, 250nl4; and

local pride, 55–56, 78–79; in Orthodox and Coptic homes,

93; in processions for rain, 21, 54, 66–61; skepticism, 32,

50–51, 59, 75–76, 84, 86, 103, 261n82, 262n91, 263n02,

262nl01; and wage disputes, 261n82

images: abandoned, 27; bathed for rain, 18; beauty and awe, 64;

color changes, 53; emotions of, 65, 67, 69; iconoclasm, 47;

immanence of, 48; in pageants and rituals, 49; as people,

249n8; left by pilgrims, 245n60; pilgrims make or fix, 246n69;

potential energy of, 60; rescue captives, 50; specialness in, 48;

stars around, 64; veiled, 60,63; willed, 80

images that move, by place: Berbinzana Christ 1920, 261n81;

Ireland Lourdes grottos 1985–86, 93; Italy, 58; Limpias

Christ 1919 on, 81–83, 82–83; Madrid Christ 1631, 71;

Maneru Christ 1920, 261n81; Mexico, 58; Papal States 1795–

96,77; Piedramillera Christ 1920, 261n81; Sant Quirze de

Besora, 261n82

images with blood, sweat or tears, by place: Ágreda crucifix

1665, 76; Alcobendas Christ 1646, 66–71; Ávila San Segundo

1594, 259n64; Baños de la Encina Veronica 1641, 255n39;

Bordeaux Mary 1907, 1911–1913, 85, 85; Cabra del Santo

Cristo 1698, 20,21; Christ of Burgos, 78; Cocentaina Mary

painting 1520, 71, 82, 257n55; El Bonillo crucifix 1640,

62–64; Entrecruces Miraculous Mary 1954, 88–89; Entrevaux

St. Anne 1953, 89, 89–93; Foz Immaculate Heart 1954–1955,

89; Galtelli crucifix 1612, 252n25; Gandía crucifix 1918,

84; Igualada crucifix 1590, 52–53; Ixmiquilpan crucifix

1621, 252n25; LaGuardiaMary 1755, 76–77; LimaVirgen

Copacabana, 252n25; Limpias Christ, 1919, 82; Linares

Cristo de Cabra 1641, 255n39; Martinez crucifix c1728, 30,

74–75; Medina de Rioseco crucifix 1602, 55; Miguelturra

crucfix 1768, 78; Mirebeau Sacred Heart 1911–1921, 85–86,

86; Monlora Christ 1630, 81; Munebrega Loyola 1623,

58–59; Murcia Sorrowing Mary 1706, 258n59; Or an images

1675, 72; Osa de la Vega Veronica 1644, 64–65; Parma

Christ 1646, 66; Siracusa Immaculate Heart, 86–88, 86–88;

Templemore statues 1921, 84, 84; Tobed Mary Veronica,

257n55; Traid St. Francis 1710 72, 72–73; Vic crucifix, 1633,

60–61Villalba de la Sierra Mary Mt. Carmel 1959, 89, 89

Inquisition, 14–15, 28, 49, 75, 254n35

Ireland, 58, 84, 84, 91, 93,147; see also Yeats

Isidro Labrador, San, 7, 9, 11–12, 15–16

Italy, 58, 66, 93, 202, 211; see also Siracusa

Ixmiquilpan (Mexico), 252n25

Jaén, 245n64, 255n39, 255n41

Jafre (Girona), 25, 43, 242n45

jail, for fraud, 93; for defending image, 77, 78

James, William, 1

Jannuso, Antonina and Angelo (Siracusa), 86, 86

Japan, 59, 41–42

Jeanne d’Arc: in Alzonne visions, 162–63; visions depicted, 105,

128–31; and WWI, 164–65,171 173,188–89, 264nl3

Jerusalem, 46, 79

Jesuits: letters, 66; and Munebrega, 58–60; evaluate testimony,

70; martyrs, 59; missions and activations, 255n39; protests at

expulsion 1768, 77

Joffre, Joseph, 164; 179

Jones, Nathaniel, 263n2

Joseph, St., 16–17, 258n58

journalists, and animations, 91–92, 91–93, 94

Kasl, Rond a, 4, 248nl

Kron, Joan, 98

Kumbakorum (India), 127

La Almunia de Doña Godina (Zaragoza), 244n59

La Guardia (Jaén) 1755, 76

La Roda (Albacete), 45

La Salette, 15, 104, 133,157

land agitation, 1931, 12

lantern slides, 104, 133

Le Pèlerin (Paris), 162, 164–65

letters, visible in images, 136,139,193,199, 209–10, 215

Lillafüred (Hungary), 83

Lima (Peru), 252n25

Limpias (Cantabria) 1919, 81–83, 82–83

Liñana (Ayora visionary), 24–25, 25

Linares (Jaén) 1641, 255n39

liquid on images, 95; see also blood, sweat, tears

literacy, 8

Livorno, earthquake 1646, 66

Llamas García, Marisol (Casas de Benítez), 8–9,10,43,44,

236n6, 237n7–8, 237nl6, 239n23

Lleida, 246n69

Lleopart, María, 26–27, 28, 41

Llers (Girona) 1640, 258n57

Lopez Portana, Vicente, 25, 30, 61, 64

Loreto, Our Lady of, 244n59

Loublande (Deux Sèvres), 164

Louis, St., and France in WWI, 173

Lourdes: animate images in Ireland 1985–86, 9, 93; apparitions,

119, 133; composite images, 133,144; depictions 119,126–

27; dream WWI 185; and France, 157; grottos worldwide, 9,

93, 105,127; India, 127; reenactment, 126; sets pattern, 23,

31; tears on image Bordeaux 1907, 85; and WWI, 164

Lucena (Córdoba), 246n69

Lucy, St., 29

Luers, Helmfried, 263nl

Lugg, Andrew, 263nl

Luke, St., 39, 257n55

Lynchburg (Virginia), 100

Madrid: 9, 10, 12, 15–16, 69, 71, 237nlO

magic, image animation as, 261n86

Mallorca, 51

Mañeru (Navarra), Christ 1920, 261n81

Mantero, Piero (Udine), 262n98

María de Ágreda, crucifix, 76

María de la Cabeza, Santa, 7, 9, 15

Marianne, 134, 164

Maroto, Marilina (Casas de Benítez), 43, 44

Martin I of Aragón, 257n55

Martínez, Diego Ramón (Casas de Benítez), 43, 44

Martínez, Francisco, purported visionary, 28–30, 41,43, 73–75,102

Martínez, Pascual (Madrid and Casas de Benítez), 3, 10, 14, 40,

237nll, 237nl5, 238nl6, 238n21, 247n73

martyrs, 59

Mary the Egyptian, St., 108

Mary: images made by pilgrims, 246n69; images more clothed,

2 57n54; and male saints, 16–17; in rain processions, 21;

punishes in visions, 247n74; and WWI, 162, 164,167,173,

185–87

Mary, apparitions and visions: 5; Alzonne 162; Beauraing,

119–20; California City, 5; Fatima, 23, 31 121; Guadalajara,

235n2; Guadamur, 235n2; Jafre, Fuensanta, 25,242n45;

Medjugorje, 93; Mendigorría, 239n22; Ireland, 93; Palma

de Mallorca, 77; La Salette, 15, 104; Medjugorje, 93;

Montserrat, 48,122–23; Orgiva 1931, 235n2; Pius XII,

121; Riel ves 1931, 235n2; Saint Bernard, 115; Santa Gadea

del Cid 1399, 247n74; Sigüenza 1931, 235n2; Torralba de

Aragón 1931, 239n22; WWI, 164,186–87; see also Ezquioga,

Lourdes, Rosary

Mary, specific images by place: Agres, 117; Alcanar, Remei, 116;

Alcobendas, Peace 66–67, 69; Alcobendas, Soledad, 66; Ariño,

Arcos, 241n36; Belchite, Pueyo, 241n36; Belsue, Linares,

241n40; El Casar de Talavera, Alcoba, 241n36; Fañanás,

Bureta, 241n40; Guadalupe, 34, 48; Hecho, Escabués,

241n36; La Roda, Fuensanta, 45; Montserrat, 48, 104,122–

23; Riner, Milacre, 116; Uncastillo, Banales, 241n36; see also

images with blood, sweat or tears, by place

Masnou (Barcelona), 153

matins, Osa de la Vega, 65

medals, for El Bonillo women, 77, 77–78

Medina de Rioseco (Valladolid), 54–58, 250n21

Medjugorje, 93

Mendigorría (Navarra) 1931,23 9n22

Mendívil, Marcelina, (Ezquioga), 110

Menénd ez, Josefa, 107

Mesmin, Marie (Bordeaux) 1907–1913, 85, 85

Mexico, 39, 58

Michael, St. in Alzonne visions, 162,172–73

Miguelturra (Ciudad Real), 1768, 78, 260n73

Minims, evaluate testimony, 70

miracles: Alcobendas, 69, 259n73; boards proclaiming, 57, 81, 81,

257n55; challenged, 59; debunked, 49–51; during sermons,

58; El Bonillo, 64; Entrevaux, 91; Eucharistic, 248n5;

exvotos, 1, 69,116; failed, 73–77; gluts, 73; and gullibility,

235n3; in rain processions, 19–20, 241n36; and images,

248n3; Munébrega, 58–59; need for, 56; notaries take down,

28; Osa de la Vega, 65; permission to paint, 64; predicted

by stranger, 30; Quero 1931, 12; Sacedón, 256n41; sign of

special image, 48; stricter procedures, 75; and visions, 15; see

also image animation, blood, sweat, tears

Mirebeau-en-Poitou (Vienne) 1911–1921, 85–86, 86, 264nl9

missions: foreign 59, 82,119,127; parish, 82, 241 n38

Molina de Aragón (Guadalajara), 29, 72, 258n60

Monlora (Zaragoza) Christ of the Column 1720, 81, 260n79

Montesquiu (Barcelona), 261n82

Montmartre, 118,170,173

Montserrat, 48,122–23

Moriscos, and image animation, 71

Mourelo, Suso, 4, 248nl

Munébrega (Zaragoza), 58–59

Muñoz, Miguel, 9, 43, 44

Murcia, tears on Sorrowing Mary 1706, 258n59

Napoleon, 77,179

Navarra, moving crucifixes 1920, 84

Neo–Jansenism, 73

Netherlands, 51, 63, 202, 264n22

newspapers, online searches, 6, 236n5

Nicodemus, 39

Nocito (Huesca), 239n31

non-events, 5–6,14, 44

notaries, 28, 51, 52, 68, 250nl3, 258n57

Novéant-sur-Moselle (Moselle), visions 1920, 265n30

Noyes, Dorothy, 240n32

Nuévalos (Zaragoza) 1525, 258n55

nuns, 76, 80,107,118,127

odors, 62–63, 254n36

Olds, Katrina, 255n39

Olot (Girona), 258n57

omens, 58, 65, 66

Oran, image activations 1675 and 1677, 72

Osa de la Vega (Cuenca) 1644, 64–66, 77, 257n51

painters, as evaluators, 52, 54,72

paintings, of image animation, 21, 61, 64, 78, 81, 82

Palencia, 54–55, 25ln21

Palma de Mallorca, Mary 1768, 77

Pamplona (Navarra), 121, 246n69

Papal States, statues move 1795–1796, 77

Paray-le-Monial, visions 1673–1674,118, 133,157

Paris, 91–92,160, 263n6

Parma, Christ weeps blood 1646, 66

peasants, alleged mental inferiority, 6–7, 23, 235n3

Pedrosa, José Manuel, 247n72, 248n74

Pellitero, Gabriel (Medina de Rioseco), 57

penance: flagellation, 21, 52–53, 65,68–69, 73, 259n63; of

pilgrims, 244n59; public, 256n44; for rain, 18–19, 21, 68–69;

result of animations, 56

pharmaceuticals, and religious orders, 78

pharmacists, as evaluators, 95; test blood, 90–91, 91

photographs, abundance, 99; accessibility, 202; and death, 203;

democratization of image, 233; and image animation, 86,

87–88, 81, 94, 94, 99; vs. postcards, 203; and self-awareness,

99–100; of soldiers and families, 203, 209–31; treasured icons,

202–203, 233; visible in postcards or photographs, 83, 81, 94,

193–94,199, 214, 218–19, 231;and visions, 5, 97, 101–103;

websites, 100–101; see also composite images photomontage, see composite images

Piedramillera (Navarra), Christ 1920, 261n81

pilgrims: animations attract, 55–56, 65, 69; as hermits, 244n59;

held holy, 35–39, 244n59, 245n61; outfits, 30, 31, 35, 35;

leave relics, 245n60; spread vision stories, 23; to Entrevaux,

90–91; to Limpias, 82–83, 83; to Santiago, 35, 35, 244n58;

247n69; to Templemore, 84; man in Almería 1947, 244n58;

man in Tarragona 1947, 244n58; woman in Tortosa 1888,

244n59

pilgrims, apparitions of: Burguillos, 31–34; Piera (Barcelona),

26–29, 27, 28, 29, 43, 233; as angels or Christ, 36–39; leave

paintings and images, 38–39, 59–60, 246n69; as strangers,

34–35, 37

Pilgrim's Prayer, 37

Pius XII, vision, 121

Pócs, Eva, 247n72

pope, and France, 134,159; vision, 121

Portugal, 61, 71, 141

postcards, commercial: abundance 1895–1920, 99–101, 263n6;

of animated images, 82–83, 85, 89–90, 91; in Church-State

struggle, 133, 157–60; composite images, 122–25, 132–33,

136–50, 163–66, 168–69, 177–19, 182, 190–201; depict

people with photographs, 165, 192–93, 199; hold-to-light,

104, 122–25; models for visions, 162; sale, 197; sent to and

from soldiers, 142, 146, 165, 168, 175, 178, 182–83, 185–86,

188, 190–91, 193–94, 196–98, 200; spread vision models, 23;

of visions, 104–05, 111, 114–15, 118–20, 122–26, 128–31,

132–33, 138, 144, 147, 149, 168–69, 171–19, 186–88, 198,

201; as votive images, 166; websites, 100–101

Pozoamargo (Cuenca), 7, 9, 10

Prat, Joan, 244n58

prayers, 29, 145–46, 169, 173,190–91

presence and absence: commercial postcards, 135–42; prewar

photos, 203, 205–11; spirit photography, 143,148; WWI

photos, 213–31

prisoners of war, 202, 215–16, 218–19, 231

processions for rain: continuities, 2; and emotions, 19;

and failure, 18–19, 240n33–34; images meet in, 17,17;

innovations, 15–16; miracles in, 19–20, 241n36; music,

10,21; occasions for fights, 67; preaching, 21, 240n34;

procedures, 18–19; ridicule, 18; as social control, 22–23; and

visions 26; vows, 241n35

procession for rain by town: Ajofrín 16th century, 242n46;

Alcobendas 1646, 66–67; Borox, 238n20; Cabra del Santo

Cristo 1698, 21, 54; Casas de Benítez 1931, 7, 8–10;

Henarejos, 18; Piera, 26–29, 27, 29; Quero Toledo 1931, 12,

Tirteafuera 17, 17; Toledo, 241n39; Vic, 61

processions out of town, 17, 18–19, 21, 25, 27–28, 29

Protestants, 20, 51, 53, 79, 86

Puig i Ferreter, Joan, 240n32

punishment: animation omen of, 252n25; by divinities, 247n74;

of doubter, 59; drought as, 22; hail as, 12, 22, 41; of image,

18,71, 2 40n3 3; by mysterious stranger, 3 2, 40–42

purgatory, 43

Quero (Toledo), 12, 19

rain, see processions for rain

Reinosa (Cantabria) rain processions, 241n39

relaciones topográficas, 241n35, 246n68

relics: blood of animated images, 86, 92, 92; divine sweat as, 68;

of Martinez’s clothes, 75; pilgrims leave, 245n60; of Siracusa

tears, 87, 88, 87–88; sources of grace, 46; specialness, 48;

stained altar cloths as, 57, 57, 65; stones where image found,

75

religion, continuity in, 1–2, 232

religious: debunk animation, 76,262n91; evaluate animation,

52–53, 61, 62, 65, 70, 72,76; promote animation, 76, 78, 82,

87,248n7, 255n40; see also individual orders, clergy

República (Cuenca), 6, 18

ribbons (mides), 69

Riudarenes (Girona), 257n57

rivers, images meet in, 17; bathing of images, 18

Roch, St., 35

Roma, 34, 40

Rome, 46, 61–62

Roncesvalles (Navarra) 35

rosaries, 29, 68, 75

Rosary, Our Lady of, 52, 76–77, 258n58

Sacedón (Guadalajara) 1689, 256n41

Sacred Heart of Jesus: in Alzonne visions, 162; blesses France,

157,170,173; Mirebeau-en-Poitou (Vienne) 1911–1921,

85–86, 86, 264nl9

Sagristá, F., 161

Saint Michael, and France, 157

saints: and animated images, 76, 246n69, 259n64; living, 46; male

and female, 15–17; people acting as, 249n8; having visions,

107–108, 114–13, 118, 128–31; in visions, 129–31, 157, 152,

162, 164,171–73, 179, 188; see also individual saints

Salvadé, Jean (Entrevaux), 89–93, 102

San Carlos del Valle (Ciudad Real), 246n68

Sant Quirze de Besora (Barcelona), 261n82

Santa Compana, 43

Santiago de Compostela, 34, 35, 33, 244n58, 247n69

Sebastian, St., 246n69

seers: faces depicted, 102–103; with seen in art, 114–21; without

seen, 107–13; themselves spectacles, 103

Segundo, San (Ávila), 259n64

Serbia, 229

sermons, 56, 58, 81, 82; see also missions

Sertillanges, Antonin–Gilbert, 172

Seville, 19, 259n63

shrines: animations lead to, 51, 55–56, 64, 69–70, 71, 86–87;

caridades at, 40; continuity of, 2; desecration, 47; and rain

processions, 16–20, 241n36; and constellation of grace, 45–

48; to pilgrims, 36, 244n59; and vows, 244n58; see also Christ,

Mary, saints, pilgrims, and individual shrines

Sicart, Joaquin (Ezquioga), 86

Siracusa, 1953, 86–89, 86–89

Sisante (Cuenca), 45, 237n8

Socialism: Casas de Benítez, 13; and Limpias, 81; press, 22–23

sociocentrism, 78–79

soldiers: with families, WWI, 220–31; postcards to and from,

142,146, 165,168,175,178,182–83,185–86,188,190–91,

193–94,196–98, 200; see also prisoners of war

Soltau (Hannover), 231

Spain: animated images in, 45–84,88–89; mysterious strangers

in, 5–44; photos 109–110,112,153, 205–210; Civil War 12,

26, 33, 47, 78, 232–233; postcards 101, seers and visions 107,

109–110,116–117,122–125

specialness, 48, 58, 60, 62, 98

speech, by images, 71,80, 86

spirits, in photographs, 132–33

Spiritualism, 132–33,143,148, 162–63

springs, healing, 2, 25, 242n45

Staehlin, Carlos María, 262n91

Stations of the Cross, 79

Stead, W. T., 148

Stoichita, Victor, 103

stories, 43–14, 232–33

strangers, mysterious: in catechisms, 36–39; in folklore 40–42;

and food, 7; leave images, 39, 246n68; occasional, 98; and

punishments, 40–43; in Spanish countryside, 34–35; topos,

34–43; see also pilgrims, angels

strangers, mysterious, by place: Ajofrín, 242n46; Ayora, 25, 25;

Burguillos 1935, 31–34; Casas de Benítez 1931, 6–11;Jafre

1460, 25; Munebrega 1623, 59–60; Piera, 26–28, 28; Villa de

San Esteban c.1728, 29–30, 73–74

sun, 15,121

sweat on images: as divine displeasure, 63; history, 48; natural

causes, 70; nature of, 56–59,62–63, 253n26; in processions, 20;

as relic, 68. See also images with blood, sweat or tears, by place

Tarancón (Cuenca), 45, 238n 19

Taravilla (Guadalajara), 28, 74–75

Tarazona (Zaragoza), 241n37

Tarbes, 132,144

Tarragona, pilgrim 1947, 244n58

taste, discernment of liquids, 62, 65, 87, 96

Taves, Ann, 248n2

tears of people, 68, 70, 252n25, 256n44

tears on images: 48–50, 89. See also images with blood, sweat or tears, by place

telegraph, 135

telephone, 138

television, 88

Tembleque (Toledo), 246n68

Templemore (Co. Tipperary), Ireland 1921, 84, 84

Thérèse of Lisieux, and WWI, 164, 265n28

Tirteafuera (Ciudad Real), 17

Tobed (Zaragoza), 257n55

TodoColeccion.com, 4, 101

Toledo, 63, 241n39

Toribia, see del Val, Toribia

Torralba de Aragón (Huesca) 1931, 239n22

Torrente de Cinca (Huesca), 241n36; 1703 241n40

Tortosa (Tarragona), 244n59

Traíd (Guadalajara) 1710, 72–75

transhumancy, 73–74

trees: holy, 2; visions on, 117,119–21,131, 162,167

trembling, during fraud, 50, 74

Trent, Council of, 51, 249nl2

Trexler, Richard, 257n54

tricksters, 42

Trinitarians, 255n40

Uncastillo (Zarago za), 241 n36

Urbez, San(Nocito), 239n31

Urda (Toledo), missions 1921, 241 n38

Vachère de Grateloup, abbé, 85–86, 261n86, 264nl9

Valencia, 246n69

Valtablado del Río (Guadalajara), 239n31

Vara del Rey (Cuenca), 2 38n21

veils, on images, 63

Vera Cruz, brotherhood, 64–65

Veronicas: Alicante, 255n41; Banos de la Encina 1641, 255n39;

Honrubia, 255n41 ; Jaén, 255n41 ; Osa de la Vega, 64–66;

Sacedón, 255n41; Tobed, 257n55, and St. Luke, 257n55

Vic (Barcelona) 1633, 53, 60–61

video, evidence of image animation, 94

Vienna, and postcards, 100

Villalba de la Sierra (Cuenca) 1959, 89, 89

Villalba del Rey (Cuenca), 246n68

Villalgordo del Júcar (Cuenca), 238n21

Villamayor de Calatrava (Ciudad Real), 17

Villarejo de Fuentes (Cuenca), 256n42

Villarrubio de Santiago (Toledo), 235n3

Villaviciosa de Tajuña (Guadalajara), battle 1710, 258n60

vision depictions: art vs. photography, 103; in art, 25,28, 36–37,

103,108,114–25; Bernadette, 126–27; Jeanne d’Arc, 128–31;

media, 23; in photography, 103–106,107,109–10,126–31,

147,187–88,198, 201; poses, 102; in statues, 104

visions: allies in heaven, 170–73; Ayora, 25, 25; battles in sky,

163,167–69; Casas de Benítez 1931, 6–9; by children, 23–24;

by married women disregarded, 24; by San Bernardo, 115;

cultural persistence, 233; during epidemics, 23–25; in hold–

to–light postcards, 122–25; Inquisition discourages, 24; lead

to processions, 6–9, 23–24; Noveant 1920,187; Paray-le-

Monial 1673–1674,118; proofs, 30, 32, 34, 242n46; types of,

23–24; vs. apparitions, 45; in WWI, 163–64,167–73, 185–87;

see also apparitions

vows: in Ágreda 1665, 76; for caridades, 13; to Christ of Sisante,

237n8; in drought, 19, 241 n35; for pilgrimage, 244n58; for

processions, 22

War of 1870, 105

War of Spanish Succession, image activations, 72, 258n59

Wentila, St., 244n59

witnesses, ages 257n51; gender, 69, 70–71

women: as absent, 137, 140, 141, 195–96, 199–200, 205–206,

209–11, 217; as allegories, 134, 161; France as, 157–60,

174–78; and images, 70–71, 77, 77–78, 80; as spirits, 142–A3,

147–50, as visionaries, 5, 23–24, 107, 110, 118, 128–31; as

witnesses, 54, 69, 70–71

World Fairs, 263n6

World War I: absent soldiers, 132; allies in heaven 170–73; and

animated images, 86; battles in sky, 167–69; and postcards,

163–64, 167–89, 190–201, 263n6, 264n22; photos, 213–31;

visions, 164, 185–87

X–ray, of Entrevaux statue, 91, 262n93

Yeats, William Butler, 163, 264nl9

Zagreb, 169

Zamora, 246n69

Zaragoza, press, 22–23

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