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Divine Presence in Spain and Western Europe 1500-1960

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William A. Christian

Supernatural and the Absent in World War I postcards

Texte intégral

1In France, as the prospect of conflict with Germany increased, starting June 30, 1913, first two girls, then scores of adults, began to have visions in the village of Alzonne, 10 kilometers from Carcassonne. The visions started in poplars on the bank of the River Fresquel, then spread to the sky above the highway that passed through the town and also to the cemetery. In all there were over a hundred seers (some from Carcassonne and Bordeaux), until, in March 1914, the diocese decided the whole thing was diabolical. What people were seeing on the trees and in the sky seems to have been much like the art and photomontage visionary postcards then so popular. (Fig. 107)

  • 1 Nelli, “Les Visions”; Courrieu, “Les Étranges visions”; Bigou, “Les Apparitions”; “French villager (...)
  • 2 Gonne, Letters, 325–56. She and Yeats went back to France in 1914 to Mirebeau to see the bleeding (...)

2As later at Ezquioga, different people saw different things, whether Jeanne d’Arc (as a shepherdess at her house in Domrémy, on a white horse with a banner, in shining mail leading King Charles on the way to Reims), St. Michael, the Sacred Heart, the Virgin (a lady in white, with a blue girdle, a lady with a child in her arms, a lady with wings like a guardian angel), St. Catherine, the devil, or a fiery serpent. These were the kinds of images the popular Catholic weekly Le Pèlerin had for decades been providing in dramatic color.1 The active French spiritualist community took note, and through them the Irish revolutionary Maud Gonne went with her daughter and wrote back to William Butler Yeats that the daughter of a miller saw messages in Latin in the sky and that it was good Latin.2

  • 3 Nelli, “Les Visions.”

3Remembered in retrospect, some of the visions were prophetic—like that of trains carrying African troops hurtling through the night sky, or soldiers wearing gas masks, or a ship with African troops sinking. Senegalese troops did pass on trains through Carcassonne months later. Others, like the cathedral of Reims in flames held by Jeanne d’Arc, foreshadowed allegorical images that appeared on postcards, like Jeanne at the ruined Reims cathedral.3

  • 4 Niccoli, Prophecy and People, 61–88.

4Visions or dreams of heavenly armies clashing in the sky, of course, were a staple of seers and prophets in the late Middle Ages and early modern period.4 As World War I began, scenes much like the visions seen at Alzonne appeared in the upper portions of composite images throughout Europe, connecting the loved ones at home to the loved ones at the front, capturing, like the visions, the presence of the war in people’s minds and anxieties (Figs. 108-110).

  • 5 Seven billion postcards were sent in Germany in World War I (Alzheimer, Glaubenssache Krieg, 14). (...)
  • 6 Huss, Histoires, 186-92.
  • 7 Ibid., 139–41.
  • 8 Ibid., 142–48.
  • 9 “Au Général Joffre,” A. Noyer, Paris, “Galerie Patriotique” N° 201, by B. Borione, Dec. 1914. Coll (...)
  • 10 Jonas, Tragic Tale; Ferchaud, Notes autobiographiques; for background, Thurston, The War and the P (...)
  • 11 See, for instance, the postcard “St. Thérèse de l’Enfant Jésus priant pour les soldats.” Lisieux: (...)
  • 12 For these devotions, many of them deeply felt, from the ground up, Becker, War and Faith, 60–113.
  • 13 M. A., “Le Miracle de Novéant?,” “Supposed Miracle Explained.”

5World War I was, among other things, the great postcard war, with billions of postcards crisscrossing between home and front.5 In France and Germany, mail to soldiers was free and sending postcards almost a patriotic duty. In France, all the supernaturals and allegorical figures in the prewar postcards enthusiastically enlisted (Figs. 111–114). The national woman, France or Marianne called men to battle, was protected by them and protected them (Figs. 115-118). She appeared at times to have a halo, available to Catholics and non-Catholics.6 Important generals, especially Joffre, were like national saints (Figs. 119–120),7 and cards were sold with ersatz Our Fathers dedicated to them.8 Père Noël pitched in bringing war toys (Figs. 121–122), and Joffre as Père Noël brought victory to the sleeping nation.9 The supernatural led the troops and protected individual soldiers, as in other countries (Fig. 123–126). Soldiers’ battle visions were published in newspapers, and lay persons like Claire Ferchaud of Loublande had visions that linked the saints and the nation.10 Postcards depicted imagined appearances of Thérèse of Lisieux,11 Our Lady of Lourdes and other generic versions of Mary12 (Fig. 127). After the war was over, on the 1870s border in Lorraine, people gathered on late afternoons to see the silhouette of Mary next to a church13 (Fig. 128).

6Jeanne d’Arc was a ripe symbol for the war, and her canonization in 1920, as seen on the cover of Le Pèlerin, provided a symbolic reconciliation of the allegorical France with the allegorical Church, under the gaze of the crucifix as a reminder of the millions of lives lost (Figs. 129–130).

  • 14 Huss, Histoires, 11, 97–104.

7Throughout Europe, composite image postcards helped bridge the gap (visually, and through the mail) between home and soldiers. If World War I mobilized supernatural, it also, as the French historian Monique Huss has put it, mobilized hearts.14 The most successful commercial cards in turn reflected sentiments that people wanted to express. From the messages on the back one learns of the great variety available in even remote locations. Soldiers on the one hand, and women in family networks on the other, hunted out specific pictorial combinations (three children, two of them girls). There are still in American drugstores large displays of greeting cards for a variety of occasions, as, say, for a sick aunt.

8While in some cards prayers for the absent one were directed through an image or crucifix, more common are cards in which the communication is made directly through the photograph of the loved one (Sein Bild!), or the unaided imagination (Figs. 131–136).

  • 15 For an account of one exchange sequence, Böß, “Blaue Augen.”

9Postcards could express directed sentiment and thought, and the virtual accompaniment that many loved ones experienced provided a protective presence through their correspondence (not unusually with daily, numbered postcards).15 In this sense, each combined image was a votive image and each loved one a supernatural, just as supernaturals were represented in combined images as intensely loved (Figs. 137–142).

Fig. 107. “Alzonne. The banks of the Fresquel (Site of the Apparition).” Carcasonne, Photo Roudière. 1913.

Fig. 108. “The gleaners; all work for the good of France.” From soldier? to brother on farm, June 12, 1916, about harvest. Boulogne-sur-Seine, G. Piprot.

Fig. 109. “Homage to our combatants!” From Bussière-Poitevine, July 29, 1915, to Mlle in Angoulême. “Bonjour et bons baisers.” Paris, Gloria 69.

Fig. 110. “Our Father, who art...” Sent to Countess in Zagreb, Dec. 23, 1917 with seasons greetings. Berlin, Albrecht & Meister Aktiengesellschaft.

Fig. 111. “God save France... Frenchmen, let us be like brothers, let us love one another.” From woman on her return from Sacred Heart shrine at Montmartre, to couple in Roubaix. Paris, Imp. Ch. Weibel, 1918.

Fig. 112. “Go... daughter of France, the time has come!” Sold for the benefit of the Popular Work of Masses for dead soldiers, 1914-1915, founded in Dijon. Paris, Catala Frères.

Fig. 113. “Our allies in heaven”...Words spoken by Abbé Sertillanges in Notre -Dame de Paris so that brave soldiers would come back with glory. Paris, Carrier.

Fig. 144. “The Sacred Heart protects France and its Allies. The Virgin Mary and the saint protectors of France pray with all Christians for the triumph of France and its Allies, which is also that of Civilization and Justice.” [On back: “Prayer for the victory of our armies,” including Sacred Heart of Jesus, Immaculate Heart of Mary, Sts. Michael, Genevieve, Martin, Louis, Clotilde, Denis, Remy, Radegonde, and Blessed Jeanne d’Arc] Holy card, Paris, H. Vaudey.

Fig. 115. “But there is another woman... the Motherland...” [Paris, Croissant] Photo: Sescau.

Fig. 116. “Let us defend France.” Soldier in Marbach to female benefactor, Dec. 10, 1914. “Madam, It is with pleasure that I just received a letter from my dear Louise. Many many thanks for the five francs you gave her to send to me...” Paris, Gloria 73.

Fig. 111. “Happy New Year 1915.” Soldier in Réchésy (Haut Rhin) to sister in Vic-le-Comte (Puy-de-Dôme), Dec. 22, 1914. “Thank you, news soon.” France, CD 14.

Fig. 118. “France’s mercy.” From man in Ste-Foy-l’Argentière (Rhône) to woman in St-Maurice-sur-Dargoire, Feb. 2, 1915. Reuil, A.H. Katz JK 9405.

Fig. 119. Postcard with General Joffre. From husband at front to wife, July 30, 1915. Myosotis EME 81.

Fig. 120. “Vive la France!” Grandmother and aunt in La Flèche to boy in Châtellerault, Aug. 22, 1915. Bois-Colombes, L’At. d’Art Photographique, Furia 363.

Fig. 121. “Merry Christmas.” From aunt to nephew in Azay-le-Rideau (Indre-et Loire). Boulogne-sur-Seine, G. Piprot, Dix 302.

Fig. 122. “Merry Christmas.” From girl in Lamagistère (Tarn-et-Garonne) to girl in Auvillar, Dec. 26, 1914. Paris, PH 268.

Fig. 123. “Angel of God, watch over my husband.” From soldier at Champigneulle near Nancy to female friend near Cassneuil (Lot-et-Garonne), June 25, 1915. Reuil, A.H. Katz JK 9393.

Fig. 124. “Hope.” From soldier to Fräulein in Telfs, Tirol, Nov. 1, 1916. Leipzig, Regel & Krug Serie 2678/6.

Fig. 125. “Our Father.” Sent April 11, 1917, to Horstermark, Germany. Vienna, Brüder Kohn, 527-2.

Fig. 126. “For God and the Fatherland.” [Lourdes] From soldier at front to sisters and mother in Montfort, Oct. 18, 1914. Paris, Le Deley ELD 15.

Fig. 127. “Our Lady of the Trenches.” From woman in Neuville-sur-Saône to wounded lover in hospital, Nov. 1, 1918, “...I send you this little card of Our Lady of the Trenches; may she be our protector...” Paris, Bonne Press.

Fig. 128. “Novéant-sur-Moselle. Curious mirage-Vision of theVirgin” Early 1920. From sibling to sister in Morelmaison (Vosges) “you must have learned about this apparition in the newspapers. I send you a picture of it it is 10km from here right at the old frontier.” Photo: R. Mahut.

Fig. 129. “Vision of Jeanne d’Arc.” Father at war to young daughter on the farm, Sept. 1, 1915. Boulogne-sur-Seine, G. Piprot, Dix 166/3.
“Ma chère petite Yvonne, Je viens vite te dire deux mots, et en même temps te faire un gros mimi tu en feras un pour moi a la maman et a la grand mère. Vas-tu toujours en champ, tes petits veaux et tes moutons sont-ils au moins gentils. Les raisins sont ils déjà murs tu dois en manger en allant au champ avec Jean. Je finis ma petite Yvonne en t’embrassant bien fort, ainsi que la maman et la grand mère, je t’embrasse bien fort comme je t’aime. Ton papa Dandins.”

Fig. 130. “St. Jeanne d’Arcin 1921 reconciles France and the Church.” Paris, Le Pèlerin, Jan. 2, 1921, cover. [Canonization was May 16, 1920].

Fig. 131. “Prayer for the absent one.” From woman in Chartres, Dec. 29, 1914, to male friend. Paris, Gloria 90.

Fig. 132. “Praying: Good Lord protect our dear father.” From Budapest to woman in field hospital in Liptó-Rózsahegy, July 15, 1916. Budapest, M. F. R. T. 254.

Fig. 133. “They tell us that we are the family of a hero...” Paris, A. Noyer, Patriotic 1019.

Fig. 134. “Only one who knows longing knows what I suffer.” To soldier in Tongeren, Belgium, from “deinen Frau und Kinder” in Nuremberg, April 20, 1915. Berlin, Paul Fink 3737/4.

Fig. 135. “What do the women of France dream of? The absent one, the loved one, vengeance...“From woman in Arcueil to lover in war, Nov. 24, 1915. “My dear little man I adore, How happy I am to send you this little card, tender and dear keepsake of our sincere love... “Paris, Artige, ACA 2154/1.

Fig. 136. “Far from you, close to you. “Paris, A. Noyer, bugle 103.

Fig. 137. “In heart and thought I am always with you.” From Jeanne to soldier, Sept. 18, 1915. “My dear little kid... I don’t know where you are but I follow you just the same...” France, Edition Lorraine.

Fig. 138. “I watch over <dream and long for> you /I dream of you. “Modified postcard from soldier after battle to “ma petite cherie, “Oct. 5, 1916. “...the poor soldier who sold me this postcard was killed tonight... “Levallois-Perret, J. Tailhades, N Boulanger 94.

Fig. 139. “Vision!” From woman in Gornac, Gironde, to lover in hospital, Army of the Orient, June 15, 1916. “...No more news from you. Could that mean you’re coming back to France? oh! what happiness how happy I’d be to press you against my heart and give you ail my kisses...” Bois-Colombes, L’At. d’Art Photographique, Furia 513.

Fig. 140. “My thoughts fly home to you, when a greeting and letter arrives from you!” From aunt and uncle to a woman in Golya [?], in Hungarian. Leipzig, Regel & Krug 2685 5.

Fig. 141. “Far from eyes, close to heart.” From soldier to woman in St. Germain Laval, July 10, 1915: “Still well, your friend J. Chabert.” France, ACA 2101.

Fig. 142. Sent within Vrbanja (Croatia) from man to young woman, Aug. 11, 1914. Berlin, E. A. Schwerdt-Feger, EAS 8856/2.

Notes

1 Nelli, “Les Visions”; Courrieu, “Les Étranges visions”; Bigou, “Les Apparitions”; “French villagers report apparition” (I thank Deirdre de la Cruz for supplying the article); “Les Manifestations d’Alzonne”; “Notre Courrier: Alzonne et Conques”; J. R., “Les Visionnaires d’Alzonne.”

2 Gonne, Letters, 325–56. She and Yeats went back to France in 1914 to Mirebeau to see the bleeding images of Abbé Vachère, who told Yeats of the Sacred Heart’s mission for him, Foster, Yeats: A Life, 1: 517–18.

3 Nelli, “Les Visions.”

4 Niccoli, Prophecy and People, 61–88.

5 Seven billion postcards were sent in Germany in World War I (Alzheimer, Glaubenssache Krieg, 14). For the Netherlands, van Lith, Ik denk altijd aan jou; for France, Huss, Histoires, and Pairault, Images des Poilus; for Italy, Sturani, Donna del soldato.

6 Huss, Histoires, 186-92.

7 Ibid., 139–41.

8 Ibid., 142–48.

9 “Au Général Joffre,” A. Noyer, Paris, “Galerie Patriotique” N° 201, by B. Borione, Dec. 1914. Collection of author.

10 Jonas, Tragic Tale; Ferchaud, Notes autobiographiques; for background, Thurston, The War and the Prophets.

11 See, for instance, the postcard “St. Thérèse de l’Enfant Jésus priant pour les soldats.” Lisieux: Carmel, c. 1916.

12 For these devotions, many of them deeply felt, from the ground up, Becker, War and Faith, 60–113.

13 M. A., “Le Miracle de Novéant?,” “Supposed Miracle Explained.”

14 Huss, Histoires, 11, 97–104.

15 For an account of one exchange sequence, Böß, “Blaue Augen.”

Table des illustrations

Légende Fig. 107. “Alzonne. The banks of the Fresquel (Site of the Apparition).” Carcasonne, Photo Roudière. 1913.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ceup/docannexe/image/1932/img-1.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 189k
Légende Fig. 108. “The gleaners; all work for the good of France.” From soldier? to brother on farm, June 12, 1916, about harvest. Boulogne-sur-Seine, G. Piprot.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ceup/docannexe/image/1932/img-2.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 67k
Légende Fig. 109. “Homage to our combatants!” From Bussière-Poitevine, July 29, 1915, to Mlle in Angoulême. “Bonjour et bons baisers.” Paris, Gloria 69.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ceup/docannexe/image/1932/img-3.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 76k
Légende Fig. 110. “Our Father, who art...” Sent to Countess in Zagreb, Dec. 23, 1917 with seasons greetings. Berlin, Albrecht & Meister Aktiengesellschaft.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ceup/docannexe/image/1932/img-4.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 114k
Légende Fig. 111. “God save France... Frenchmen, let us be like brothers, let us love one another.” From woman on her return from Sacred Heart shrine at Montmartre, to couple in Roubaix. Paris, Imp. Ch. Weibel, 1918.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ceup/docannexe/image/1932/img-5.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 172k
Légende Fig. 112. “Go... daughter of France, the time has come!” Sold for the benefit of the Popular Work of Masses for dead soldiers, 1914-1915, founded in Dijon. Paris, Catala Frères.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ceup/docannexe/image/1932/img-6.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 147k
Légende Fig. 113. “Our allies in heaven”...Words spoken by Abbé Sertillanges in Notre -Dame de Paris so that brave soldiers would come back with glory. Paris, Carrier.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ceup/docannexe/image/1932/img-7.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 176k
Légende Fig. 144. “The Sacred Heart protects France and its Allies. The Virgin Mary and the saint protectors of France pray with all Christians for the triumph of France and its Allies, which is also that of Civilization and Justice.” [On back: “Prayer for the victory of our armies,” including Sacred Heart of Jesus, Immaculate Heart of Mary, Sts. Michael, Genevieve, Martin, Louis, Clotilde, Denis, Remy, Radegonde, and Blessed Jeanne d’Arc] Holy card, Paris, H. Vaudey.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ceup/docannexe/image/1932/img-8.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 164k
Légende Fig. 115. “But there is another woman... the Motherland...” [Paris, Croissant] Photo: Sescau.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ceup/docannexe/image/1932/img-9.jpg
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Légende Fig. 116. “Let us defend France.” Soldier in Marbach to female benefactor, Dec. 10, 1914. “Madam, It is with pleasure that I just received a letter from my dear Louise. Many many thanks for the five francs you gave her to send to me...” Paris, Gloria 73.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ceup/docannexe/image/1932/img-10.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 119k
Légende Fig. 111. “Happy New Year 1915.” Soldier in Réchésy (Haut Rhin) to sister in Vic-le-Comte (Puy-de-Dôme), Dec. 22, 1914. “Thank you, news soon.” France, CD 14.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ceup/docannexe/image/1932/img-11.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 109k
Légende Fig. 118. “France’s mercy.” From man in Ste-Foy-l’Argentière (Rhône) to woman in St-Maurice-sur-Dargoire, Feb. 2, 1915. Reuil, A.H. Katz JK 9405.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ceup/docannexe/image/1932/img-12.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 97k
Légende Fig. 119. Postcard with General Joffre. From husband at front to wife, July 30, 1915. Myosotis EME 81.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ceup/docannexe/image/1932/img-13.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 94k
Légende Fig. 120. “Vive la France!” Grandmother and aunt in La Flèche to boy in Châtellerault, Aug. 22, 1915. Bois-Colombes, L’At. d’Art Photographique, Furia 363.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ceup/docannexe/image/1932/img-14.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 112k
Légende Fig. 121. “Merry Christmas.” From aunt to nephew in Azay-le-Rideau (Indre-et Loire). Boulogne-sur-Seine, G. Piprot, Dix 302.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ceup/docannexe/image/1932/img-15.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 173k
Légende Fig. 122. “Merry Christmas.” From girl in Lamagistère (Tarn-et-Garonne) to girl in Auvillar, Dec. 26, 1914. Paris, PH 268.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ceup/docannexe/image/1932/img-16.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 112k
Légende Fig. 123. “Angel of God, watch over my husband.” From soldier at Champigneulle near Nancy to female friend near Cassneuil (Lot-et-Garonne), June 25, 1915. Reuil, A.H. Katz JK 9393.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ceup/docannexe/image/1932/img-17.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 94k
Légende Fig. 124. “Hope.” From soldier to Fräulein in Telfs, Tirol, Nov. 1, 1916. Leipzig, Regel & Krug Serie 2678/6.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ceup/docannexe/image/1932/img-18.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 136k
Légende Fig. 125. “Our Father.” Sent April 11, 1917, to Horstermark, Germany. Vienna, Brüder Kohn, 527-2.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ceup/docannexe/image/1932/img-19.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 322k
Légende Fig. 126. “For God and the Fatherland.” [Lourdes] From soldier at front to sisters and mother in Montfort, Oct. 18, 1914. Paris, Le Deley ELD 15.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ceup/docannexe/image/1932/img-20.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 148k
Légende Fig. 127. “Our Lady of the Trenches.” From woman in Neuville-sur-Saône to wounded lover in hospital, Nov. 1, 1918, “...I send you this little card of Our Lady of the Trenches; may she be our protector...” Paris, Bonne Press.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ceup/docannexe/image/1932/img-21.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 177k
Légende Fig. 128. “Novéant-sur-Moselle. Curious mirage-Vision of theVirgin” Early 1920. From sibling to sister in Morelmaison (Vosges) “you must have learned about this apparition in the newspapers. I send you a picture of it it is 10km from here right at the old frontier.” Photo: R. Mahut.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ceup/docannexe/image/1932/img-22.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 46k
Légende Fig. 129. “Vision of Jeanne d’Arc.” Father at war to young daughter on the farm, Sept. 1, 1915. Boulogne-sur-Seine, G. Piprot, Dix 166/3.“Ma chère petite Yvonne, Je viens vite te dire deux mots, et en même temps te faire un gros mimi tu en feras un pour moi a la maman et a la grand mère. Vas-tu toujours en champ, tes petits veaux et tes moutons sont-ils au moins gentils. Les raisins sont ils déjà murs tu dois en manger en allant au champ avec Jean. Je finis ma petite Yvonne en t’embrassant bien fort, ainsi que la maman et la grand mère, je t’embrasse bien fort comme je t’aime. Ton papa Dandins.”
URL http://books.openedition.org/ceup/docannexe/image/1932/img-23.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 120k
Légende Fig. 130. “St. Jeanne d’Arcin 1921 reconciles France and the Church.” Paris, Le Pèlerin, Jan. 2, 1921, cover. [Canonization was May 16, 1920].
URL http://books.openedition.org/ceup/docannexe/image/1932/img-24.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 204k
Légende Fig. 131. “Prayer for the absent one.” From woman in Chartres, Dec. 29, 1914, to male friend. Paris, Gloria 90.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ceup/docannexe/image/1932/img-25.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 97k
Légende Fig. 132. “Praying: Good Lord protect our dear father.” From Budapest to woman in field hospital in Liptó-Rózsahegy, July 15, 1916. Budapest, M. F. R. T. 254.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ceup/docannexe/image/1932/img-26.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 321k
Légende Fig. 133. “They tell us that we are the family of a hero...” Paris, A. Noyer, Patriotic 1019.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ceup/docannexe/image/1932/img-27.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 126k
Légende Fig. 134. “Only one who knows longing knows what I suffer.” To soldier in Tongeren, Belgium, from “deinen Frau und Kinder” in Nuremberg, April 20, 1915. Berlin, Paul Fink 3737/4.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ceup/docannexe/image/1932/img-28.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 71k
Légende Fig. 135. “What do the women of France dream of? The absent one, the loved one, vengeance...“From woman in Arcueil to lover in war, Nov. 24, 1915. “My dear little man I adore, How happy I am to send you this little card, tender and dear keepsake of our sincere love... “Paris, Artige, ACA 2154/1.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ceup/docannexe/image/1932/img-29.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 104k
Légende Fig. 136. “Far from you, close to you. “Paris, A. Noyer, bugle 103.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ceup/docannexe/image/1932/img-30.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 102k
Légende Fig. 137. “In heart and thought I am always with you.” From Jeanne to soldier, Sept. 18, 1915. “My dear little kid... I don’t know where you are but I follow you just the same...” France, Edition Lorraine.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ceup/docannexe/image/1932/img-31.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 158k
Légende Fig. 138. “I watch over <dream and long for> you /I dream of you. “Modified postcard from soldier after battle to “ma petite cherie, “Oct. 5, 1916. “...the poor soldier who sold me this postcard was killed tonight... “Levallois-Perret, J. Tailhades, N Boulanger 94.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ceup/docannexe/image/1932/img-32.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 109k
Légende Fig. 139. “Vision!” From woman in Gornac, Gironde, to lover in hospital, Army of the Orient, June 15, 1916. “...No more news from you. Could that mean you’re coming back to France? oh! what happiness how happy I’d be to press you against my heart and give you ail my kisses...” Bois-Colombes, L’At. d’Art Photographique, Furia 513.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ceup/docannexe/image/1932/img-33.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 133k
Légende Fig. 140. “My thoughts fly home to you, when a greeting and letter arrives from you!” From aunt and uncle to a woman in Golya [?], in Hungarian. Leipzig, Regel & Krug 2685 5.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ceup/docannexe/image/1932/img-34.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 151k
Légende Fig. 141. “Far from eyes, close to heart.” From soldier to woman in St. Germain Laval, July 10, 1915: “Still well, your friend J. Chabert.” France, ACA 2101.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ceup/docannexe/image/1932/img-35.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 96k
Légende Fig. 142. Sent within Vrbanja (Croatia) from man to young woman, Aug. 11, 1914. Berlin, E. A. Schwerdt-Feger, EAS 8856/2.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ceup/docannexe/image/1932/img-36.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 95k

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