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Past in the Making

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Michal Kopecek

Subject Index

Texte intégral

1956 Hungarian Revolution ix, 93n9, 157– 158, 162, 164, 165, 169–177, 178n12

abuses of history 222, 223

amnesia 87, 90, 161, 167n13, 182, 198, 216n3, 217n24

anti-Capitalism 175

anti-Communism 91, 154, 157, 170, 175, 176, 198

anti-communist 78, 85, 86–87, 89, 133, 139, 160, 170, 171, 173, 176, 199

anti-Fascism 60, 62, 65, 66, 69–71, 71n3, 72n12, 73n17

anti-Semitism 51, 63–68, 70, 72n11, 73n27, 135, 166n3

anti-Trianon viii

anti-Versailles viii

archives 19, 50, 88–89, 91, 177n5

Arrow Cross movement/regime 170–171, 175, 178n12

authority 26, 119, 120, 151, 166, 180, 239

Beneš doctrine (Beneš Decree) 48, 97–127

Berlin Wall 62, 66, 70

Bolshevik Revolution 99, 109, 111, 121, 127n81, 129

Bolshevism [anti-Bolshevik sentiment] 9, 10, 100, 103, 105, 122n12, 126, 176, 178n12, 233

bourgeois nationalists 132, 134

Catholicism/Political Catholicism/integral Catholicism 86, 105, 109

Centrism, centrist 116

class struggle 60, 130

closed discourse 230, 241n41

Cold War ix, 20, 46, 59, 130, 164

collaboration, indigenous 221, 226

collaboration/collaborators 19, 32, 35, 63, 69, 76, 89, 101, 102, 104, 105, 108–

109, 113, 122n17, 138, 139, 161, 165, 221, 226, 229, 230, 243n66

collective consciousness vii, 200–201, 214

collective memory 20, 39, 40, 43, 45, 54, 92, 129–140, 179, 181, 182, 183, 185, 191–192, 194n8, 197, 200, 202, 203, 213, 221, 238n4, 245

collective resistance 62–63, 72n9, 86, 136, 150, 161, 231, 237, 244n78

collective suffering 227

collectivization 204, 205, 212

Comintern 60

Communism (communist historiography) ix, 9, 10, 21, 50, 54, 60, 75–92, 131, 133, 134, 138, 139, 140, 146, 147, 148, 151–154, 156, 157, 158, 159, 160, 163, 164, 165, 167, 170, 173, 199

communist(s) ix, 5, 10, 11, 12, 43, 45, 59, 61, 64, 65, 66, 70, 75–77, 78–79, 80–89, 91–92, 97, 100, 103–105, 109, 131–140, 145–165, 170–177, 179, 187, 188, 198–199, 207, 211, 212, 217n25, 218n26, 218n30, 219n42, 223, 226, 227, 228, 231

concentration camps (of the Nazis) 9, 46, 64, 187

conservatism (Czech conservatism) 106, 118

conspiracy theories 5–6, 10–13, 86, 197, 215n2

conspiracy threat 61

counter-history 225

counter-revolution 79, 162, 169, 170–173, 174

criminalization viii, 19, 22–24, 32, 160, 165

Czech Lands 11, 121n8, 127n76, 138

Czechoslovak (and Czech) nationalism 102, 108, 109, 111, 114, 115–116, 119

Czechoslovak army (pre-1918 and post-1918) 99, 100, 102, 104, 108, 114, 119

Czechoslovak First Republic (1918–38) 97, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 117, 118, 124n41, 125n44

Czechoslovak General Chief of Staff 103, 114, 126n59, 126n65

Czechoslovak idea 99, 101, 110

Czechoslovak state ideology 99, 107, 111, 120, 248

Czechoslovak State legitimacy 114, 119, 120, 120n4, 248

Czechoslovak statehood 107

Czechoslovakism 111, 132

Czechoslovakist 99, 120

de-communization 76, 183, 199

defamation 26

definitional authority (Definitionsmacht) 239n14

democracy, democratic, democrats vii, 11, 22, 54, 61, 66, 69, 70, 75, 76, 77, 79, 80, 85, 89, 91, 100, 102, 105, 109, 110, 111, 112, 114, 115, 118, 124n33, 126n62, 134, 153, 154, 155, 157, 159, 162, 167n15, 170, 172–177, 180, 182, 187, 188, 192, 199, 200, 208, 234

democratic oppositions 77, 78, 86, 147–149

democratic-fascist paradigm 61, 108, 111–117

democratization viii, 61, 78, 79, 82, 83, 140, 174

de-Nazification 61, 199

denial, 18–21 of guilt 5, 9, 18, 61, 132, 151, 160, 176 of the Holocaust, see “Auschwitz lie,”

viii, ix, 1, 3, 5, 6, 9, 17, 20, 22, 25, 26, 28, 29, 30, 32, 39, 45, 54, 55, 64 of genocide viii, 17, 22, 213

detention camps (of the Soviet Union) 64

diaspora, Ukrainian 200, 202, 204, 206, 208

dimension

emblematic 222, 230–231

existential 225, 237

ideological 224

moral 224, 230

dislocation vii, 237

displacement 221–238

dissent 5, 10, 77, 81, 86, 131

dissidents vii, 10, 84, 87, 88, 106, 118, 130, 138, 139, 140, 148, 149, 170, 172, 200, 225, 233

Eastern Front (Russia) 98–99, 120n5

epistemology viii, x, 1, 3, 4, 17, 28, 33–34, 155

ethnic cleansing x, 41, 46, 48, 49, 53, 54, 55, 56n4, 57n22, 58n34, 58n39, 97

ethnical liability 68

European culture of commemoration 39, 48, 70

European deviation, “europäischer Irrweg,” 47–48, 49, 51, 57n24

evidence 1–14, 19, 25, 28, 29, 30, 31, 33, 47, 91, 97, 129, 137, 159, 162, 172, 206, 229, 243n73

evil 7, 9, 11, 61, 64, 83, 86, 147, 148, 150, 159, 162, 163, 165, 172, 173, 227, 233

exculpation strategy 65, 70

extremism/extremist 1, 3, 30, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 101, 117

famine, Great Famine, holodomor 197– 215, 217n25, 218n26, 218n29, 218n33, 219n43

Fascism / proto-fascist ix, 55, 60, 61, 63–68, 69, 70, 97, 101, 102, 103, 105, 106, 108, 109, 111–117, 118, 123n33, 136, 137, 153, 170, 171, 173, 175, 176, 227, 230, 234, 235, 236, 243n74

Final Solution viii, 21

forgetting 94n27, 138, 161–162, 198, 225, 235

foundation myth (of the GDR, of a state etc.) 59, 61–62, 97, 222

free speech 22, 23, 24, 25, 28, 69

Gajda affair of 1926 100–101, 113, 118–119

Gayssot law 23, 26

generational change 1, 62, 88–89, 191, 194n19

genocide x, 24, 44, 48–49, 52, 149, 226, 227, 229

Armenian viii, 26–27, 195n30, 204, 210

Ukrainian 203, 210, 212–215, 217n15

German occupation of Czechoslovakia

(March 1939) 100, 109, 122n17, 123n29, 123n31

German question 60

Geschichtsaufarbeitung 70

Geschichtskultur 238n4

Geschichtspolitik 181, 224

gray spaces 97, 135

hate-speech 22, 24

historians 70

historical

consciousness (Geschichtsbewusstsein) 10, 39, 40, 46, 82, 130, 186, 238n4

conventions 68

culture (Geschichtskultur) viii, 88, 92, 145, 158, 184, 221, 223, 225, 237, 238n3–4

dimensions 222–225, 226, 230, 237–238

discourse 9, 10, 18, 19, 26–32, 39–55, 75, 79, 85, 90, 92, 95n36, 153, 163, 179, 180, 185, 189, 192, 203, 230

facts 10, 17, 30, 45, 221–223, 230, 239n7, 241n48

historikerstreit 10

interpretation viii, 10, 17–34, 40, 45, 85, 222, 224

justice 156, 164, 210

knowledge viii, x, 1, 183

materialism 81

memory 82, 85, 89, 90, 100, 110, 119, 185, 186, 188, 197, 201, 202, 206, 210, 238n4

narrative, see narrative

revisionism viii-x, 21, 39–55, 97, 194n19, 221–225, 237

truth 1, 3, 4, 25, 31, 35n15, 91, 209

values, see values

historiography, historiographic, viii, x, 1–14, 17, 18, 19, 26, 27, 30, 33, 47, 52, 53, 55, 59, 63, 64, 71, 75, 79, 80, 81, 97–120, 179, 180, 182, 189, 190, 191, 192, 199, 200, 202, 219n46, 226

history production 82, 223, 238n4, 239n11

Holocaust viii, ix, 1, 3–6, 9–10, 14, 17, 20, 22–32, 39–55, 59, 64, 68, 70, 137, 141n13, 171, 176, 179, 204, 212, 214, 222, 226, 227, 229–231

Horthy regime 162, 171, 176

Humanism/humanists/ humanitarian democracy 39, 55, 102, 110–111, 115–116, 174, 209

Hungarian refugees, interview with 172, 175

identity 88, 155, 182, 187, 221, 223

national viii, 5, 40, 50, 54, 55, 59, 61, 62 , 70, 75, 82, 85, 184, 239n21

collective 83, 85, 125, 182, 184, 185, 186, 225

integral nationalism 91, 108, 118

intelligentsia 61, 105

interlude theory 77, 86

Jacobinism 186

Jews 5, 21, 23, 25, 29, 30, 40, 48, 51, 52, 55, 70, 102, 131, 135–137, 173, 179, 104, 226–230, 234, 240n31, 241n40, 244n78

journalists 113, 116, 122n17, 129, 131, 132–135, 137, 139–141, 202, 228

Kádár era/regime 157, 161, 162, 163, 167n13, 170, 71, 172, 177

knowledge 1–5, 8, 12, 19, 21, 28, 50, 54, 129, 138, 180, 189, 222

Košice program (4 April 1945), 100

Kriegsschuldfrage 19

legacy 20, 75, 76–78, 81, 85, 91, 93n9, 105, 107–111, 153, 198, 223, 230

legal rereading of the past 32, 92, 165, 215, 244n80

legitimacy vii, 7–8, 25, 32, 35n4, 69, 76, 77, 58, 85, 119

legitimate interpretation 32

legitimization strategy 76, 91

legitimization 52, 61, 62, 69, 75, 79, 155

liability (ethical, political) 68

libel 26, 28, 31, 32

liberal nationalism 187

Longue duree 237

lustrace, lustration, screening 76–77, 90, 199, 216n7, 230

Marxism, marxist ix, 3, 8, 81, 97, 149

Marxism-Leninism (Marxist-Leninist interpretations) 75, 81–82, 103 106

Masarykianism [President-Liberator] 109, 110, 113, 115–116

meaning 2, 6, 8, 13, 18, 59, 129, 130, 134, 140, 160, 184, 187, 197

memorialization 91

memory politics 20, 83, 85, 91, 188, 197–215, 221, 223–224

memory

collective viii, 20, 39, 40, 43, 45, 53, 92, 129–140, 179, 181, 182, 183, 185, 191, 192, 197, 200, 202, 203, 213, 214, 221, 238n4, 244n83, 237

policy 182, 184, 187, 188, 189–190, 206, 213, 221, 238n3

cultural viii, 238

historical viii, 78, 82, 83, 85, 89–90, 100, 110, 119, 131, 185–186, 188, 191, 197, 201, 202, 206, 210, 238n4

national 75–92, 120n4, 131, 214

popular, public 22, 76, 131, 161, 187, 201, 206–207, 213, 231

private, individual 76, 78, 131, 150, 164, 191, 197, 223, 231, 235

monuments 77, 207, 211, 218n33, 221, 226, 231–238, 242n63, 243n70, 244n80

morality

and delegitimization of communism 147, 149, 151

and divisions 158

and lesson of history 157, 163, 164

and moral pretense 158, 160

and moral revisionism 146, 156–161

and moral standards 97, 148, 165, 238n4

and moralizing 95n38, 145, 146, 148, 150, 158, 159, 224

and political compromise 156, 158

and politics 88, 91, 145–165, 166n1, 167n12, 186, 208, 214

and promises of improvement 145,151, 152, 154

and realism/Realpolitik 157

and the question of justice 156, 158, 164

Munich (September 1938), Munich crisis 55, 101, 102, 105, 106, 108, 109, 110, 117

Nagy government 171, 172, 178n12

narrative

historical x, 2, 3, 7, 13, 43, 47, 50, 54, 65, 78, 79, 81, 86, 102, 169, 170, 175, 176, 207, 224, 231, 235

master- 87, 88, 91, 164

nation 47, 70, 75, 80–82, 88, 90, 91, 99, 102, 104, 114–115, 124n33, 135, 137, 139, 186, 187, 189, 192, 198, 202, 210, 217n25, 219n46, 221, 222, 228, 231, 239n21

national history paradigm 81, 82, 86, 91

national history 75, 77, 80, 81, 82, 86, 91, 97, 119, 131, 184, 186, 230

national identity viii, 5, 40, 50, 54, 55, 59, 61, 62, 70

National Socialism 10, 21, 39, 43, 49, 51–55, 59–61, 63, 64–65, 66, 70, 72n9, 72n11

nationalization of history 200

Nazi Germany (or : Third Reich) ix, 9, 19, 22, 54, 46, 60, 134, 226

Nazi Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia 108, 123n31

Nazism, Nazi 3, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 29, 36n30, 55, 60, 61, 62, 64, 65, 70, 88, 100, 108, 109, 122n17, 123n29, 137, 171, 231

neo-Fascism, neo-Nazism 3, 6, 30, 63–71

nomenklatura 11, 198, 199, 216n5

normalization 39, 78, 94n27

nostalgia, reflective, restorative 84, 86

Nuremberg trials 18–21, 35n, 12, 199, 216

occupation 223, 225, 237

Nazi 32, 69, 104, 109, 226–227, 229, 230, 235

Soviet, (also check invasion) 64, 72, 176, 226–227, 229, 231, 234, 235, 238n2, 241n43, 242n49

German 100, 226, 228, 229, 240n25

October Revolution 75, 205

opposition 12, 62, 64, 78, 87, 106, 107, 108, 109, 147–150, 157, 169, 177n9, 200, 208, 210, 212, 213, 225

ostalgia (eastalgia) 65, 82–87, 94n22, 137, 153

Patriotism/ patriotic nationalism [národovectví]

Czech 88, 91, 99–100, 102, 103, 108, 111, 115, 117, 118

Polish 185–187, 194n19

people’s court 171, 176, 209

Pest lads 173

philosophy of historiography 13–14

Polish–Jewish relationship 179

Polish–Russian relationship 188

political dimension 94n22, 224–225, 226, 237

political education 68, 70, 85, 88, 89, 92, 230

political legitimacy / legitimization 8, 12, 17, 25, 30–31, 61, 69, 75, 76, 77, 79, 91, 92n2, 97–98, 107, 109, 115, 116, 119, 148, 151, 154, 155, 162–163, 180, 195, 207, 225

politics of history / historical policy viii, 85–87, 179–192, 224

post-Communism vii, 10–11, 50, 75, 76, 82, 129, 134, 135, 136, 145–165, 166n6–7, 170, 177, 198, 199, 216n5, 239n11

post-Soviet 176, 199, 219n46, 221–238

Potsdam Conference 42, 45

Potsdam Treaty 44

Prague Spring ix, 78–79, 93n8–9, 149

propaganda ix, 19, 61, 63–65, 70, 86, 170, 173, 177, 180, 187, 188, 199, 201, 203, 205, 208, 224

prosecution viii, 10, 11, 25, 28, 29, 32

public square 129, 134

public uses of history 222, 223, 227, 238n5, 239n13

reform-communist 176

remembrance 23, 45, 54, 161, 198–199, 206–207, 209, 214, 226, 241n45, 244n78

revisionism

historical viii-ix, x, 1–14, 17–34, 39–56, 60, 64, 97, 221–224, 235, 237, 239n24

Marxist viii-ix

moral 146, 156,

territorial viii-ix, 64

Russification 200

samvydav 203

screening, see lustrace

Second Republic (of Czechoslovakia,

October 1938–March 1939) 97, 102–103, 104, 105, 106, 107–111, 123n31, 122n18, 124n35

Second Republic (of Poland) 86

secret police 10, 12, 76–77, 85, 87, 89, 139

Slovak national movement 131

socialism 65, 78, 79, 83, 171, 172, 174, 176

Soviet Bloc 60, 69, 145, 148, 176, 227

Soviet Occupied Zone of Germany (SBZ) 43, 59, 61

Stalinism 77, 159, 205, 227

state socialism 80

struggle for recognition (of crimes) 148, 149, 204, 205, 212–213, 223, 226, 230

self-righteousness, 7, 146

victimhood 150, 164

tabooed historical issues 39, 46, 52, 69, 75, 133, 157, 201, 202, 207, 228

television, theory of 137–138

Third Republic of Poland 182, 183

totalitarian vii, x, 11, 11, 65, 66, 69, 76, 79, 81, 83, 84, 87, 88, 157, 180, 187, 199, 200, 203, 207, 211, 216, 233, 237, 244n78

totalitarianism 2, 9, 10, 79, 86, 91, 180, 202, 223, 226, 227, 240n29

transformation process [since 1989]

trauma 201, 214, 216n9, 221

unification of Germany 60, 66, 70, 83, 227

values, cognitive 3–11, 13–14, 184

values, therapeutic 3, 5–7, 9–11

Velvet Revolution 10, 77, 85, 134, 140

veterans, 231–232 234–236, 243n67, 243n72

Vichy syndrome 23

victimhood 150, 164, 226–227, 239n21

Vietnam War 130, 139

war crimes trials 21, 88, 147

war crimes 21, 39, 46, 88, 147, 228, 229, 236, 244n77

white spaces 97, 103, 104, 123n31

whitewashing 61, 81, 105, 230, 244n77

World War I 21, 48, 98, 105, 108, 110, 119, 120, 122, 123, 132, 204

World War II x, 9, 18, 19, 20, 22, 23, 29, 34n5–6, 135n8, 135n17, 39, 41, 42, 43, 46, 48, 49, 50, 53, 54, 55, 57n28, 59, 60, 62, 64, 69, 87, 98, 101, 108, 112, 130, 131, 134, 139, 147, 137, 176, 177n2, 179, 192, 204, 221, 233, 235–236, 238, 239n23, 241n40, 243n70, 243n73

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