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The Roma in Romanian History

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Viorel Achim

Index

With italics are terms (most in Romanian) specific to the history of the Roma in Romania.

Texte intégral

abolition – see emancipation

abolitionism, 41, 92, 95–103, 109

abolitionist attitudes, abolitionist feeling, abolitionist movement, abolitionist trend, abolitionists – see abolitionism

Africa, 13. See also South ~

Akkerman (Cetatea Albă), county, 131

Alans, 15

Alba, county, 191

Alba Iulia, 159

Alecsandri, Vasile, 101

Aleksandrovka, locality in Transnistria, 178

Aleksandrudar, locality in Transnistria, 176–177

Alexander the Good, Prince of Moldavia, 14, 16, 32

Alexianu, Gheorghe, governor of Transnistria, 171

Algeria, 125

America, 125. See also Latin ~; see also North ~; see also South ~

Andreas (in Regensburg), 11

Antonescu, Ion, Marshal, President of the Ministry Council, Head of State, 163, 167–172, 174, 180, 182–185

Apafi, Mihály, Prince of Transylvania, 42

Apuseni Mountains, 50

Arad, county, 19, 74, 170

Argeş, county, 50

Armenia, 8, 9, 12

Arpaşu de Jos, village, 14

Asaki, Gheorghe, 101

Asia, 12; Asia Minor, 8–9, 16, 22;

Central Asia, 13

assimilation, 2, 5, 49, 69–78, 116, 119, 121, 127, 129, 132, 137, 146–147, 151, 163, 165, 199, 214–218. See also Germanisation; see also

Magyarisation; see also

Romanianisation. See also “new

Banatians”; see also “new Hungarians”; see also “new peasants”

aţigani see Gypsies

aurari (sing. aurar), gold-washers, 33–34, 48, 50–51, 53, 59, 62–63, 71–72, 76–77, 82, 88–89, 103–105, 122, 124, 129. See also băieşi; see also rudari

Auschwitz, Auschwitz-Birkenau, 181, 183

Australia, 13, 124

Austria, 74, 125, 127, 181. See also

Austrian–Hungarian Empire; see also Habsburg Empire Austrian–Hungarian dualism – see

Austrian–Hungarian Empire Austrian–Hungarian Empire, 125, 133, 137. See also Austria; see also Hungary

Baia, town, 16

băieşi, 122, 124. See also aurari

Bălăceanu, Emanoil, 91 Balásfi, Franciscus, voivode of the Gypsies of Transylvania, 62

Balkans, Balkan Peninsula, 8–12, 17–19, 21–23, 29, 65–66, 123, 126–127

Balta, county in Transnistria, 175, 177 Banat, 50–51, 69–71, 74, 76–77, 122, 126, 133–134, 145, 147, 193

Bărăgan, 171

Basarab the Old, Prince of Vallachia, 80

Basel, 10

Bataillard, Paul, 94, 125

Bavaria, 11, 127

bear-baiters – see ursaribeás see băieşi

Beecher-Stowe, Harriet, 98

Belgium, 181

Belon du Mans, Pierre, 23

Bender, county, 131

Berezovka, county in Transnistria, 175

Berlin, 3, 184

Bessarabia, 123, 125–126, 130–132, 139, 143, 145, 150, 171

Bibescu, Gheorghe, Prince of Vallachia, 109

Bihor, county, 74

Bistriţa, monastery, 14

Bistrţa, town, 43

Black Sea, 12, 21, 45, 65–66.

See also Danube–Black Sea Canal blacksmiths, 15, 30, 33–34, 45–48, 53, 68, 74, 78, 89, 92, 113–114, 130, 133, 136, 148, 150, 173–174, 193

Block, Martin, 146

Bohemia, 10–11. See also Czechia

boiler-makers – see căldărari

Bolintin, village, 210

Bolliac, Cezar, 99–100, 110

Bolshaya-Karanika, locality in Transnistria, 176, 178

Bornemisza, Balthazar, general commander of Transylvania, 62

Bosnia, 123, 125

Boyás see băieşi

Bran, castle, estate, 19, 43

Braşov, town, 19, 43, 48; county, 146

Brătianu, Constantin I. C., 174

Brătianu, Gheorghe, 158

brick-makers, 89, 47, 114, 133, 193

British Isles, 11

Brodeau (Brodaeus), Jean, 23

Bucharest, 4, 55, 101, 117, 130, 145, 149, 154–156, 159, 164, 168, 189, 192–193, 196, 199, 203

Buda, 44

Budapest, 125, 133

Bug, river, 171, 175, 178–179, 184 Bukovina, 57, 122, 126–130, 142, 145–146, 171

Bulgaria, 10, 18, 23, 29, 67, 123–125 Bulgarians, 123 bulibaşă (plural bulibaşi), bulucbaş, bulucbaşă, 61–62, 64, 154, 156, 158, 218

Burgenland, 74 By den czyganen – see Ziganie

Byzantine Empire, 8–9, 12–13, 16, 18, 21, 25, 29, 65–67, 69. See also

Byzantium Byzantium, 9, 12, 21, 23. See also

Byzantine Empire

Cair, village, 131

Calbor, village, 154

căldărari (sing. căldărar), căldăras¸I (sing. căldăras¸), boiler-makers, 89, 109, 122–124, 148, 194, 206, 212.

See also Kalderasˇ

Callimach(i), Scarlat, Prince of Moldavia, Codul Callimach, 41 camp Gypsies – see lăieşi

Câmpineanu, Ion, 99

Candia (Iraklion), 9

Cantemir, Dimitrie, 19 captain of the Gypsies (official), 129

Caragea, Ioan, Prince of Vallachia,

Legiuirea Caragea, 41

Caras,, county, 74

Caras¸-Severin, county, 135

Carpathians, 20, 23, 46, 66, 88, 147

Caucasus, 12, 16

Cazac, a Gypsy, 80

Ceaus¸escu, Nicolae, 197, 199–200 census, 2, 74, 93–95, 105, 120, 134, 138, 142–143, 145–147, 159, 171–172, 198, 202, 213–214

Cetatea Albă– see Akkerman

Chelcea, Ion, 4, 146, 150, 153

Ciuc, county, 135 ciurari (sing. ciurar), 122–124

Cladova, village, 19

Cluj, county, 145; town, 26, 164

Cluj-Turda, county, 170

cnezi of Gypsies (officials), 61 cocalari, 212

Codrescu, Theodor, 98

Colson, Félix, 94, 98

Comşut,, Şerban, voivode of the Gypsies in the Făgăras¸ land (official), 62

Constanţa, county, 210

Constantinople, 9, 41

coppersmiths, 47, 53, 130, 136

Cora, Guido, 120

Corfu, 67

Cornova, locality, 4

Cossacks (Bessarabia), 131

Costea, boyar, 14

Costea, a Gypsy, 81

Costin, Miron, 49

Cozia, monastery, 14, 32, 47

craftsmen (Gypsies), 32, 34, 45–48, 58, 64, 68, 74, 77, 91, 104–105, 116–117, 119–120, 131, 133, 136, 149, 152, 155, 194

Craiova, town, 156–158

Crete, 9

Crişana, 133, 145, 147

Croatia, 125, 134, 181. See also Croatia–Dalmatia; see also Croatia–Slavonia.

Croatia–Dalmatia, 134

Croatia–Slavonia, 74

Cumans, 16, 25, 28

Čurara see ciurari

Curchea, a Gypsy, 81

Cuza, A. C., 163

Cuza, Alexandru Ioan, Prince of the United Principalities (Romania), 119

Czechia, 127, 181. See also Bohemia

Czechoslovakia, 127, 195, 198, 200

Czernowitz, town, 110, 128

Czigan Karacion, 26

Czigan Nan, 26

Cziganen, antroponym, in Bra∫ov, 19

dajdie (tax), 37, 50, 52, 130

Dan, antroponym, 83

Dan I, Prince of Vallachia, 13

Danube, 2, 10, 13, 17–19, 21–22, 29– 30, 45–46, 65–67, 69, 88, 122, 131. See also Danube–Black Sea Canal

Danube–Black Sea Canal, 201

Demeter, family name, 125 Denmark, 11

Diamant, Teodor, 91–92

Dinicu, Grigoras¸, musician, 154–155 Dniester, river, 130, 171, 180, 184

Dobrogea, 58, 145, 173

Dózsa, György, 19 Dolj, county, 145, 158

Donici, Andronache, 41

ubrovnik (Ragusa), 10, 68

Dumbrăveni, town, 135, 159

Egypt, 10, 12

emancipated Gypsies, emancipated slaves – see emancipation

emancipation (abolition of the slavery), 1–3, 5–6, 27, 29, 49, 58, 87, 90–120, 123, 126–127, 139, 142

emancipation laws – see emancipation

emigration – see migration

“emperor” of the Roma, 218

England, 8, 11, 13, 124–125

epistat (official), 62

Estonia, 181

Europe, 7, 8, 10–13, 15–16, 18, 21–24, 28, 30, 45–46, 53, 55, 64, 66–69, 87–88, 95–96, 98–99, 123–125, 181, 215–217

Făcăoaru, Ioan, 165

Făgăras¸, county, 145–146, 153–154; land, the land of ~, 14, 18, 42, 62; town, 154

Faraonovca, village, 131

farriers, 15, 34, 53, 133

Fényes, Elek, 134

Filipescu, Dimitrie (Mitică), 96, 100

Finland, 8, 11

Fotino, Dionisie, 94

Fourier, Charles, 91–92

France, 10, 11, 13, 66, 97–98, 100, 124–125, 127, 181

gabori, 211

Galaţi, town, 187

Galicia, 128–129

General Association of Gypsies in Romania, 154–156

General Union of Roma in Romania, 155–157, 160, 189

Germanisation, 58. See also assimilation

Germanised – see Germanisation

Germans, 76, 134, 136, 147, 190, 193. See also Saxons

Germany, 10–11, 23, 124–127, 163–167, 180–185. See also Holy Roman Empire

Ghica, Grigore, Prince of Vallachia, 97

Ghica, Grigore Alexandru, Prince of Moldavia, 111

Ghenghis Khan, 15

giude see jude

Giurgiu, county, 210

Goga, Octavian, 158, 163

Golden Horde, 16

goldsmiths, 47

gold-washers – see aurari

Goles¸ti, village, 49

Golta, county in Transnistria, 175; town, 178

Gorj, county, 146

Govora, monastery, 47; Pravila de la Govora, 36

Greece, 9, 21–22, 124–125

Gregorios II Kyprios, Patriarch, 9

Grellmann, H. M. G., 7

Griselini, Francesco, 70

Gromo, Giovanandrea, 20, 49

Gura Humorului, district, 129

Gusti, Dimitrie, 4, 164

Gypsies – See also ţigani; see also slaves. – boyar’s ~ – see private slaves; – ~ of the Crown, 31, 130– 131 (Bessarabia); – ~ of the State – see state slaves; – Gypsy slaves – see slaves; – “hearth” (house) ~ – see vătraşi; – hetmans’ ~, 62; – monastery ~ – see monastery slaves;– princely ~ – see state slaves; princes’ ~ – see state slaves; – privately owned ~ – see private slaves; – “Romanian ~”, 123. See also “Vlach ~”; state ~ – see state slaves; – tent-dwelling ~ – see tentdwelling Gypsies; – “Vlach ~” (oláh cigányok, valašski Cigáni), 23, 122. See Karavlasi; see karavlaški; see Koritari

Habsburg authorities, Habsburg rule, Habsburgs, House of Habsburg – see Habsburg Empire Habsburg Empire, 42, 51, 63, 69–76, 78, 87, 90, 121–122, 127–128, 132, 142.

See also Austria

Hădăreni, village, 210

Hám, János, bishop, 133

Hat,eg, district, 20; town, 135

Heliade Rădulescu, Ion, 101

Herăscu, colonel, 106

Hesse, 10

Himmler, Heinrich, 183

Hindelsheim, 10

Hitler, Adolf, 167, 171, 184

Holland, 10, 181

Holocaust, 181–182, 185, 215 holop, 28, 35, 66.

See also slaves

Holy Places, 118, 139

Holy Roman Empire, 10. See also Germany

Hopf, Carl, 20–21

Hunedoara, county, 135 Hungarian Kingdom – see Hungary Hungarians, 17, 28, 54, 64, 132, 134, 136–137, 147, 190, 199, 213, 219

Hungary, 10–11, 13–14, 17, 19–20, 22–23, 28, 42–44, 60, 63–66, 69–72, 74–75, 77, 121–123, 125–127, 133– 137, 170, 182, 184, 195, 198, 200. See also Austrian–Hungarian Empire

Ialomiţa, county, 145

Iancul, bulucbas¸, 61

Iaşi, town, 97–99, 101

Ibaşfalău – see Dumbrăveni

Ilfov, county, 145

India, 7, 8, 11

Ionescu, N. St., 156

Ionian Islands, 9

Iorga, Nicolae, 15

Ipsilanti, Alexandru, Prince of Vallachia, 41

Iraklion – see Candia

Iron Guard, 166–167. See also Legionaries

Isabella, Queen of Hungary, 42, 62

Istanbul, 49

Italy, 11, 66, 124–125

Ivan Šišman, Tsar of Bulgaria, 10

Jazygians, 15

Jerusalem, 10 Jews, 130, 148, 166–167, 169, 171, 182–185

John of Sultanyeh, archbishop, 12

Joseph II, Emperor of Austria, 69–72, 74–78, 128, 133–134

jude (plural juzi), Gypsy head, 39, 59, 63, 64, 83, 89; ~ of the Gypsies (official), 54

Kalderasˇ, 124–126. See also căldăraşi Karavlasi, 123 karavlaški, 123

Khazars, 28

Kievan Rus, 66 “king” (title of Gypsy leaders), 63;

“king” of the Roma, 218

Kingdom of Hungary – see Hungary

Kirpats, family name, 125

Kisselev, Pavel, Russian general, 103

Kogălniceanu, Mihail, 3, 33–34, 56–57, 90, 94–95, 98–99, 111

Kohly de Guggsberg, Emile, 97

Koritari, 123

Kovaliovka, locality in Transnistria, 176

Krakow, 125 kris (tribunal court), 218

lăieşi (sing. lăies¸), lăieţi (sing. lăieţ), camp Gypsies, 33–34, 47, 63, 89–91, 105, 111–113, 117, 120, 152.

See also nomads

Lalu, a Gypsy, 81

Latin America, 124–125

Latvia, 181

lăutari see musicians

Lăzăreanu-Lăzurică, G. A., 155, 156, 158–159

Lăzurică– see Lăzăreanu-Lăzurică, G.A.

Legionaries, 163, 166–167, 169. See also Iron Guard

legionary movement – see Legionaries

lingurari (sing. lingurar), spoonmakers, 33, 53, 59–61, 63, 89,

104–105, 111, 114, 121, 129, 136

Lithuania, 17, 181

Lithuanians, 16

locksmiths, 34, 47, 53

Lovara see lovari lovari, 122–124, 126

Low Countries, 10

Lower Saxony, 10 Luxembourg, 181

Magyarisation, 58, 152, 218.

See also assimilation

Magyarised – see Magyarisation

Manea, a Gypsy, 80

Manolescu-Dolj, Aurel, 156–159

Manuilă, Sabin, 168

Maramures¸, county, region, 19, 74, 133, 145, 147

Marena, wife of Prince Alexander the Good, 32

Maria Theresa, Empress of Austria, 69–72, 74, 76–78, 133–134

Matei Basarab, Prince of Vallachia, 36

Matthias Corvinus, King of Hungary, 44, 48, 60

Mavrocordat, Alexandru, Prince of Moldavia, 107

Mavrocordat, Constantin, Prince of Vallachia, Prince of Moldavia, 39–40, 55

Mavrocordat, Nicolae, Prince of Moldavia, Prince of Vallachia, 37

Mavrogheni, Petre, 111

Maximoff, family name, 125

Mediterranean Sea, 65– 66, 68

Meissen, 10

Michael the Brave, Prince of Vallachia, 41

Micul, a Gypsy, 80 Middle East, 12–13 migration, 7–15, 20–24, 53, 120–127, 132, 141

Mihail Kogălniceanu, village, 210

Miklosich, Franz, 8, 15, 21–23

Mircea the Old, Prince of Vallachia, 14, 18, 30, 43, 47

Mizil, town, 146

Moldavia, 4, 10, 14, 16–20, 23, 26, 27–28, 32–37, 39–43, 45–46, 48–51, 55, 59–62, 64, 69, 79, 87, 90–92, 94–97, 99–100, 103–104, 108–113, 114, 116, 120–121, 123, 126–128, 130–131, 145, 185

Moldovan, Iuliu, 164

Moldoviţa, monastery, 14, 16, 127

Mongols, 12, 15–16, 21, 28. See also Tatars

Mujea, a Gypsy, 81

Muntenia, 28, 116, 145–146. See also Vallachia

Mures¸, county, 145, 191, 210

musicians, 59, 68, 72–74, 76, 88, 90, 92, 131, 136, 149, 154, 173

Naftanailă, Lazăr, 154

Nagy, Gáspár, voivode of the Gypsies of Transylvania, 62

Nagy, Mathias, voivode of the Gypsies of Transylvania, 62

Năsăud, county, 4, 145, 147, 151

National Christian Party, 158–159

National Liberal Party, 158, 174

nazâr (official), 62

Neamt,, county, 117; monastery, 35

Neigebaur, J. F., 94

neo-rustici see “new peasants” Netherlands, 125

netoţi, “idiots”, 89–90, 104

neu Banater see “new Banatians”

Neubauer see “new peasants”

“new Banatians” (neu Banater), 74, 76

“new Hungarians” (új magyarok), 71, 74

“new peasants” (neo-rustici, Neubauer), 71, 74, 128

New Zealand, 13

Nicolăescu-Plops¸or, C. S,., 156–158

Niculescu, Gheorghe, 155–156, 159, 189

nomadic Gypsies – see nomads

nomadism, 20, 30, 44, 51–53, 65, 88, 90, 104, 117, 129, 131, 133, 152– 153, 169, 191.

See also nomads nomads, 7, 17, 42, 52–53, 56, 58–60, 63, 67, 70, 76–78, 89–91, 97, 104–105, 108–109, 111, 114, 120–121, 128–136, 142, 149, 152–153, 155–157, 165, 170–172, 174–175, 182–191, 196. See also

nomadism; see also tent-dwelling

Gypsies; see also lăieşi

North America, 13, 124

Oană, Tatar slave, 35

Ochakov, county in Transnistria, 173, 175–178; locality, 176–177

Ocnele Mari, 47

Olahus, Nicolaus, 82

Old Kingdom (of Romania), 120, 145, 147–148, 185

Olt, river, 61–62, 150

Oltenia, 145, 154, 156–157

Organic Regulations, 40, 91–92, 103–104, 106–107, 110, 112

Orşova, town, 146

Ottoman Empire, 17, 29, 64, 66–67, 70, 87, 95. See also Ottomans. See also Turkey

Ottomans, 22, 45, 63, 67. See also Ottoman Empire

Palestine, 185

Panaitescu, P. N., 30, 45

Paris, 154

Pascul, a Gypsy, 80

Păun, Domnica I., 4

Pechenegs, 25

Peloponnese, 9, 69

Persia, 8, 11

Petru Rares¸, Prince of Moldavia, 43

Peyssonnel, Charles de, 46

Piatra Neamt, town, 117

Ploieşti, 161

Poenaru, Petrache, 110

Poiană, monastery, 14, 16

Poland, 8, 11, 17, 23, 35, 63, 65, 123–127, 181–183, 185

Poles, 16

Popp-Şerboianu, Calinic I., 154–156, 158–159

Portugal, 12

Porumbacu de Jos, village, 153

Poteca, Eufrosin, 97

Prague, 125

Prahova, county, 145–146 Prizren, monastery in Serbia, 9 Prut, 130–132 Pyrenees, 11

Racovit,ă, Mihail, Prince of Moldavia, 37

Rădăuţi, district, 130

Radu, antroponym, 83

Radu, Leonte, 96

Radul, a Gypsy, 81

Ragusa (Dubrovnik), 10, 68

Raicewich, I. St., 81

Rajkó, voivode of the Gypsies, 19

Rákóczi, György, I, Prince of Transylvania, 63

Răzvan – see Ştefan Răzvan

Recea, village, 42

Regensburg, 11

Regnault, Elias, 92

Reich – see Germany

Rila, monastery in Bulgaria, 10

Ritter, Robert, 166

rob, 34–35. See slaves

robie, 34 – see slavery

Roller, M., 84

Roma – see Gypsies

Rome, city, 11

Roman, bishop of ~, 35

Romanes, Romani, Romany language, Romany dialects, language of the Gypsies, 7–10, 19, 22–23, 56, 72–7 3, 90, 122, 124, 126–127, 132, 134– 136, 146, 148, 150–151, 157–158, 200, 212, 214, 217

Romanian Communist Party, 189–190, 195, 196

Romanian Plane, 25

Romanian Workers Party – see Romanian Comunist Party

Romanianisation, 56, 58, 132, 151–152,

218. See also assimilation “Romanianisation” (during the Second World War), 163, 167, 169, 174 Romanianised – see Romanianisation Rosetti-Rosnoveanu, Iordache, boyar, 137 rudari (sing. rudar), 33, 50, 82, 89, 121, 123–125, 129, 148–149, 189, 212 Ruland, Fritz, 183

Russia, 8, 11, 13, 17, 23, 66, 103, 123– 126, 129–132. See also Russian Empire. See also Kievan Rus

Russian Empire, 123, 125, 130, 132. See also Russia.

Russians, 16, 129 (Bukovina), 148 (Romania), 177 (Transnistria)

Russo, Alecu, 100

Ruthenians (Bukovina), 129–130. See also Ukrainians

Sadagura, district, 129

Sălaj, county, 147

Şant,, locality, 4

Saracens, 28

Satu Mare, bishop of ~,133; town, 62, 133

Saxons (Transylvania), 17, 45, 54, 132, 137.

See also Germans Saxony – see Lower Saxony Scandinavia, 8, 11, 17, 124

Scăieni, locality, 91

Schesaeus, Christian, 46

Sebes¸, town, 50

sedentarisation, 5, 20, 34, 45, 47, 49, 51, 53–54, 56, 59, 68–78, 90–91, 104, 108, 111, 113, 115–116, 121, 123, 128, 130–133, 135–136, 142, 150

sedentary lifestyle, sedentary way of life – see sedentarisation Şerban, boyar, 80

Serbia, 9, 18, 29, 67, 123–126, 127, 181

Şerboianu – see Popp- Şerboianu, Calinic I. Şercaia, village, 150, 154

Severin, land of ~, 13, 18 Siberia, 13

Sibiu, county, 146; town, 19, 44, 48, 60, 64

Sigismund of Luxembourg, King of Hungary, Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, King of Bohemia, 10–11, 43–44, 60

Silesia, 125 Şimand, locality, 82

Simion, Marin I., 156–157

Şinca, village, 81 slaves, 1–2, 14–19, 27–43, 45, 47–50, 52–58, 61–63, 66–67, 69, 79–80, slaves, (cont’d) 83, 87–113, 115, 117–122, 126–128, 130–131, 138–139. – boyar’s ~ – see private ~. – monastery ~, 31–34, 37–38, 48, 52, 54, 56, 61, 63, 88, 92, 94, 96, 104, 107, 109, 111. – princess’ ~, 32. – private ~, 31–34, 36–38, 40, 42, 48, 52–53, 57, 61, 63, 88–89, 92–94, 101, 104–107, 112, 130–131. – Slaves’ law, 35–36. – state slaves, 31–38, 40–41, 43, 48, 50, 52–53, 61–63, 68, 88–89, 93, 96, 103–106, 110–112, 130–131. See also Gypsies of the Crown; see also hetmans’ Gypsies. – See also Gypsies. See also slavery. See also Tatar ~.

slavery, 1–4, 15, 20, 27–43, 45, 52, 55–56, 65–67, 79, 87, 93, 97–113, 127–128, 131, 137. See also slaves

Slavonia, 123, 134. See also Croatia–Slavonia

Slavs, 28

Slovakia, 77, 122

Solca, district, 129

Solnoc-Dăbâca, county, 135

South Africa, 13, 124

South America, 13

Spain, 11–12, 66, 125

spoon-makers – see lingurari Stanciu Moenescul, boyar, 80

Stancu, Zaharia, 170–171

Stefan Dušan, Tsar of Serbia, 9, 18, 21

Ştefan Răzvan, Prince of Moldavia, 41

Stephen the Great, Prince of Moldavia, 17, 35

Stephen II, Prince of Moldavia, 35

Ştirbei, Barbu, Prince of Vallachia, 110

Storch, Henri, 100

Storojinet,, district, 129–130

Sturdza, Mihail, Prince of Moldavia, 108

Sturdza, Scarlat, governor of Bessarabia, 130

Suţu, Mihail, Prince of Moldavia, 60

Sweden, 11

Switzerland, 10

Szekler land, 20

Szeklers, 17, 20, 49, 54, 132, 137

Tamberlain – see Timur Lenk Târgu Frumos, town, 146

Târnava Mare, county, 135, 145, 147

Târnava Mică, county, 135, 145

Tatar slaves, 14–16, 27–29, 35–36

Tătărăi, toponym, 28

Tătăraşi, toponym, 28

Tatars, 12, 15–17, 21, 27–30, 58

(Dobrogea), 66–67.

See also Mongols. See also Tatar slaves tent – see tent-dwelling Gypsies tent-dwelling Gypsies, 14, 17, 33, 42, 44, 51–53, 58–59, 73, 76–77, 89–90, 113, 117, 132, 135, 152–153, 201.

See also nomads Thomas of Aiud (Enyed), voivode of the Gypsies of Transylvania, 62

Ţigan, nickname, 19 ,tigănărit (Gypsy tax), 37 Ţigani – see Gypsies. – ~căsaşi, 34. See vătraşi; – ~ de câmp, 34; – ~ de curte, 34. See vătraşi; – ~ de mătase, 212; – ~ de ogor, 34 ,tigănii (sing. ţigănie), Gypsy settlements, 54

Tighina, town, 171, 173

Timis¸, county, 135

Timis¸oara, citadel, 19; town, 76

Timur Lenk (Tamberlain), 14

Tismana, monastery, 13, 14, 18, 52

Todor, family name, 125

Toppeltinus, Laurentius, 20, 54

Thrace, 9

Transnistria, 153, 167–180, 182–185

Transylvania, 10, 14, 17–20, 23, 27, 35, 42–45, 48–51, 53–54, 58–60, 62–65, 69–78, 83, 93, 121–123, 125–127, 130, 132–137, 143–150, 159, 170, 184–185, 193

Tsigane see Gypsies Tsoron, family name, 125

Tsoron, Milos, 125 Turkey, 11, 125, 127.

See also Otoman Empire

Turks – Ottoman Turks, 12; Seljuk Turks, 12; Turks (Dobrogea), 58, 173, 213

Ubicini, A., 94

Ucea de Jos, village, 150

UGRR – see General Union of the Roma in Romania

új magyarok see “new Hungarians”

Ukraine, 123, 131–132, 171, 184

Ukrainians, 130 (Bukovina), 148 (Romania), 175–178 (Transnistria). See also Ruthenians United States of America, 98, 125.

See also America ursari (sing. ursar), bear-baiters, 33, 47, 59–60, 89, 124–125, 129, 148–149, 212

Urziceni, town, 146

USSR, 179

“vagrancy” – see nomadism

Vaillant, J.-A., 94

Vâlcea, county, 50, 146

Vallon, Peter, voivode of the Gypsies of Transylvania, 62

Vasile Lupu, Prince of Moldavia, 38; Pravila lui Vasile Lupu, 36

vătaf (plural, vătafi), Gypsy sheriff, 61–62, 64, 117, 154, 158; – ~ of the Gypsies (official), 105, 106

vătraşi (sing. vătraş), “hearth” (house) Gypsies, 34, 52, 56, 90, 108, 111– 112, 114, 118, 204

Venetians – see Venice

Venice, 9, 67

Vidin, in Bulgaria, 18

Vienna, 71, 74, 125, 129, 133

Vijniţa, district, 130

Vinţu de Sus, town, 135

Vişnevăţi, monastery, 14

Viştea de Jos, village, 14

Viştea de Sus, village, 14

Vlad, antroponym, 83

Vlad Dracul, Prince of Vallachia, 17

Vladislav, Gypsy voivode, 10, 43, 60

Vladislav I, Prince of Vallachia, 13, 18

Vladislav II, King of Hungary, 43

Vlax dialects, 124, 126.

See also Romanes

Vodiţa, monastery, 13, 18, 19

voievod see voivode

voievodat see voivodate

Voila, village, 80

voivode, voievod, (Gypsy head), 10, 19, 43–44, 59–60, 63–64, 71–73, 77, 83; – (official), the ~ of the Gypsies of Transylvania, 44, 62–63; the ~ of the Gypsies in the land of Făgăras¸, 62; – the “~ of the Gypsies of Romania”, 155, 158; the “~ of the Roma of Romania”, 156; the “great ~” of the Gypsies of Oltenia, 156–157; the “~ of the Gypsies of Oltenia”, 157; the “~ of the Gypsies” (in Romania), 158

voivodeship, voievodat, (office), the ~ of the gold-washing Gypsies, in Transylvania, 51; the ~ of the Gypsies of the land of Făgăras¸, 62; the ~ of the Gypsies of Transylvania, 44, 62–63.

Voivodina, 134 vornic (plural vornici), ~ of Gypsies (official), 61

Wallachia, 4, 10, 14, 17–23, 27–28, 30–31, 33–36, 39–43, 45–51, 55–56, 59–62, 64, 69, 87, 90, 94–97, 103–113, 115–116, 121–123, 126, 137–138.

See also Muntenia

Wavrin, Jehan of, 17

Wlislocki, Heinrich von, 58

Yugoslavia, 195

zapcii (officials), 61, 107

zavragii, 89 Ziganie, toponym in Braşov, 19

Znagoveanu, Ioasaf, 110

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