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COOPEDU IV — Cooperação e Educação de Qualidade

 | 
Clara Carvalho
, 
Maria Antónia Barreto
, 
Filipe Santos

1. Ensino Superior nos PALOP e a Cooperação Internacional

Global Partnerships to Local Challenges: the Actor’s vision and the new educational horizons

Lúcia Oliveira, Carlos Sangreman et Raquel Faria

Résumé

The global partnerships for development are an important incentive to local growth as joint efforts are made to assist developing countries. We emphasize actions in the field of education, as they constitute a catalyst for local development, with a special focus on HE since empirical evidence shows that this level of education represents an important factor in local, national and global economic progress. It is important to mention that this type of education plays a central role in an increasingly globalized and internationalized world where knowledge and innovation are part of the most developed and most competitive societies. In this sense, we have the objective of analysing the opinions given by the different Actors gathered through an inquiry, and confront them with the conceptual framework in order to see if their opinions meet the expected attitudes of the established partnerships. For this purpose, the CATWOE methodology is used to trace the route and to characterize the Conceptual Model in the scope of HE in order to perceive the transformations resulting from its actions and those that would be necessary to optimize the process.

Texte intégral

I. INTRODUCTION

1The object of this research is to understand how Higher Education (HE) can contribute to economic progress in developing countries, especially in the Sub-Sahara Africa, facilitating equal opportunities in an increasingly internationalized market. At the level of international cooperation, there has been greater emphasis on primary and secondary education believing that the fight against poverty and consequent economic growth would pass through this type of education. In fact, HE in developing countries has been neglected for several decades, not being considered as a factor of relevance for economic development and, consequently, as a poverty alleviation agent. We propose to analyse the role of the Actors in the level of International Cooperation (IC), trying to understand their perspective. A survey was carried out on the different types of Actors, external and internal, with the aim of gathering information that allows us to infer if there is a correspondence between the expected and effective actions of this group of Actors and their perspective on the issues of IC for development and the impact on the progress of local economies and the possible improvement in the quality of life of the population. For the analysis of the collected information, the Conceptual Model CATWOE was designed in the scope of HE considering the different actors, and the representation of the relation of the different stages of the system in order to analyse the process of transformation.

II. THE ROLE OF INTERNATIONAL PARTNERSHIPS, ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AND HUMAN CAPITAL

2Actors in IC for development and HE have been building partnerships (bilateral and multilateral) for a long time influencing national priorities in the progress of human capital (King, 2007) in developing countries. It´s relevant to note that there are different levels and types of actors with different missions (Figure 1), which involves several types of programs and activities with international, regional and domestic policy and regulatory implications, although the line between these levels is increasingly tenuous (Knight and Teffera, 2008), since all levels of actors can interrelate or influence the development and the implementation of policies, programs and regulations in the international dimension. These interaction networks between actors become more complex when analysed in a national, bilateral, sub regional, regional, interregional and international panorama.

Figure 1 Actors, their role in the development and correlation with their activity in education

Figure 1 Actors, their role in the development and correlation with their activity in education

Adapted: Knight and Teffera (2008)

3This cooperation has contributed to a more activist and change-oriented attitude towards greater global equity since the last half of the twentieth century, demonstrating greater confidence in its capacity for self-development. The main initiatives in the field of IC are focused on promoting the stability of HE Institutions (HEI) and creating regional centres of excellence and development through institutional collaboration. They aim to attract financial resources from multilateral and bilateral institutions, from private foundations and regional organizations in order to address one of the major problems of HE, which is related to the significant decline of their quality due to poor resources. King (2007) adds that one of the problems of HE in these countries is due to the constant “state of crisis”, preventing them from contributing to development, taking into account several dimensions: lack of physical infrastructure; weak human resources insufficient funding; and no capacity to carry out research by these institutions. It is necessary to stimulate technological growth and greater investment in research and innovation development (Economic Report on Africa, 2013). It is important to maintain a cooperative relationship between research institutions and the business sector in order to adapt technological development to real local needs, implying investment in the development of human and intellectual capital. International academic and scientific cooperation programs are thus important factors that allow the movement of international students and qualified people. It is necessary to reflect on their roles in order to encourage a brain gain strategy that is beneficial to developing countries, Europe and skilled migrants (Tejada, 2008), not just in the sense of King (2007) which identifies the brain drain process as negative, interpreting the same in the sense of a loss of qualified professionals to other continents, despite the fact that this situation can also be verified. The role of the private sector as a regional or national actor for development has been increasingly recognized. It also creates employment and is a source of income, which, in turn, contributes to poverty reduction. The greater the dynamism of this private sector, the greater its development will be in terms of innovation in order to satisfy the basic needs of the neediest population. It is necessary to develop public policies for the regulation of the private sector and institutions, as well as to promote greater access to essential public services such as education, health and safety (UNECA, 2013, UNECA, 2014 and UNCTAD, 2014). The importance of education is emphasized, with a special focus on HE, since it can play a major role in achieving these objectives. In fact, there has been a general tendency to reduce public spending and HE funding through the state budget, even in the richest countries, which, according to Tolentino (2006), creates a deadlock since it can increase the public’s accountability of the university and reduces its funding by most taxpayers. The author also points out that the alternative to this dilemma may be the intensification of the university’s business functions through “general interest functions, public service functions, to guarantee the effectiveness of the democratic welfare state and the functions that carry activities of value market for which there is a solvent demand “(p.79). As António Sáenz de Miera (1998: 25, in Tolentino, 2006) emphasizes, the mixed university is an industrial, entrepreneurial and double-headed because it has to be at the same time altruistic and selfish, public and private, solidarity and competitive. Issues related to the financing of these institutions depend to a large extent on the economic conditions, strategic sectors and the mission and nature of the institution. This logic incorporates the understanding of HE as a key factor of local and national development, public good and the system of intellectual capital and services production (Tolentino, 2006). In order to have a reciprocity relationship between gain and costs, there are several possible forms of university funding (Tolentino, 2006: 394): through tuition and sale of services such as consultancy, rental of space and equipment, editorial and cultural production and systematic collection of funds; through transfers from the state budget, including investment projects; scholarships and loans to students; IC funds; forgiveness and reconversion of external public debt; through the investment of public, private and social entities, national and foreign, in accordance with the nature of the institution; through direct IC in the fields of teaching, science, technology and arts.. According to recent studies, financial aid for the development of education has not been sufficient, not only in terms of government funding, but also by external donors. Governments in the poorest countries (low and medium incomes) have increased their commitment to education by more than one percentage point of GDP between 1999 and 2011 (Figure 2). According to the EFA (UNESCO, 2013) study, most countries have the opportunity to expand their tax base, namely low and middle income countries, which would favour funds allocated to education facing the reduction of 6% in basic education aid, between 2010 and 2011, GDP growth (Figure 3) increased.

Figure 2 – Public Expenditure on Education by Region and Income Level, 1999 and 2001

Figure 2 – Public Expenditure on Education by Region and Income Level, 1999 and 2001

Source: Data obtained and adapted in EFA Global Monitoring Report Team calculations (2013), based on UIS database

Figure 3 – Per Capita – primary education – (constant PPP 2010 – US$)

Figure 3 – Per Capita – primary education – (constant PPP 2010 – US$)

Source: Data obtained and adapted in EFA Global Monitoring Report Team calculations (2013), based on UIS database

4Direct aid to education declines more than aid in other sectors between 2010 and 2011, which fell between 12% and 10% (Figure 4). Canada, France, the Netherlands and the United States in particular cut back on aid spending to education in larger proportions when compared to other cuts.

Figure 4 – Total financial aid for education and basic education, by region and according to income, 2002 – 2011

Figure 4 – Total financial aid for education and basic education, by region and according to income, 2002 – 2011

Source: Data obtained and adapted in EFA Global Monitoring Report Team calculations (2013), based on UIS database

5The lack of investment in the area of education, as a public good, results in poor quality and weak infrastructures and scarce material. It represents the lack of credibility that the international community has with regard to the contribution of education to the progress of developing societies and the commitment to promote productive intellectual capital and to the transmission of knowledge.

III. EDUCATIONAL POLICY AS A PUBLIC POLICY AND AS A PROMOTOR OF THE ECONOMY

6A private good is one that is conceived exclusively to be consumed and is thus associated with the right of ownership, i.e., its owners are free to use it according to their will. On the contrary, a public good is one that must be in the public domain meaning that they are available to all to consume in a fair and equitable way. Global public goods are goods with benefits, which extend across countries and regions, to all social groups (Kaul, 2003) and become a product of globalization. However, in the perspective of globalization they can be considered as a paradox, since it develops a sense of “loss of autonomy” (Mahbubani 2001, Kaul 2003), particularly in developed countries. Nevertheless, for various peoples, may signify “a world of opportunities” (Giddens, 2000). Some of these goods are naturally global (atmosphere, ozone protection, etc.), but there are others that are going through a process of globalization, where all countries follow national strategies with public policies oriented in the same direction, coordinated with the IC system (Kaul and Le Goulven (2003). According to Sabastián (2004) at the level of universities, IC implies the complementarity of their capacities to carry out joint activities, according to two dimensions: cooperation itself sensu stricto -, or interuniversity with complementarity of interests and capacities of the institutions involved, which share academic and scientific goals. They generate benefits for both parties implying a higher academic quality and institutional strengthening. University cooperation for development calls into question the principle of solidarity and the social role inherent in the mission of universities through the creation of capacities and the transfer of knowledge and technologies that contribute to human and social welfare. The production of a global public good, as a sum of a national public good with IC, requires a vision among the nations at various levels and in a multispectral way, being a process where several actors interact. This interaction implies defining objectives and determining responsibilities since this production process incorporates (Kaul, 2003) a political decision-making process (stakeholders decide which goods to produce, in what form and quantities, and how their benefits should be distributed) and the production process which implies financing – allocation of resources effectively -, and the strategic management in a fragmented, efficient and effective manner. According to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR), education should be considered as a public good promoted by the State through policies of access to all, in an equitable manner and free. Primary and secondary education, are still different rights from HE. The need to universalise education with quality is emerging as one of the main challenges that a Democratic Social State implies. This view is reinforced by Sobrinho (2013) who defends education as a public and social good because it forms people and transforms them into more conscious citizens composing a morally democratized society. The empirical evidence has shown that education has a determining role in the level of wages and employment opportunities of a population (Woessmann, 2006). Different levels of education explain the distribution of income and poverty (Psacharopoulos, 2007). This is because school failure and abandonment increase the risks of unemployment, juvenile delinquency and crime with corresponding impacts on society (The Prince’s Trust, 2007). This conception of education as a public service, state-owned, is understood in the same way when the service is provided by private entities, as Sundfeld (2001: 84) points out: “the provision of such services is not a distant duty of the State, with individuals having the subjective right to enjoy them.”

7Education is a right of all and, therefore, it is a duty of the public power, where the State is the entity responsible for the service entitlement to guarantee the right, which implies a regulatory activity compatible with the identification of education as a good public. The new mission of tertiary education seeks alternative financing to the public one, leading to their privatization but whose objectives can be discussed in the sphere of their recognition as a public good. Educational institutions in general and universities in particular, are essential references and centres for the production, advancement, and elevation of the intellectual life of the nation and its society. Based on the principle of equity, educational institutions should have the essential purpose of contributing to the reduction of social imbalances, which is a civic responsibility. According to the empirical evidence, progress in development is closely related to international academic and scientific cooperation, which contributes to the circulation of knowledge (Tejada, 2008, OECD, 2013, UNESCO, 2014). As a development factor the flow of knowledge is supported in the interaction between technical, institutional and business domains. Knowledge in the form of education and scientific or technological research acquired and / or produced by qualified students is an important catalyst for development. This human capital can be defined as the economic effects on employment and income resulting from investment in training and education (Becker, 1993). Indeed, the theory of human capital is based on the premise that education increases efficiency and, therefore, income throughout life (Nakabashi and Figueiredo, 2008). Thus, there is a correlation between human capital and economic growth, implying that higher levels of education can lead to greater gains (Altinok, 2007; Becker, 1993; Monks, 2000; Perna, 2003; Sudmant, 2002; Rosan, 2002). Although Africa is one of the continents with the highest poverty rate, one of the main characteristics of internal and external migration flows is the international mobility of qualified individuals from the countries of SSA to the developed countries (IOM, 2005). On the other hand, students and scientists living in Europe are a source of knowledge, ideas and skills of great value to their countries of origin (Tejada, 2008), playing an important role in the debate on academic cooperation in Europe -Africa. Challenges and opportunities for skilled migration in academic and scientific cooperation between Africa and Europe are of significant importance as this cooperation has the overall objective of contributing to the advancement of development in Africa by disseminating knowledge and contributing to the creation of intellectual capital and for the valorisation of human resources that reflect a society capable of self-sustainability. In terms of empirical evidence, there are a number of studies linking HE with its positive impact on economic growth, as well as a positive correlation between education and safer jobs (Figure 5). This correlation should be applied to the developing countries of SSA to contribute to the change of attitudes of policy makers who tend to devalue tertiary education and whose trend should be changed.

Figure 5 – Correlation between Education and more Secure Jobs

Figure 5 – Correlation between Education and more Secure Jobs

Source: Understanding children’s work (2013)

8Signals of progress in HE in SSA are beginning to be visible, leading the international development community to recognize the importance of tertiary education and its positive impact on economic development and growth through improving the living conditions of the population, which is correlated with better jobs and more attractive salaries, as already mentioned, but also through the development of technologies that meet industrial needs, which in turn will contribute to higher productivity and for the creation of more jobs and better opportunities, implying that it contributes to the reduction of poverty. Nonetheless, the idea that secondary education was adapted to the societies of the industrial revolution era, where the workforce was mechanized and repetitive, is reinforced. With technological advances and with globally connected societies, human capital requirements are increasing substantially so that knowledge infrastructures are needed to accompany the new business and industrial needs of developing countries to align with the developed global economies in order to contribute to its growth. In this context, it is argued that the HE system is an important factor in the development of training that meets these criteria at an advanced level in key areas such as information and communication technologies, robotics and information technology. This trend, however, is not widespread, and universities are taking this mission of building human capital to cope with a globalized and interconnected world, especially in developing countries.

IV. INSTRUMENT OF ANALYSIS: CATWOE

9In qualitative terms, this study was based on the collection and consultation of different basic theoretical literature, particularly in the field of HE in developing countries SSA. Some statistical data was also consulted mainly related to economics, finance, development in education, labour market and demographic in SSA. The investigation also used the results of surveys conducted at different types of Actors, including government authorities and other international and national public institutions, which are referred to as external and internal Actors. For the study and for the characterization of the partnerships systems we used as base the CATWOE model, which consists on a checklist to reflect the problems and solutions in accordance to a definition of a route. This is the mnemonic word to the following terms: customer, actor, transformation, weltanshauunh, owner and environmental. Having these concepts in mind the characterisation of the education system was drawn through the conceptual model CATWOE. This analysis defines routes where HEI have a system granting degrees to students (x) that qualify successfully in accordance with the specified assessment (Y) and in harmony with established standards to ensure certification (Z) for potential employers ensuring that students have the expertise, capacity and the required qualifications. However, it is necessary to take into account the role of internal ‘Actors’ involved and their real impact to the expansion of HEI in developing countries. Furthermore, it is appropriate to analyse the effective contribution of external staff, plotting the input with output, i.e. if the rates of students finalising the courses match the needs of the market environment and are adapted to the labour market and the demands of their potential employers. Considering all elements of the model the following factors where established:

10Such an approach would require a systemic HE system, which incorporates the partnership with industry to achieve an optimum result regarding the development of human resources, especially on those areas that are confined to science and technology, in order to build a bridge between industry and the educational system, as well as with all Actors (Rich Picture 1).

Rich Picture 1 Conceptual Model CATWOE characterization for HE considering the different stakeholders (internal and external), and the representation of the relationship of the different stages of the system in the context of SSA

Rich Picture 1 Conceptual Model CATWOE characterization for HE considering the different stakeholders (internal and external), and the representation of the relationship of the different stages of the system in the context of SSA

11Once characterised the conceptual model of analysis and designed the route which stresses the relevance of the actions and interventions of all Actors that leads to the economic growth through education, where HE plays an important role in developing countries, we identified two groups of Actors in the development cooperation external and internal-, whose action is defined at the International and European level and those operating at local level respectively (Figure 6 Type of Actors). Considering the positive answers of the survey56% of respondents were male and the remaining 44% were women. According to the categorisation the majority of the answers are from International Actors (37 %) followed by the European Actors (19 %) and Technical organisations universities and research centres (a total of 28%). The Regional organisations are those, which characterise a lower degree of representativeness with only 16 % of responses.

Figure 6 – Type of Actors

Figure 6 – Type of Actors

V. FROM DATA ANALYSIS TO THE APPLICATION OF THE CATWOE ANALYSIS MODEL

Actors, Educational Public Policy and the economic development

12According to the information collected, there is consensus among the various types of actors regarding the issue of considering education as a public good. The Actors responded that education is a fundamental and universal human right and should encompass the whole population, without any kind of discrimination, including children, young people and adults of both genders. Education is an elementary instrument for human development, which contributes not only to personal development but also to the development of societies at regional, national and global levels. It is perceived as an instrument to generate knowledge, but also to improve living conditions and create more equitable and more democratic societies. Education enables the economic growth of societies, creating more and better job opportunities, facilitating the personal and professional development of all citizens. According to the Actors education is an important factor in the eradication of poverty and there is a close relationship with economic development, as we have seen previously in the theoretical framework and according to the various studies carried out. However, with regard to the provision of education by governments for free, opinions are divided, with only 25% of the population surveyed considering that HE should be financed for primary and secondary education (37% and 38% respectively – Figure 7). International Actors are the ones who give greater emphasis to the provision of free education (Figure 8). These results are in line with the New Agenda for Development promoted by International Actors, as it has already been recognized that access to science, technology and innovation underpins progress in all dimensions of development as the main focus of economic growth (United Nations, 2013, UNESCO, 2014). There is a consensus on the classification of knowledge and technology as a public good, even though investment in these areas is reduced, which presupposes greater international collaboration in order to support the creation and dissemination of technologies.

Figure 7 – Perspective of the Actors on the level of education that must be provided by governments for free

Figure 7 – Perspective of the Actors on the level of education that must be provided by governments for free

Figure 8 – Perspective, by Actor Type, on the level of education that must be provided by governments for free

Figure 8 – Perspective, by Actor Type, on the level of education that must be provided by governments for free

13In general, all other Actors focus on primary education and a growing emphasis on secondary education, as primary education is essential for basic skills (i.e. reading and writing, accounting, etc.) as well as learn the basic rules of coexistence and socialization (i.e. respect for the other, democracy, etc.). At the level of secondary education they consider that the students acquire vocational knowledge enabling the identification of particular talents, as well as in their preparation for the labour market. They also indicate that governments can cofinance HE in accordance with a system of subsidiarity, where each student would have to pay according to the income of his / her family. Another type of support mentioned is private support, mainly at the level of HE, through local companies that would be interested in funding scholarships in areas which they work with. After graduating these students can be considered as an added value for the same companies once they have acquired the know-how needed to develop innovative products and services that will contribute to the progress of the local economy. We are dealing with a process of knowledge development that value all stakeholders while encouraging a level of quality education that has been a concern for the different Actors, due to the many factors already mentioned, such as the lack of qualified teachers and the mass demand for education. With regard to support from the International Actors it should focus on primary and secondary education, as seen before. All Actors affirm that, considering the mission of education, governments should support and create, essentially, public schools (65%), only 35% of the Actors believe that support should be given to private schools (Figure 9).

Figure 9 – Perspective of the Actors on the support to be given to public and / or private educational institutions

Figure 9 – Perspective of the Actors on the support to be given to public and / or private educational institutions

14International Actors are those who believe that this support should be equitable between public and private schools. European Actors and Technical Organizations Universities place greater emphasis on public education (Figure 13). The data confirm the concern to align private sector interests with research carried out by research centres and HEI in order to create and promote the technologies, products and services that best suits the needs of local markets, contributing to economic and social development.

Figure 10 – Perspective by actor type regarding support to public and / or private educational institutions

Figure 10 – Perspective by actor type regarding support to public and / or private educational institutions

15It’s necessary to train human resources with capacities at this level of development, as indicated by the United Nations and UNESCO as it promotes economic growth and contributes to the prosperity of societies and human life. Nevertheless, there is a path to be outlined insofar as the brain drain phenomenon remains a constant indicator. In order to fill this lack of qualified human resources it is necessary to develop strategic guidelines by Regional Actors, with specific international incentives designed to improve working conditions of the qualified professions and for the academic profession. There is also the growing belief that the secondary level 36% and tertiary 35% education are the ones that can most favour economic development (Figure 10). There is, however, concern about primary education since the percentage of Actors that considers this level relevant to development, remains high (29%). International and European Actors place greater emphasis on secondary education (Figure 12) as they believe that it is at this level that students acquire the necessary skills in ever-changing societies, which tend to move from an economy based on agriculture to an industrial society placing itself at the level of global societies, internationalizing their products and services. These Actors consider that higher levels of education will enable them to train more critical leaders, better strategic planning of their regions and a society open to change, thus creating more democratic communities and wellbeing, contributing to generate responsible citizens.

Figure 11 – Level of education that may favour development

Figure 11 – Level of education that may favour development

Figure 12 – Perspective, by type of Actor, on the level of education that may favour the development

Figure 12 – Perspective, by type of Actor, on the level of education that may favour the development

16Therefore, a large part of the Actors (81%) considers that a higher level of education guarantees better living conditions (Figure 13). The International Actors and Technical Organizations Universities are the ones that most support this fact (Figure 14). They mention that, in fact, a higher level of education leads to better prospects of employment. This situation will lead the population to better living conditions, not only to provide society with qualified professionals in several areas but also because it allows economically plausible access to these professionals, better services such as health and education and even at the technological level. Education has an important role here in reducing exclusion, inequality and poverty by meeting the vectors of the new global partnership for development.

Figure 13 – Actor’s perspective about the fact that a higher level of education in education favours better living conditions

Figure 13 – Actor’s perspective about the fact that a higher level of education in education favours better living conditions

Figure 14 – Perspective by actor type that a HE level of education favours better living conditions

Figure 14 – Perspective by actor type that a HE level of education favours better living conditions

17This new global partnership for post-2015 development supports a greater linkage with human rights, the promotion of equality and sustainability stressing the need to correlate these values with education. The Actors for Development believe in this relationship and conclude that higher levels of education are conducive to socio-economic development. Finally, the Actors consider that there is a positive impact of education on reducing poverty, improving the quality of life and promoting fairer societies in developing countries (Figure 15 and Figure 16).

Figure 15 – Actors’ perspective on the positive impact of education on reducing poverty, improving the quality of life and promoting fairer societies in developing countries

Figure 15 – Actors’ perspective on the positive impact of education on reducing poverty, improving the quality of life and promoting fairer societies in developing countries

Figure 16 – Perspective by actor type on the positive impact of education on reducing poverty, improving the quality of life and promoting fairer societies in developing countries

Figure 16 – Perspective by actor type on the positive impact of education on reducing poverty, improving the quality of life and promoting fairer societies in developing countries

VI. IMPLICATIONS IN THE CHARACTERIZATION OF THE CATWOE MODEL IN THE CONTEXT OF THE ASSESSMENT OF HE, BEARING IN MIND THE IMPACT OF DIFFERENT ACTORS (INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL)

18The conceptual model of analysis was characterized and the route was drawn up to perceive the problematic in question, highlighting the relevance of the actions and interventions of the Actors of the IC for Development, in focus in this study, in the process of economic growth through education, and in particular through HE. The data was analysed in order to perceive whether the modelled transformations are likely to be effected through their power relations or if there are environmental constraints that impede the operation of this process, and if the desired results are verified at the level of the Output, in whole or in part. The Actors have been defined as the External Actors who produce guidelines and design IC aid programs that allow educational activities to be carried out in SSA. In fact, throughout this work the importance of External Actors has been highlighted as a key element of international development cooperation, providing the creation of partnerships that are extremely important in the development of human capital. These Actors are directly responsible for the operationalization of policies that foster education. In relation to the specific competencies necessary for the proper functioning of the processes established in T, it is necessary that these Actors know all the elements of the educational system, as well as all the processes and individuals involved, to contemplate their interests in an appropriate way. However, we concluded that these outputs are not always present, as there is some lack of knowledge related to the subject matter, just as there are rarely personal contacts with all interest groups in order to find out needs at the level of support. We are dealing with aid processes, which, despite their real and important impact on education, require evaluation as well as being systematically planned.

19Local power holders were identified as Internal Actors (National Organizations, Governing Bodies, Political Deciders, HEI Managers) with influence in the educational system, not only through the directives imposed by External Actors in the implementation of projects or programs meant for teaching but also because of the strong decision-making relationship that it holds in these schools. Agents of power carry out the formulation of public policies, although public managers involved in the implementation of these policies do not enjoy autonomy and decision-making power, mainly at the level of HEI. This relationship of interdependence has consequences for the level of transformation since in the characterization made the Institutions of HE transform the students into graduates. Though, it is necessary to verify the essential conditions for this process to work, implying that the application of the public policies allows overcoming the constraints that prevent the achievement of the expected results. Clients were characterized as the Students and Universities in Africa, which are the direct beneficiaries of the education system, since it is designed to think about these. Currently, educational indicators show that despite the improvements, enrolment rates in HE are still lower than those in developed countries, and illiteracy is still a relevant factor to be taken into account in the post 2015 agenda. As indirect beneficiaries of the system we include the teachers and administrative bodies of the schools, as transformation agents, although they are not the final target audience, but whose work is strongly affected by the outputs of the system. The families of the students and the communities in general were also identified as indirect beneficiaries, since education increases the potential for local development, which can result in an increase in the quality of life. Still, in order for these outputs to materialize, greater action is required on the part of the Internal and External Actors, in particular regarding the promotion of public policies that favour the continuation of studies, specifically at the level of HE. There are several challenges facing universities that can only be filled with the support of these Actors. According to the data we can infer that the role of the Actors in this level of transformation has still a long way to go, because the concerns are focused on the lower levels of education. It is increasingly recognized in the political arena that the education process indirectly reflects society as a whole, since it has consequences for the production, at the regional level, and for the economic development of the country, influence on the geographical distribution of population and the salary level of graduates. The actions of the Actors responsible for the implementation of the mentioned policies have the ambition of achieving the objectives directly related to the eradication of poverty. The system of implementation of public policies for education, is intrinsically related to the education system as a whole, and must comply with the National Education Guidelines. The government plays a central role as responsible for defining guiding principles, curricular structures and goals, as well as regulation, supervision and the provision of free public education as a public good. According to the data presented the education should be mostly public, what delimits its performance, within the scope of its mission since it depends on the political system. It is evident the important role of External and Internal Actors in the process of strengthening education and insertion of the theme in the governmental and international agenda, from the control of the actions to the evaluation of the results, with an active participation in the design of the general format and specificities of education policies at the level of HE in order to address the challenges they face which constitute system constraints and limitations that prevent the HE system from functioning. They were identified as: the quality of the educational system; the process of evaluation and accreditation of rules; political instability; difficulties in terms of operation; the cultural tradition; limited and uneven access; and the process of brain drain. The process of transformation takes place in the passage of students to graduates, which will improve their work prospects, their quality of life, as well as contribute to change the society that surrounds them. The transformation system allows not only students to become graduates, but also the transformation of society itself, since, as it has been verified that these graduates will contribute to the development of the local economic growth which allows the improvement of the living conditions. At the level of the Actors there is a trend change in the beliefs of this positive correlation between HE and development. However, there is some inconsistency in the data collected since it allows us to infer that their actions do not have as purpose this perspective of education as a directive in the programs to be developed in the future. It is highlighted a vision of the world of a real need to elaborate specific educational policies for HE, which are carried out through the different Actors. There is an effort of coordination between the different Actors with regard to educational and crosssectorial programs. The joint actions carried out have an influence on the process of transformation since the achievement of an academic degree by African students influence the possibility of having better jobs and living conditions, and also changes the vision that the world and companies have of these citizens. This premise of integration, together with the valuation of intellectual capital, is the worldview of the role of HE in the growth of economies, contributing to the promotion of self-sustaining societies.

The role of the different actors in the transformation process

20According to the analysis of the perspective of the different Actors regarding the diverse policies and actions that have been applied at the level of HE, we present a summary table that intends to measure the true role that they assume as well as possible actions that are identified as necessary at the input level in order to achieve the outputs that are evidenced to be optimized according to the study done. We have verified that in general the opinion of the Actors meets the needs in force and inherent to the developing countries in question. However, it is relevant to mention that the efforts of these Actors are still channelled towards the specific goal of poverty eradication. Nevertheless, according to the testimonies of these Actors we are facing a process of change. There is awareness that HE is an important factor in the economic growth of these countries through valued human capital, although this belief is not generalized, since most Actors consider lower levels of education as priorities, even though the empirical evidence clearly shows that HE levels lead to more developed societies and guarantee better living conditions (Figure 17).

Figure 17 – Role of Actors vs. Transformation Process

Figure 17 – Role of Actors vs. Transformation Process

VII. SYNTHESIS OF THE ANALYSIS

21Throughout this study, we have been highlighting the role of the Actors, both internal and external, insofar as they contribute, through their joint actions, to the economic growth of a number of developing countries, such as SSA. However, perspectives differ as to the type of education to be provided and prioritized in this context. In general, support is directed towards primary and secondary education, financed by the governments of each country, as they believe that these levels are the ones that need more support, and education at these levels is the right to education as an inalienable right of any citizen as a public right. We verified that the weight of the Actors is not effectively the same so that we can consider that there are Actors with a key role since they influence the process of transformation in different ways but they don’t depend to much on the other elements of the system, as well as there are a hierarchy within the Actors at their various levels. It is the example of the External Actors, which through the measures and tools of IC have been supporting the education system and whose actions of the Internal Actors depend to a large extent on the support provided by them. But, the view of the External Actors is primarily concerned with the eradication of poverty and the measures taken so far in education are related to this factor. There is, still, an attitude of change regarding HE and the recognition of its benefits at various levels, including poverty reduction and better living conditions for the whole population. Internal actors, in turn, become dependent on external support measures. Specifically, local Actors, at the level of HEI, share the logic underlying innovative action, i.e., the logic that calls for the diversification of local economic activity. They consider that they can contribute to the development of the local economic business. They call for a greater effort to involve local industries in the creation of partnerships for the development of innovation projects in response to local needs. The need to promote more sustainable and entrepreneurial societies is agreed upon by the stakeholders involved, regarding the need to diversify local economic activity, believing that their strategic challenges are more identified with the challenge of opening up the territory to foreign investment, contributing to its industrialization process. Finally, despite the identification of joint actions between the different Actors, we also find that existing alliances need greater cohesion. Although they work towards the same end the actions are not systemic, but rather isolated measures for the purpose of each of the departments and whose outputs do not aim at the results of other measures promoted by different Actors. It was also verified the lack of knowledge by several Actors of the existing measures, their application, evaluation and monitoring. Undoubtedly, global partnerships are a necessary and essential factor for local development, but the vision of these Actors still has a long way to go when it comes to understand HE as an artery that favours economic development. It is necessary to work on a new educational horizon, one that fosters the awareness that innovation and cooperation between HE and the corporate business are beneficial for the growth of societies and for their appreciation as active members of a globalized world.

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Table des illustrations

Titre Figure 1 Actors, their role in the development and correlation with their activity in education
Crédits Adapted: Knight and Teffera (2008)
URL http://books.openedition.org/cei/docannexe/image/738/img-1.png
Fichier image/png, 88k
Titre Figure 2 – Public Expenditure on Education by Region and Income Level, 1999 and 2001
Légende Source: Data obtained and adapted in EFA Global Monitoring Report Team calculations (2013), based on UIS database
URL http://books.openedition.org/cei/docannexe/image/738/img-2.png
Fichier image/png, 102k
Titre Figure 3 – Per Capita – primary education – (constant PPP 2010 – US$)
Légende Source: Data obtained and adapted in EFA Global Monitoring Report Team calculations (2013), based on UIS database
URL http://books.openedition.org/cei/docannexe/image/738/img-3.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 135k
Titre Figure 4 – Total financial aid for education and basic education, by region and according to income, 2002 – 2011
Légende Source: Data obtained and adapted in EFA Global Monitoring Report Team calculations (2013), based on UIS database
URL http://books.openedition.org/cei/docannexe/image/738/img-4.png
Fichier image/png, 142k
Titre Figure 5 – Correlation between Education and more Secure Jobs
Légende Source: Understanding children’s work (2013)
URL http://books.openedition.org/cei/docannexe/image/738/img-5.png
Fichier image/png, 142k
URL http://books.openedition.org/cei/docannexe/image/738/img-6.png
Fichier image/png, 166k
Titre Rich Picture 1 Conceptual Model CATWOE characterization for HE considering the different stakeholders (internal and external), and the representation of the relationship of the different stages of the system in the context of SSA
URL http://books.openedition.org/cei/docannexe/image/738/img-7.png
Fichier image/png, 123k
Titre Figure 6 – Type of Actors
URL http://books.openedition.org/cei/docannexe/image/738/img-8.png
Fichier image/png, 135k
Titre Figure 7 – Perspective of the Actors on the level of education that must be provided by governments for free
URL http://books.openedition.org/cei/docannexe/image/738/img-9.png
Fichier image/png, 103k
Titre Figure 8 – Perspective, by Actor Type, on the level of education that must be provided by governments for free
URL http://books.openedition.org/cei/docannexe/image/738/img-10.png
Fichier image/png, 62k
Titre Figure 9 – Perspective of the Actors on the support to be given to public and / or private educational institutions
URL http://books.openedition.org/cei/docannexe/image/738/img-11.png
Fichier image/png, 64k
Titre Figure 10 – Perspective by actor type regarding support to public and / or private educational institutions
URL http://books.openedition.org/cei/docannexe/image/738/img-12.png
Fichier image/png, 122k
Titre Figure 11 – Level of education that may favour development
URL http://books.openedition.org/cei/docannexe/image/738/img-13.png
Fichier image/png, 81k
Titre Figure 12 – Perspective, by type of Actor, on the level of education that may favour the development
URL http://books.openedition.org/cei/docannexe/image/738/img-14.png
Fichier image/png, 86k
Titre Figure 13 – Actor’s perspective about the fact that a higher level of education in education favours better living conditions
URL http://books.openedition.org/cei/docannexe/image/738/img-15.png
Fichier image/png, 90k
Titre Figure 14 – Perspective by actor type that a HE level of education favours better living conditions
URL http://books.openedition.org/cei/docannexe/image/738/img-16.png
Fichier image/png, 51k
Titre Figure 15 – Actors’ perspective on the positive impact of education on reducing poverty, improving the quality of life and promoting fairer societies in developing countries
URL http://books.openedition.org/cei/docannexe/image/738/img-17.png
Fichier image/png, 131k
Titre Figure 16 – Perspective by actor type on the positive impact of education on reducing poverty, improving the quality of life and promoting fairer societies in developing countries
URL http://books.openedition.org/cei/docannexe/image/738/img-18.png
Fichier image/png, 107k
Titre Figure 17 – Role of Actors vs. Transformation Process
URL http://books.openedition.org/cei/docannexe/image/738/img-19.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 146k

Auteurs

University of Salamanca, Spain

Collaborative Member of CEsA Centro de Estudos sobre África, Ásia e América Latina

Instituto Superior de Economia e Gestão/ ULisboa

lucia.oliveira@ec.europa.eu

Member of CEsA Centro de Estudos sobre África, Ásia e América Latina

Instituto Superior de Economia e Gestão/ULisboa

carlos.sangreman@ua.pt

Member of CEsA Centro de Estudos sobre África, Ásia e América Latina

Instituto Superior de Economia e Gestão/ULisboa

raquelfaria@ua.pt

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