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Société civile, associations et pouvoir local au Yémen

Sarah Ben Nefissa
Maggy Grabundzija
Jean Lambert

Chapter 1: History

The Civil Movement in Aden (1839-1967) (abstract)

Asmahan al‑Alas

Entrées d'index

Géographique :


Chronologique :


Texte intégral

1Taking as the historical framework for her study the British occupation from 1837 till 1967, the author delineates the landmarks of the appearance of the civil society in Aden.

21918, the growth of the volunteer’s movement among the British working in the social and the sanitary sectors, allowed the Adenis to familiarize themselves with a new type of structures, the modern associative structures which were centered on mutual aid and social progress.

3The second stage began after the First World War, when the necessity to provide for the future of the Protectorate induced the British authorities to reinforce their social support of the Adeni population. A wider access to education allowed some individuals to become able to re-analyze the society and to redefine the social objectives.

4One of them, Muhammad ‘Alī Luqmān, is considered a central figure of the nascent civil society. His dedication to the education of girls, as well as his foundation of the newspaper Fatāt al‑Jazīra in which became the mouthpiece for defending the rights of the Adenis, are widely referred to. Many charitable initiatives were launched during the Second World War, namely: a social movement which brought about tangible results concerning the access to education after 1945.

5In the aftermath of the war, during public political manifestations, demanding a wider representation of the Adenis within power structures, or convicting the British politics in Palestine, the evolution of civil society is first of all measurable with regard to the place occupied by women, who can be considered the fire brand of a dynamic civil society. It was women who, in 1962 drew London’s attention to the state of education in Aden; it was they again who would be the major factor of the popular initiative for the improvement of prisoners’ conditions. It is evident that the political parties which later came to power, made it out how to benefit from this original experience.

© Centre français de recherche de la péninsule Arabique, 2008

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