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Islamic Coins. National Museum of Sanaa

 | 
‛Abd al-‛Azīz Ḥamūd Al-Jandārī
, 
Audrey Peli

Introduction

Texte intégral

  • 1 We choose to publish the collection of Yemeni Islamic coinage from the Ayyūbids up to the Ottomans (...)

1The present volume of the catalogue Islamic Coins of the National Museum of Ṣanʽā’ comprises the collection of Islamic coinage from the beginning of Islam up to the end of the 7th/12th centuries1. The catalogue is organized by name of dynasty, in chronological order. The majority of these coins are from Yemen and were minted by the local dynasties who took their monetary independence from the end of the 3rd/9th century. Some Umayyad and Abbasid dirhams are included: they are from Iran, Mesopotamia and Levant (fig. 1).

The collection

  • 2 M.I. 27001 to M.I. 27128, M.I. 31204 to M.I. 31213 and M.I. 4 to M.I. 59.
  • 3 M.I. 5098 to M.I. 5107.
  • 4 M.I. 31356 to M.I. 31545. Only one of these coins is presented here. This collection would deserve (...)
  • 5 M.I. 31925 to M.I. 31927.
  • 6 M.I. 5067 to M.I. 5070.
  • 7 M.I. 5964 to M.I. 5999.
  • 8 Album 1999 : ix and xiii. We regret that the coins from this hoard are not noticed as such.

2The catalogue brings together several private collections of Islamic coins given or bought by the National Museum of Ṣanʽā’. The most important one is the Islamic coins purchased from the personal collection of Ḫalīl Muḥammad Qāsim al-Dubaʽī2. Unfortunately, the origin and exact provenance of most of these coins are still unknown. The former president of the Republic of Yemen, ʽAlī ʽAbd Allāh Ṣāliḥ, gave several important coins from the Ṣulayḥid period3. The museum is also endowed with an exceptional collection of sudaysī dirhams from the Zaydī al-Nāṣir li-dīn Allāh: almost a thousand of these coins were given by Ḥamūd Nāṣir al-Šarafī4. A number of coins from the Zaydī al-Hādī and from the Ṣulayḥid ʽAlī b. Muḥammad were given by Yaḥyā Aḥmad al-Bahlūlī5. The qāḍī ʽAbd Allāh Fāḫir also made a gift of several Umayyad coins6. A group of dīnārs of unknown provenance acquired by the Museum is of particular interest: seventeen of them were minted in ʽAṯṯar (now in Saudi Arabia) by the local amīr of the Ṭarfid family7. These coins were only known, until now, by an incomplete hoard that pertained to the personal collection of Samir Shamma. Stephen Album has published this hoard in his Sylloge of Islamic Coins in the Ashmolean Museum8. The Ṭarfid coins of the National Museum are from exactly the same period, so we can assume that they probably belong to the “ʽAṣīr hoard” as Album named it.

The state of research

  • 9 Lane-Poole 1875 and 1877; Casanova, 1894.
  • 10 Lane-Poole 1875-1890; Lavoix 1887-1896.
  • 11 Bikhazi 1970.
  • 12 Although he mentions the Banī Mahdī, he is not able to present any coins of this dynasty. The dirha (...)
  • 13 Bates 1972. We owe to him a general bibliography on Yemeni coinage (Bates 1998). He is also prepari (...)
  • 14 Lowick 1983.
  • 15 Lowick 1976b. At this time, Ziyādid coinage was poorly recognized and Lowick mistook the four dīnār (...)
  • 16 Lowick 1964.
  • 17 Lowick 1975, 1976a and 1980.
  • 18 Shamma 1971.
  • 19 Album 1999: xiii.
  • 20 Balafier, 1994. His PhD is still unpublished. We hope to make it available in English and in Arabic

3Until now, the study of Yemeni Islamic coins lacks a comprehensive overview. During the end of the 19th century, Stanley Lane-Poole and Paul Casanova published some isolated articles on Yemeni coins, which are for the most part from the Ṣulayḥid and Zurayʽid periods9. We found also some Islamic coins of Yemen in the catalogues of Oriental coins of the British Museum and of the Bibliothèque nationale de France10. The first complete study of these coins dates from 1970 when Ramzi Bikhazi published his ground-breaking monograph on the coinage of Islamic Yemen11: he embraces all the coins minted by the local dynasties of the first centuries of Islam until the arrival of the Ayyūbids in the country in 569/117312. Several articles were published at the same time, so that the 1970s are considered as the “golden age” for the study of Islamic coins of Yemen. Michael Bates contributed to the study of the Ṣulayḥid coinage by comparing the inscriptions noted on the coins with the textual sources13. We also owe to Nicholas Lowick, Curator of Oriental Coins in the British Museum (1962–1986), important articles on the Ṣanʽā’ mint14, on Ziyādid15 and Ṣulayḥid coinages16. He made a substantial contribution to the knowledge of Islamic coinage by publishing the review Coin Hoards. Numerous Yemeni hoards are known thanks to this publication17. It is indeed during the 1960s and the 1970s that an important number of hoards were discovered in Yemen. Samir Shamma acquired one of those, reported to have come from “south western Arabia” and provides a preliminary publication of it in 197118. Stephen Album studied it in his Sylloge and termed it the “ʽAṣīr hoard” as the coins minted in this region predominate19. We also owe to Muḥammad Balafier (Lecturer, University of ʽAdan) the complete study of two hoards, one from the Rasūlid period and another from the Ṣulayḥids, and the catalogue of the Islamic coins preserved in the museums of ʽAdan, Say’ūn and Zinjibar20. The last (but not the least) important study of coinage of Islamic Yemen is the Sylloge of Stephen Album. This publication provides a detailed view of this coinage preceded by an accurate introduction to minting in Yemen and the other countries of the Arabian Peninsula.

Yemeni coinage during the first centuries of Islam

  • 21 Al-Rāzī 1974: 106, l. 8 / الرازي ١٩٧٤: ١٠٦

4There was no coinage in Yemen during the time of the first caliphs or under the Umayyads. According to the 11th century author al-Rāzī, the mint of Ṣanʽā’ was installed in 183/799 during the caliphate of Hārūn al-Rašīd, under Muḥammad b. Ḫālid al-Barmakī’s government21. But coins were minted before this date which probably marks a restoration of the Dār al-Ḍarb.

  • 22 Augst 1962: 3.
  • 23 Lowick 1983: 1-2.
  • 24 See the posthumous work of Lowick 1999 on Abbasid coinage.

5Indeed, the first coins minted in Yemen were fulūs, copper coins. The personal collection of Bedřich Augst (1889–1972) preserves the very first coin minted in Ṣanʽā’. It bears the date of 139/756–722. Some fifteen years later, a series of copper coins were minted naming the centre of “al-Yaman”, probably Ṣanʽā’ as proposed by Nicholas Lowick23. Such fulūs give the name of Abū ʽAbd Allāh Muḥammad, the future caliph al-Mahdī, before his enthronement as caliph. Coins like the ones minted in Yemen are also known in different minting centres, mostly from Eastern Iran where Muḥammad took the power24. These coins have to be seen as propaganda coinage in order to push people to recognize his power before his accession to supreme power.

  • 25 There is no clear reason for striking coins under half of the standard weight. Lutz Ilisch regards (...)
  • 26 See Daghfous 1995, Madʽaj 1988 and Smith 1983 for the history of Yemen during the Umayyad and Abbas (...)

6We then owe to al-Ġiṭrīf b. ʽAṭā’, Hārūn al-Rašīd’s maternal uncle who took his position of governor of Yemen in 171/787–8, the first dirhams minted in Ṣanʽā’. Regular coinage begins in Yemen at this period, consisting of small silver dirhams struck to a local weight standard of about 1.30g25. These dirhams were struck in Ṣanʽā’ regularly until at least 219/83426; they follow the contemporary ʽAbbāsid standards except for the module.

  • 27 For the study of dīnārs struck in Yemen, see Bernardi 2003.

7From the beginning of the 3rd/9th century, dīnārs begun to be minted in Ṣanʽā’ and supplanted the silver coins. The first series lack any indication of mint but was assigned to Ṣanʽā’ by the presence of the governors’ names. The next series follow the standard pattern introduced in Egypt some years before27.

  • 28 On the history of the founder, see Van Arendonk 1960.
  • 29 M.I. 4962, M.I. 4963, M.I.31925 and M.I.31926.
  • 30 Thousands of these little coins are preserved in the National Museum of Ṣanʽā’: see M.I. 27161 and (...)
  • 31 However, the name is unknown from the textual sources.

8By the end of the 3rd/9th century, Yemen slipped out of ʽAbbāsid control into the hands of local rulers. The first ones are the Zaydī imāms based at Ṣaʽda28. They firstly struck gold dīnārs, which are mostly dated 298/910–11 from the death of the founder, Yaḥyā b. al-Ḥusayn al-Hādī ilā’l-ḥaqq29. These dīnārs weigh around 2.93g. But during the reign of his grandson, al-Nāṣir li-dīn Allāh, only sudaysī dirhams were minted in this city30. These tiny coins have been called “a sixth” by the numismatists because they weigh approximately one sixth of a standard dirham31.

  • 32 The city is situated around 40 kilometres west of Ṣanʽā’.
  • 33 See Daghfous 1982.
  • 34 الأكوع ١٩٧٦: ٢٣٥-٢٣٧ / al-Akwaʽ 1976: 235-237.

9At this same moment, the city of Ṣanʽā’ became independent from ʽAbbāsid control under the authority of a local dynasty, the Yuʽfirids, who came from Šibām Kawkabān32. While the Yuʽfirid rulers are said to have taken their clear political independence from the ʽAbbāsids33, they never minted coins in their own name. However, an historical text edited by Muḥammad b. ʽAlī al-Akwaʽ shows that the Yuʽfirid potentate took his political legitimacy from the ʽAbbāsid caliph34. The coins struck by the last Yuʽfirid ruler are called amīrī dīnārs as the title of amīr appears in the second margin.

  • 35 The National Museum of Ṣanʽā’ possesses one of those (M.I. 5963). Such a coin was seen during an au (...)

10During the middle of the 4th/10th century, Ṣanʽā’ looses its political importance and coins are not minted from 344/955–6 until the city is taken by the Zaydīs in 370/980–1. In 389/999, the Zaydī al-Manṣūr bi’llāh al-Qāsim b. ʽAlī al-ʽIyānī (998–1003) struck a series of dīnārs. Few specimens of such coins are known35. Ṣanʽā’ is then the scene of a fierce struggle between the Zaydīs, a client of the Yuʽfirids and the Ḫawlānid Yaḥyā b. Abī Ḥašīd. This last ruler minted dīnārs in the year 438/1046–7. They were probably cast as the inscriptions are of a smooth relief.

  • 36 See Album 1999.
  • 37 ʽUmāra 1985 / عمارة ١٩٨٥
  • 38 M.I. 19, M.I. 4966 to M.I. 4969, M.I. 5983, M.I. 27003, M.I. 27004, M.I. 27015 and M.I. 27018, On t (...)

11Coinage in Zabīd only begins in the middle of the 4th/10th century. But, from 204/819–20, the local dynasty of the Ziyādid controlled the region. The founder, Muḥammad b. Ziyād, was sent by the ʽAbbāsid caliph al-Ma’mūn (198–218/813–833) to break a rebellion in the region. The Ziyādids begin to mint in 346/957–8 during the reign of Isḥāq b. Ibrāhīm called Abū’l-Jayš. Their lovely dīnārs were regularly struck at a standard of about 2.82 g. These coins are mostly known from the ʽAṣīr hoard36. After Isḥāq b. Ibrāhīm, coins give a completely different genealogy from the one given by ʽUmāra, the only historical source37. It is, however, now proved that ʽAlī b. Ibrāhīm, al-Muẓaffar b. ʽAlī and ʽAlī b. al-Muẓaffar were the successors of Isḥāq b. Ibrāhīm, although the texts say that only infant children succeeded him38. They struck dīnārs of worse quality to a reduced standard of 2.55 g.

  • 39 The city is now in ruins and lays in front of Mansiyah (Ras Tarfa, Saudi Arabia). The site was surv (...)
  • 40 Ibn Ḥawqal 1873: 24 / ابن حوقل ١٨٧٣: ٢٤
  • 41 Album 1999 : ix and xiii.
  • 42 M.I. 5964 to M.I. 5980.
  • 43 See the commentaries of Album 1999: ix.

12During the 4th/10th, another local dynasty appeared in the ʽAṣīr (now in Saudi Arabia). They installed their capital city in ʽAṯṯar, which was also its principal mint, along with Bayš39. The rulers are known as “amīrs of ʽAṯṯar” but they are also known as the Ṭarfids. The traveller Ibn Ḥawqal mentions that the ruler of ʽAṯṯar is called Ibn Ṭaraf and that the amount of his receipts represents half the Ziyādids’ revenues40. Until now, the majority of the coins minted by these rulers were known through the collection of Samir Shamma, all of which derive from the ʽAṣīr hoard41. There is now a group of seventeen coins preserved in the National Museum of Ṣanʽā’, whose the origin is unknown but which probably came from this hoard42. The series begins at Bayš in 331/942–3 and at ʽAṯṯar in 337/948–9 and continues until 394/1003–4. All the coins are gold dīnārs and are struck to a standard of 2.80 g. They show a remarkable uniformity in weight, whose from ʽAṯṯar in particular43.

  • 44 M.I. 27005.

13In the middle of the 5th/11th century, large-scale coinage resumes in Yemen with both Najāḥid and Ṣulayḥid issues. The Najāḥids, a sunnī dynasty of Ethiopian origin whose members were the last wazīrs of the Ziyādids, were installed in Zabīd after they were able to overthrow the Ṣulayḥids who conquered the city in the 440s/1050s. The Najāḥid minted dīnārs until the 560s/1160s. These are of a bad alloy and, unfortunately, the dates are often unreadable. They are mostly in the name of Jayyāš b. Najāḥ with the immobilized date 465/1072–3. They weigh less than 2.30 g44.

  • 45 On the history of this dynasty, see Idrīs ʽImād al-Dīn 2002 / إدريس عماد الدين ٢٠٠٢ and al-Hamdani (...)
  • 46 M.I. 3 and 4, M.I. 25, M.I. 4964 and 4965, M.I. 5981 and 5982, M.I. 5985, M.I. 31210 and M.I. 31927 (...)
  • 47 Casanova 1894.
  • 48 Tübingen 93.18.4. This unique dirham mentions the name of the Fāṭimid caliph al-Mustanṣir bi’llāh ( (...)
  • 49 M.I. 5961, M.I. 5984, M.I. 5986, M.I. 5989, M.I. 5996 to M.I. 5999, M.I. 27009 and M.I. 31213.
  • 50 M.I. 24, 23, 26, M.I. 5098, M.I. 5101 to M.I. 5107, M.I. 5962, M.I. 5988 to M.I. 5995, M.I. 8604 to (...)
  • 51 B.M. 1980.6.5.2; M.I. 5984 and 5986.
  • 52 See Bates 1972 who explains the political and diplomatic reasons for such late recognitions. See al (...)

14Contemporary with the Najāḥids are the Ismāʽīlī Ṣulayḥids who recognized the Egyptian Fāṭimids45. The first coins minted by this dynasty were struck in Zabīd and are dated from the year 451/1059 with the mention of their founder, ʽAlī b. Muḥammad46. They are also pale gold imitations with unrecognisable inscriptions. They were anciently named “Ethiopian imitations” but no such coins were ever found on the western side of the Red Sea47. Although they installed their capital city in Ṣanʽā’ up to 467/1074–5, no coinage in the name of Ṣanʽā’ is known from this dynasty, except a rare dirham preserved in Tübingen48. They then move to Ḏū Jibla, which was built in 457/1065. Their known coinage is mostly from this second capital49 and from ʽAdan, their commercial port50. The first are minted in 483/1090–1 in the name of ʽAlī b. Muḥammad, the founder of the dynasty, while he died in 459/1066–7. The date is clearly readable, so it seems clear that this series of dīnārs was minted as posthumous coins51. The half dīnārs from Ḏū Jibla are mostly of a good alloy and weigh about 1.23g whereas “full” dīnārs struck in ʽAdan weigh 2.46g but show a lesser pale gold. This coinage must have been struck in the name of al-Mukarram Aḥmad, a long time after his death in 484/1091, when his widow al-Malika al-Sayyīda assumed power. This coinage also cites the name of the Fāṭimid caliphs al-Mustanṣir (427–487/1036–1094) and al-Āmir (495–524/1101–1130) more than thirty years after their respective deaths52.

15In ʽAdan, Ṣulayḥid coinage was imperceptibly replaced by Zurayʽid dīnārs. This local dynasty governed the economy of the city for a long time in the name of their Ṣulayḥid cousins. It is not until 531/1136–7 that the name of the Zurayʽid ruler appeared and, in 556/ 1161, the Zurayʽid ʽImrān b. Muḥammad struck dīnārs solely in his own name. The series stops in 568/1172–3. At first, the Zurayʽid maintain the Ṣulayḥid standard but later reduce it to about 2.30g. Their gold coinage is mostly debased at the end of the dynasty: this marks a global situation in Yemen where gold coinage is getting more and more debased, eventually leading to a silver coinage.

  • 53 See al-Zaylaʽī 2007 and ٢٠٠٥ الزيلعي.
  • 54 The British Museum, the Bibliothèque nationale de France and the American Numisamtic Society have a (...)

16After the fall of the Najāḥid in 556/1161, Zabīd was taken by the Mahdids who ruled for thirteen years: the dirhams they minted in Zabīd are mostly known from a hoard found in Bayt al-Faqīh that is currently unpublished53. Most of these coins are now preserved in Tübingen54. They bear an anonymous title الإمام شمس شريعة الإسلام al-imām šams šarīʽat al-Islām “the Imām, Sun of the Sharia of Islam”. They weigh about 1.6 g.

17The Mahdids re-introduced silver coinage in Yemen that was to persist for more than 600 years. The Ayyūbids conquered Yemen in 569/1173–4: they perpetuated the Mahdid silver coinage and Yemen under the Rasūlids was mostly supplied with dirhams.

Gold and silver mines in Yemen

  • 55 See Peli 2006.
  • 56 See Peli 2008: 46.
  • 57 Peli 2006: 47.

18Local dynasties are known to have exploited the resources of the country for minting dīnārs, dirhams and fulūs. The 10th century Yemeni polygraph al-Hamdānī gives a list of the gold and silver resources of the Arabian Peninsula, and more particularly of Yemen55. A number of gold mines were situated in the north of the actual country, near Ṣaʽda, where the Zaydīs were installed, and Najrān. We also know, from Yāqūt, that an important gold mine was situated in wādī Bayš: we can assume that the Ṭarfid amīrs obtained their gold from that site or in the region56. A gold mine is known to have been situated at the western gate of Ṣanʽā’, and it is also said that gold was found in the Jawf, in the region of Ḥarāz, from where the Ṣulayḥids originated, in a mountain near Ṭaʽizz and at the top of Ḏū Jibla57.

  • 58 Al-Hamdānī 2003: 124-6 / الهمداني ٢٠٠٣: ١٢٤-٦
  • 59 Robin 1988.
  • 60 Peli & Téreygeol 2007.
  • 61 See for further explanations Benoit & alii 2003.

19Al-Hamdānī says that there were also important silver mines in Yemen. One of the most extensive is the mine of al-Raḍrāḍ58. It was identified during a geological survey by a French team with the site of al-Jabalī59 and, beginning in 2005, a French team led by Florian Téreygeol (Chargé de recherches, CNRS) has been excavating the site60. This mine was exploited from before Islam until probably the Rasūlid period, as shown by the charcoal analysis. When al-Hamdānī wrote, the exploitation had already ceased following the murder of Muḥammad b. Yuʽfir by his own son on the order of his father in the mosque of Šibām61.

  • 62 Al-Hamdānī 2003: 126.

20Al-Hamdānī also says that there was silver mine named after the ruler of Zabīd62: we can assume that this mine, whose location remains unknown, was exploited by the Ziyādids. However, we do not know of any important silver coinage from the Ziyādids.

  • 63 See Peli 2006: 47.
  • 64 Al-Akwaʽ 1976 : 235-237. الأكوع ١٩٧٩-٢٣٥ ٢٣٧.

21There is also mention of a silver mine in Šibām Suḥam, situated east of Ṣanʽā’, which was exploited by the Yuʽfirids63. As for the Ziyādids, the Yuʽfirids are not known to have struck much silver coinage. But the document cited by Muḥammad b. ʽAlī al-Akwaʽ seems to show that the ʽAbbāsid caliph invested the Yuʽfirids with the charge of exploiting the mines64. The product of these mines was probably sent to Baghdad as al-Hamdānī suggests was the case for al-Raḍrāḍ.

22Supplies of metal resources were easy to find in Yemen. But Yemeni coinage seems to be used only in the country. Indeed, few Yemeni dīnārs or dirhams were found outside Yemen. Although the Ṣulayḥids and Zurayʽids had commercial and political contacts with Egypt, ʽUmān and India, we have not found any Yemeni coins in these countries. Contrary to the Rasūlids, for whom there are dirhams found in India in the Broach hoard, no Ṣulayḥid coins seem to have circulated, even though these coins should have been the most useable outside Yemen. But these coins are often unreadable or unidentified. We hope that this catalogue will contribute to making these coins better known.

Conclusion

  • 65 Album 1999; الجابر ١٩٩٢, العش ١٩٨٠.

23Catalogues of Islamic coins containing material from Yemen are few. Indeed, except for the 19th century catalogues of the British Museum and of the Bibliothèque nationale de France, the Ashmolean Museum of Oxford and the National Museum of Qatar are the only institutions to have published their collection of Yemeni coins65. The National Museum of Ṣanʽā’ is now the second museum of the Arabian Peninsula to publish its material. It comes at the same time as other projects from different European countries. Arianna d’Ottone (Facoltà di Studi Orientali, Roma) is preparing the catalogue of Yemeni coins preserved in the Bibliothèque nationale de France, under the supervision of François Thierry (Curator of the Oriental coins in the Bibliothèque nationale de France). Dr Vlastimil Novak (Curator of Oriental Coins in the National Museum, Prague) is preparing the publication of the Islamic coins of the Fitzwilliam Museum. We also hope that the rich collection of Yemeni coins kept in the Tübingen University, in Germany, under the supervision of Dr. Lutz Ilisch, will soon be available to researchers.

Notes

1 We choose to publish the collection of Yemeni Islamic coinage from the Ayyūbids up to the Ottomans in a second volume. This type of material is well-represented in the National Museum of Ṣanʽā’ and deserves a unique and substantial volume.

2 M.I. 27001 to M.I. 27128, M.I. 31204 to M.I. 31213 and M.I. 4 to M.I. 59.

3 M.I. 5098 to M.I. 5107.

4 M.I. 31356 to M.I. 31545. Only one of these coins is presented here. This collection would deserve a complete study of its own, above all a study of the die-links.

5 M.I. 31925 to M.I. 31927.

6 M.I. 5067 to M.I. 5070.

7 M.I. 5964 to M.I. 5999.

8 Album 1999 : ix and xiii. We regret that the coins from this hoard are not noticed as such.

9 Lane-Poole 1875 and 1877; Casanova, 1894.

10 Lane-Poole 1875-1890; Lavoix 1887-1896.

11 Bikhazi 1970.

12 Although he mentions the Banī Mahdī, he is not able to present any coins of this dynasty. The dirhams of the Banī Mahdī are now known from a silver hoard found in Bayt al-Faqīh. See al-Zaylaʽī 2007 and٢٠٠٥ الزيلعي .

13 Bates 1972. We owe to him a general bibliography on Yemeni coinage (Bates 1998). He is also preparing a book on the Coinage of the Caliphates where he includes a chapter on Yemen (forthcoming).

14 Lowick 1983.

15 Lowick 1976b. At this time, Ziyādid coinage was poorly recognized and Lowick mistook the four dīnārs he published as Najāḥid coins. Further research showed that they were indeed coins minted by the Ziyādids. See Album 1999: viii note 7; Daghfous 1992-3 and Peli 2008.

16 Lowick 1964.

17 Lowick 1975, 1976a and 1980.

18 Shamma 1971.

19 Album 1999: xiii.

20 Balafier, 1994. His PhD is still unpublished. We hope to make it available in English and in Arabic.

21 Al-Rāzī 1974: 106, l. 8 / الرازي ١٩٧٤: ١٠٦

22 Augst 1962: 3.

23 Lowick 1983: 1-2.

24 See the posthumous work of Lowick 1999 on Abbasid coinage.

25 There is no clear reason for striking coins under half of the standard weight. Lutz Ilisch regards it as a local standard (see Album 1999 viii) and Michael Bates views it as an influence of Aksum silver coins (information given by the author, to be published in the monograph on the Coins of the Caliphates).

26 See Daghfous 1995, Madʽaj 1988 and Smith 1983 for the history of Yemen during the Umayyad and Abbasid periods and for the list of the governors sent to Yemen.

27 For the study of dīnārs struck in Yemen, see Bernardi 2003.

28 On the history of the founder, see Van Arendonk 1960.

29 M.I. 4962, M.I. 4963, M.I.31925 and M.I.31926.

30 Thousands of these little coins are preserved in the National Museum of Ṣanʽā’: see M.I. 27161 and M.I. 27081.

31 However, the name is unknown from the textual sources.

32 The city is situated around 40 kilometres west of Ṣanʽā’.

33 See Daghfous 1982.

34 الأكوع ١٩٧٦: ٢٣٥-٢٣٧ / al-Akwaʽ 1976: 235-237.

35 The National Museum of Ṣanʽā’ possesses one of those (M.I. 5963). Such a coin was seen during an auction at Münzen und Medaillen 20-21/10/1986 # 37. We also know several dirhams struck in the name of this ruler (American Numismatic Society 1998.22.11 and 1998.22.12; Tübingen 90.14.35). The American Numismatic Society (New York) also preserves two dirhams in the name of his son, Muḥammad b. al-Qāsim (1998.22.13 and 1998.22.14).

36 See Album 1999.

37 ʽUmāra 1985 / عمارة ١٩٨٥

38 M.I. 19, M.I. 4966 to M.I. 4969, M.I. 5983, M.I. 27003, M.I. 27004, M.I. 27015 and M.I. 27018, On the coins minted by the Ziyādids see Peli 2008. See also the historical study of Daghfous 1992-3 where the author shows, from the point of view of the Historian, that the text of ʽUmāra is full of contradictions.

39 The city is now in ruins and lays in front of Mansiyah (Ras Tarfa, Saudi Arabia). The site was surveyed by Juris Zarins (see Zarins & Zahrani 1985).

40 Ibn Ḥawqal 1873: 24 / ابن حوقل ١٨٧٣: ٢٤

41 Album 1999 : ix and xiii.

42 M.I. 5964 to M.I. 5980.

43 See the commentaries of Album 1999: ix.

44 M.I. 27005.

45 On the history of this dynasty, see Idrīs ʽImād al-Dīn 2002 / إدريس عماد الدين ٢٠٠٢ and al-Hamdani & Hasan 1955 / الهمدني و حسن ١٩٥٥.

46 M.I. 3 and 4, M.I. 25, M.I. 4964 and 4965, M.I. 5981 and 5982, M.I. 5985, M.I. 31210 and M.I. 31927,

47 Casanova 1894.

48 Tübingen 93.18.4. This unique dirham mentions the name of the Fāṭimid caliph al-Mustanṣir bi’llāh (427-487/1036-1094) and al-Mukarram (459-477/1067-1084), the founder’s son.

49 M.I. 5961, M.I. 5984, M.I. 5986, M.I. 5989, M.I. 5996 to M.I. 5999, M.I. 27009 and M.I. 31213.

50 M.I. 24, 23, 26, M.I. 5098, M.I. 5101 to M.I. 5107, M.I. 5962, M.I. 5988 to M.I. 5995, M.I. 8604 to M.I. 8607, M.I. 27006 to M.I. 27008, M.I. 27021 and M.I. 31215,

51 B.M. 1980.6.5.2; M.I. 5984 and 5986.

52 See Bates 1972 who explains the political and diplomatic reasons for such late recognitions. See also Stern 1951.

53 See al-Zaylaʽī 2007 and ٢٠٠٥ الزيلعي.

54 The British Museum, the Bibliothèque nationale de France and the American Numisamtic Society have also some specimens. See also Nebehay 1989.

55 See Peli 2006.

56 See Peli 2008: 46.

57 Peli 2006: 47.

58 Al-Hamdānī 2003: 124-6 / الهمداني ٢٠٠٣: ١٢٤-٦

59 Robin 1988.

60 Peli & Téreygeol 2007.

61 See for further explanations Benoit & alii 2003.

62 Al-Hamdānī 2003: 126.

63 See Peli 2006: 47.

64 Al-Akwaʽ 1976 : 235-237. الأكوع ١٩٧٩-٢٣٥ ٢٣٧.

65 Album 1999; الجابر ١٩٩٢, العش ١٩٨٠.

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