Version classiqueVersion mobile

Un siècle de recensements en Égypte (1882-1996)

 | 
François Moriconi-Ébrard
, 
Hala Bayoumi

One Century of Censuses in Egypt (1882-1996)

2. Methodology

Texte intégral

2.1. General methodology

1The CD entitled “One Century of Censuses” represents one compiled product of three types of information issued from initially independent sources:

  1. The statistical publications of the censuses on the Egyptian population.

  2. The administrative cartography.

  3. Administrative, geographical, and historical indexes.

a) The censuses

212 censuses on the population were taken between the years 1882 and 1996 (see the sources).

3For each volume, the naming information was captured as it appeared in the original publication of the census.

4The lists were first coded specifically for this case in order to obtain a real geoadminis-trative status of the territory at the time of the census. The statistical data was registered based on these lists in a spreadsheet.

5In order to perform a time comparison of the data, each census was recoded based on the status of the territory in 1996. Since then, three types of problems arose:

  1. Deletion of the spatial entity
    When an entity was removed, its territory was attached to another entity. In this case its actual code will be mapped to the new entity code.

  2. A naming change (name of spatial entity)
    When only the official name of the place has changed, the entity will keep its code.

  3. A legal status change (town, village...)

6The current version assigns the administrative status of each entity based on the date of each census. The dynamic data showing the eventual changes of status between two censuses is not visualized in the current version. However, the user will be able to know the status of each spatial entity at every period of time by referring to each census.

7The whole set of documents was transferred to a database management system.

b) The administrative cartography

8In 1993, there were neither statistical publications nor map permitting to localize statistical information in the geographic space. The official publications of CAPMAS existed in the form of lists of towns or villages organized in alphabetical order, according to the markaz or the qism to which they were attached.

9Concerning the borders of the nâhya (villages), in 1994, the CEDEJ has acquired from Military Survey in 1994 the only set of geo-administrative maps, which were at that time available for the whole of Egypt. This was about 26 maps of the set of muhâfaza. However, the scales were different and the maps did include neither reference points nor terrestrial geographic coordinates. Each map was corrected then digitized by means of a Geographic Information System. Finally, the whole set of maps was merged and consolidated in one general geographical reference.

10Concerning the shiyâkha (internal subdivisions of towns), the maps come from CAP-MAS. They were corrected and merged with the general map.

11Entities, situated in the various muhâfaza of the desert, namely: Red Sea, New Valley, Matrûh, North and South Sinai, have a specific problem which resides in the fact that their administrative limits are not defined. They are officially located by means of a point corresponding to geographic coordinates of their centers. In the CD we have artificially created symbolic polygons in order to locate those entities, but legally their limits have no values.

12Finally, each entity was coded on the basis of the 1996 census, the statistical data was then merged to the maps. We would like to draw the attention of the user to the fact that the maps published in the CD correspond to the status of the limits in 1996.

c) The administrative, geographic and historic indexes

13The censuses’ publications give no information about the geo-spatial changes. Few indications are sometimes given as footnotes, in some volumes (ex: 1960), but their information are incomplete. By all means, many of the publications give no indication about the appearance or disappearance of some villages and shiyâkha.

14Concerning this problem, three types of sources have contributed in solving the problem of the afore mentioned changes, these are:

  • The Geographic Dictionary of Egypt since the Ancient Egyptians until 1945.

  • The official newspapers.

  • The topographic maps (series 1917, 1952, 1976 etc.).

15Despite the efforts of the historic research team, it was sometimes impossible to retrieve all traces of the origin of certain geo-administrative entities, or on the other hand, any explanation for the disappearance of some others.

16However some entities (towns or villages) have really vanished, and abandoned by all the populations: this is the case for example of the mining cities in the desert, regrouping of Bedouin tribes, stations, bridges, railways stations, lighthouse etc. Moreover, numerous places have been created out of nothing, whether in the desert, or in the marshes of the Nile Delta: which is the case of the new cities, the new seaside stations and of villages founded on the improved land in the delta.

17We can access the censuses’ data of the non-localized entities, but the CD does not permit us to localize them as it returns the state of 1996. However, very few entities fall in this category, and the majority of them are situated in the desert. The main problems are listed below in section 2.4

2.2 Terminology for the administrative units

18In this CD, one can find statistics concerning local administrative units which correspond to the finest division of Egyptian constituencies. For various reasons (notably for private life protection), census results are not published at a lower geographical level.

19The 5.300 local administrative units are distributed into several categories:

  • The shiyâkha are urban districts.

  • The qarya are villages. Until 1947, these units were called nâhya.

  • The madîna are towns. However, this term may refer to two or three distinct administrative situations:

  • The name madîna appears similarly in the intermediate level of the territorial division, at the same title as the markaz or the qism; they are then subdivided into shiyâkha and cannot be considered strictly like local units, as they do not represent the smallest link of administrative division.

  • Finally, the urban muhâfaza could be considered as madîna in generic sense of the term, (examples of those are Cairo, Alexandria, Port-Saïd and Suez and since 1994 Lux-or); the latter are further divided into qism, which are further subdivided into shiyâkha.

Figure 1: The chart showing the administrative divisions of the Egyptian territory

Figure 1: The chart showing the administrative divisions of the Egyptian territory

20There are some exceptions though: like in the case of the muhâfza of Alexandria that comprises three qura (plural of qarya): this is the case of “villages” belonging to an urban muhâfaza. Similarly, it is not effective to rely on the naming (toponyms) as it does not always reflect the administrative status: likewise, for example, Damietta which is a madîna and is subdivided into districts, which despite their names (qism1, qism2, etc.) have the status of shiyâkha.

21Finally, the partitioning of some big cities (towns) into independent qism makes such that certain towns do not figure like administrative entities. In such away, in 1986, al-Gîza was divided into 6 contiguous qism (Imbâba, al-Agûza, al-Duqqî, al-Gîza, Bûlâk al-dakrûr, al-Ahrâm) so forming what we call sometimes the “city” of Gîza (1 870 508 inhabitants in 1986), while it does not cover the whole of the urban area of the muhâfaza of al-Gîza (the qism of al-Hawâmdiyya, as well as various madîna should be added). Shûbra al-khayma or Tanta. For example, Tantâ does not have any legal presence: all statistics concerning this “city” cannot be obtained unless we add up the qism of “Tantâ Qism 1” and “Tantâ Qism 2”, that are further subdivided into 16 shiyâkha.

22In the so called “rural” area, we find only no subdivisions of type nâhya, which are administrative entities grouping a village and its dependencies (hamlets, detachments, farms). In most cases, the administrative nâhya holds the name of the most important village (qarya). However, it is likely to happen that the village (qarya) which holds the same name as nâhya is not the most populated, or that the name of a set belonging to a nâhya designate only a grouping of hamlets among which no one holds the same name – an example is in the muhâfaza of Kafr al-shaykh, where the population is the most scattered. The number of hamlets are around 8000, it is rare that a nâhya coincides with only one village (qarya). On the other hand, in most cases, the main village (qarya) gathers the most important part of the population.

2.3 Historical inventory of variables available at the local scale from 1882 to 1996

23Since 1993, CEDEJ has undertaken the task of an exhaustive study of the tables published at each census at the local scale of the administrative partitioning.

24This chapter summarizes the result of these original documentary researches focusing in particular on the possibilities of performing diachronic analysis for each one of the variable.

25It goes without saying that the researches that could be conducted in the field of social science, which will be based on this gigantic database will not be restricted neither to those variables published by the Direction of Egyptian Statistics (DS then DSR then CAP-MAS), nor will it be limited to consider each of the elementary variables independently. Having many dozens of variables at each census implies a multitude of possibilities of intersecting between them (derived variables), that are not limited but by the imagination of the future users of the database, or by the financial means or human capabilities of the research programs. This presentation, necessarily short, is however exhaustive, but only within the boundaries of the elementary variables. This is because of the creation of all derived variables could in turn lead to new problems of technical nature that imply in their turn new precautions.

26To take simple example, given the information relevant to the population and the area of an entity, its density could easily be calculated. However, it is then necessary to question the scope and limits of this new variable: thus, the eastern shiyâkha at the border of the urban part of the muhâfaza of Cairo are spread over a part of the desert, covering sometimes many hundreds of square kilometers totally deserted. It is surely possible to calculate the actual occupied area of their territories, and thus another value for their density, but is the latter comparable to the density of another local administrative unit, which too, will comprise at the same time a town and non-urban area but assigned to the agriculture.

27In this space having three modes of occupation (cities, agriculture land and desert), this type of question, which is a classical issue in social sciences, illustrate the difficulty of separating the research problematic and their stakes from the use of analytical tools.

28This presentation is more likely to be classified as geographical rather than historical. In other words, the question here is rather to know how statistics series more or less lengthy would clarify a present situation, than to question the motivation and challenges that drive the Egyptian or colonial authorities to privilege a certain variable, or some type of classification.

29Finally, it is useful to keep in mind that this presentation gives only the results of our survey on the variables available in the local level. At each census, a big number of tables are published, giving results that are spatially aggregated at four other possible levels:

  • The national level.

  • At the level of a muhâfaza (muhâfaza) with an eventual internal subdivision urban/rural.

  • At the level of a markaz (markaz, madîna ou qism).

  • At the level of a qarya and shiyâkha.

30An inventory containing these statistics has been published in a collection concerning all the countries of the ESWA: Sources for research on population and development in ECWA Region (United Nations Economic Commission for Western Asia, Beirut, 1979, pp.10-15). As for Egypt, this publication gives the detailed content of all the available publication for all censuses from 1937 to 1976. The problem is that they give a title to the tables but not the level of territorial subdivision to which the given figures were published, in this way, this document was not of great use to our problematic. Similarly, this work provides the inventory of the year-book statistics, the demographic surveys in addition to bibliography of 20 pages of the demographic and socio-economic studies about the country. For the recent period, the Handbook of national population censuses (Greenwood Press, 1986, pp.131-142) offers also a synthesis of the set of publication concerning the four censuses for the period from 1947 to 1976, taking into consideration each variable.

The variables and the evolution of the classifications

A) Population and household

Distribution by gender

31This is considered to be a fundamental variable, the series are continuous from 1882 to 1986.

Distribution according to the gender and age over five-year slices

32This series is available from 0 to 75 years in the censuses of 1960, 1976, 1986 and 1996. In the censuses of the years 1927, 1937 and 1947, these statistics are given in age slices of five years only from 0 to 30 years, then two age slices: from 30 to 60 and for over 60. All the tables have the “unknown age” category, representing a variable, though very weak from the whole set of the variable “age”.

33For the period from 1927-1996, almost seven decades, it is possible to analyze the evo-lution of the spatial allocation

  • From the distribution by age based on the age slices given in 1927.

  • From the proportion of the “less than 5 years” within the total population.

34The latter is a good indicator of the fertility evolution, according to the demographers.

Distribution according to gender and the age slices from 6-12 years

35This series is given only in 1986. However, in 1976, we can know the effective “6 and more” by referring to the sums obtained from the tables “Activities” (Tables 3 and 6). The same applies for 1960 (Tables 13 and 14). This information however is used essentially as reference for the effective active population.

Religion

36This is one of the fundamental issues in the censuses of the Egyptian population. The series is continuous from 1897 to 1986. It is distributed by gender from 1907 to 1986 except for 1897, 1907 and 1966.

37The information are given with a variable precision.

38From 1897 to 1917, distinction is given between the different Christians: Protestants, Catholics, Orthodox and Copts. The maximum precision is given in 1907, information the data is quite poor:

  • Muslims

  • Orthodox Copts

  • Catholic Copts

  • Protestant Copts

  • Total Copts

  • Catholic Christians

  • Protestant Christians

  • Orthodox Christians

  • Greek Orthodox

  • Oriental Christians

  • Total Christians

  • Israelis

  • Other religions

39Over the entire period, we find only the three main categories “Muslims”, “Christians” and “other religions”. In 1927 and 1937, the variable “Christians” has been replaced by Copts, which makes it not perfectly comparable to the other censuses.

40The effective population of Jewish religion or Israeli is given in 1897 to 1917 then from 1960 to 1986.

Activity status

41In the years 1897, 1927 and 1937, only distribution by active/inactive could be calculated. In 1947, the information is combined with the branch of activity According to a confusing classification (see “activity branches” below). In these 4 censuses, the information is given with respect to the gender.

42This series was given in details only in four censuses, namely: 1960, 1976, 1986 and 1996, but the classification information has evolved:

43In 1986 and 1996, the information was distributed by active/inactive.

44Where, active comprises:

  • Independent professional

  • Employer

  • Wage-earner

  • No salary employee

  • Unemployed having worked before

  • First job seeker

  • Total

45And the inactive comprises:

  • Full-time student

  • House wife

  • Not seeking an employment

  • Retired

  • Not retired but inactive for ageing reasons

  • Unable to work

  • Not defined

46In 1976, we have a distinction between two categories of no-salary:

  • No-salary employed by parents

  • No-salary employed by others

47In 1960, the classification was less detailed, in particular for the inactive, but it could still be comparable to that of the following censuses by aggregation the information to the latter:

  • Owner and director of an enterprise

  • Working for his own business and having no employees

  • Wage-earner

  • No-salary and employed by a relative

  • No-salary employed by others

  • Unemployed and seeking a job

  • Unable to work

  • Does not work and not seeking a job

  • Unable to work

  • Does not work and not seeking a job

  • Undefined

The branch of economic activity

48Between the years 1927 and 1996, the classification has considerably been enriched. It was not really detailed until the years 1960, 1976, 1986 and 1996. Though it was not available in 1966.

49In 1976, 1986 and 1996, the classification systems were strictly identical:

  • Agriculture, fishing, and hunting

  • Mining professions

  • Transformation industry

  • Electricity, gas, and water

  • Construction and buildings

  • Commerce, catering, and hotel business

  • Transportation, warehousing, and logistics

  • Finance, insurance, real estate, and business

  • Public service, community, social, personal services, and repair work

  • Non defined activity

50In 1960, penultimate and ante penultimate categories were grouped under only cate-gory called “services”. This means that there existed two other categories, “no activity” and – literally – “not clear activity”. This last category was inherited from the 1947 census, where we find the following distribution:

  • Agricultural, fishing, and hunting

  • Transformation industry, and mining professions

  • Construction

  • Post and transportation

  • Commerce

  • Personal services

  • Public administration and social services

  • Nonproductive and unclear category of work

  • Without work

51In 1937, the given distribution was further simplified and combined the notions of ‘profession’ with ‘activity’:

  • Agricultural, fishing and hunting

  • Mining

  • Post and transportation

  • Commerce

  • Other professions

  • Without profession

52In 1927, we could only find the three main branches of classical activities (primary, secondary, and tertiary)

  • Agriculture

  • Industry

  • Commerce

  • Other professions

  • Without profession, including housewives

53On the whole, the evolution of this variable could be analyzed for the 7 censuses on the rudimentary basis of the 1927’s census and according to the gender. However, a more refined study of the evolution dynamics for the ‘activity branch’ is conceivable for the period 1960-1996 only.

The education level

54It is possible to track the progress in the elimination of illiteracy on the Egyptian territory, according to the gender and over decades since 1897. This excludes the year 1960, the variable was absent in 1966. However, the education level was given with more details starting from the year 1960, particularly for the university levels.

  • Illiterate

  • Can read and write

  • Holder of a primary education certificate

  • Enrolled in preparatory education certificate

  • Enrolled in secondary education

  • Undergraduate in university

  • University degree

  • Post graduate university education

  • Holder of a doctorate degree

  • Education level is not defined

The socio-professional categories

55This variable is available only in 1960, 1976, 1986 and 1996 with the following information:

  • Technical and scientific professions

  • Enterprise managerial positions

  • Middle - grade

  • Traders, storekeepers

  • Service personnel

  • Agriculture, fishing, hunting and breeding

  • Workers and packers

  • Undefined categories

  • Total

56The sociological interest of this variable remains insignificant as all the statistics were given at the individual scale and not the household scale.

57By lacking this distribution over households, it is difficult to draw the type of house-holds (for example: workers’ household, traders, etc.)

Marital status

58This variable is available in 1917 until 1996, except for the censuses of 1927 and 1966. It is always distributed according to the gender, and relies on the main classical categories:

  • Single

  • Married

  • Divorced

  • Widow

  • Marital status not defined

  • Single but was married before

  • Single (pré-nubile)

59Due to the continuous changes in the classification, the statistics for ‘single’ are not comparable over the whole period.

60Before 1937, this type of information was applicable to all the population, but in 1947 it concerned only the part of the population of more than 16 years, which is the legal age for marriage. However, the civil status was not strict at that time, many young girls could get married before they reach that age. Many studies have shown that the parents would resort to a doctor to certify that the young girl has attained the legal age for marriage. In 1986, an additional category emerged: this is the ‘Aqd al-Qarân’. This is the case of people who have signed a marital contract but yet could not live together, mainly because of financial reasons: lack of housing, furniture or in the case where the husband works in a foreign country, etc.

The nationality

61This variable exists at the regional level only for 1897, 1907 and 1966.

62In 1897, the distribution of foreigners as opposed to Egyptians is particularly detailed:

  • Greeks

  • Italians

  • French

  • British

  • Germans

  • Russian

  • Austrian Hungarian

  • Others

63The census of 1907 gives only the number of “Arabs”. In 1996, the locals were called “Egyptian Arabs” (by reference to the United Arab Republic).

64At the local level, it is then not possible to exploit this variable within a diachronic perspective

The number of households

65At the local scale, the available statistics about the households are extremely poor. The only type of information available is the number of households (from which we calculate their size). Over a century censuses, we have five chronological reference points for this variable: 1882, 1960, 1966, 1986 and 1996

The handicapped in the population

66Over 43 years (1917-1960), the variable ‘handicapped’ is given and followed up. It is distributed according to the gender.

67From 1917 to 1937, it concerns the handicapped of sight (one-eyed and blind).

68In 1947, the handicapped were further split into two groups: ‘handicaps’ and ‘malformation’, which gives 11 types:

  • Blind

  • One-eyed

  • Deaf-dumb

  • Mentally handicapped

  • Other handicaps

  • Total number of persons suffering from a handicap

  • Paralyzed

  • Disabled

  • One-armed or one-legged

  • Other malformation

  • Total number of persons suffering from malformation

69In 1960, the tables give only: handicaps of the sight (one-eyed and blind), of hearing (deaf and dumb) and of members (fore and rear).

Sedentary and nomadic

70The first two censuses count with a very accurate precision the number of sedentary and nomads. This variable was crossed in 1897 with the variable ‘agglomerated population/scattered population/encampments’.

71The family status for the ‘below 16 years old’

72This information is given only in the 1947’s census. The status could be: the death of one of the two parents or both of them.

B) Housing (variables not published in version 1)

73The EGIPTE database comprises “housing” information in the population and housing censuses. However in version 1 of the CD, there is not any housing information. This will be inserted in the next version.

74Concerning the housing, the censuses of 1986 and 1996 were the focus of very rich publications: 20 tables were published in volume 4 for each muhâfaza. However, these results are not available at the local scale in 1976 as the statistics were given only for the markaz and qism.

75In a long perspective, it is thus possible to exploit only three variables: the number of buildings, housing and the number of rooms.

The buildings

76These figures are published in 1907, 1960, 1966, 1986 and 1996. In 1907, they reflect the number of ‘occupied buildings’.

77In 1986 and 1996, the statistics were particularly detailed. The buildings are divided in-to four main cross-categories according to their usage: ‘housing buildings’, or used for some ‘activity’ or ‘ordinary’ or ‘precarious’. Moreover, six variables permit us to deter-mine:

  • Allocation (sector)

  • Construction date (complete or incomplete)

  • Number of floors

  • Access to water, electricity and drainage

  • Existence of lifts, pumps and shops

  • Construction technique

The houses

78This variable is available in 1882, 1966, 1986 and 1996. In 1897, 1917 and 1927, the tables give only number of ‘occupied’ houses at the time the census was taken.

79Consequently, the figures are then not comparable.

80In 1986 and 1996, we have the type of housing

  • Apartment, villa or rural house

  • Room or individual rooms

  • Other

81Each of the above – mentioned types is divided into the categories precarious and ordinary, and crossed with the type of building (housing or activity).

The number of rooms

82This variable is available only in 1947, 1960 and 1996. It is not given at the scale of the local administrative units in 1986.

C) The territory

83Agglomeration areas/scattered population (variable not published in version 1.0.0)

84The number of inhabitants in every town/agglomeration, hamlets and every village is given in every census except in 1966

85The concept of agglomeration is defined by referring to the local traditions, according to the information given by some worthy persons (Shaykh, Umda…) or, by referring to the senior inhabitants of the area. The problem is that these information vary from a census to another, in high proportions. Consequently, numerous hamlets appear, then disappear then appear again. This is evidently due to the fact that the source of information varies over the time, questions are not addressed to the same individuals. Some hamlets simply change their names, while others might be attached, split, enlarged or some are severed from a part of their territories. A detailed survey was the only way to reconstruct diachronically homogeneous data.

86The notion of agglomeration is not similar to that of continuity of built-up (morphologic agglomeration) as some hamlets are situated next to an agglomeration from the morphological point of view, but are distinct from them according to the local tradition. A fine study updated the same year where the census was taken (for example, coverage at a scale of 1/50 000 of the valley) and satellites images, and moreover land surveys, would permit to reconstruct the morphology of the population centers.

The surface

87The surveyed areas that constitute villages and towns are given in 1917 to 1947. For the 1986 then the 1996 censuses, they are calculated automatically from the digitized maps.

Accessibility

88The census of 1897 gives an original variable, namely the distance from each village to the district county, according to three types of information: “the number of walking hours”, “time of passage by boat (In the Nile or in canals)” and the “total length”. A century later, and due to the GIS technology, it became possible to measure the distance by transportation time and to compare the results over an interval of a century.

Conclusion

89The synthesis of the available variables at the local level over a century of censuses, gives diversified results according to the series (table 1).

Population censuses

Variables

code

1882

1897

1907

1917

1927

1937

1947

1960

1966

1976

1986
1996

POPULATION

4

Distribution by gender

41

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

Age (brackets of 5 years)

42

(a)

(a)

(a)

x

x

x

Age (brackets of 6-12 years)

42

x

Religion

43

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

Activity status

44

(e)

(c)

x

x

x

Branch of activity

45

(c)

(c)

(c)

x

x

x

Education level

46

(b)

(b)

(b)

(b)

(b)

(b)

x

x

x

Socio-professional category

47

x

x

x

Marital status

48

x

x

x

x

x

x

Nationality

49

x

x

x

Households

Number of households

5

x

x

x

x

POPULATION,
miscellaneous

Handicapped

81

x

x

x

x

x

Sedentary/nomad

82

x

x

Family situation

83

x

HOUSING

6

Number of buildings

61

(d)

x

x

x

Number of housings

62

x

(d)

(d)

(d)

x

x

Number of accommodation units

63

x

x

TERRITORY

7

Agglomeration/dispersion

72

x

x

x

x

x

Surfaces

71

x

x

x

x

Accessibility

73

x

(a) Completed up to 30 years
(b) Elimination of illiteracy
(c) Simplified classification
(d) Inhabited or occupied
(e) active/inactive only
* Only 1986
Only the distribution: by gender, by religion and the level of elimination of illiteracy could be examined over a century. The detailed variables (distribution by age, activity, marital status) are available only for the contemporary period, but sometimes there is a lack of homogeneity in the classification. This necessitates some precautions to be taken when using them. Finally, other series are interrupted whether temporary or definitely at various periods. The use of this amount of data with the limitations presented herein, requires a careful approach. However the CEDEJ database, comprising nearly 1600 data series (approximately 8.5 million pieces of information), offers a vast number of new research perspectives for research and decision making. The majority of these data are already available in version 1 of the CD.

2.4. The main problems encountered

90The original publications of the censuses contain a number of errors, some parts are omit-ted and sometimes incoherent. These were corrected when possible while we were building the data base electronically.

91For example, some general sums printed in the original publications contained errors. These were corrected in the current electronic version.

92However, some problems were not resolved. Here are some samples:

a) The 1882 census

93At this time, the Egyptian territory covered Halfâ which is nowadays in Sudan. Data concerning this region are included in the CD but do not show on the maps.

94The zone of the Suez Canal constituted only one mudîriyya, called al-Qanâl (the canal) until 1917. Nowadays, this approximately corresponds to the present muhâfaza: Ismâ`îliyya, Port`Saîd and Suez. Moreover, al-`Arîsh, al-Qusayr and al-Wahât (the oasis) were mudîriyya, as well as Rashîd (Rosetta)

b) The 1897 census

95Numerous villages and towns had the status of “bridge” (Kubrî), “lighthouse” (fanâr), “Bedouin” (‘Urbân) etc. thus, it was impossible to assign a code to the latter in 1996.

c) The 1907 census

96Tûr sinâ’ becomes a mudîriyya

97The big cities appear under the status of “Bandar”. This status existed until 1947. How-ever, these “Bandar” were divided into two zones called Dâkhil al-Kurdûn and Khârig al-Kurdûn (which means inside and outside the cord respectively). The zone called Khârig al-Kurdûn corresponds to the “periphery”. In the CD, we have aggregated the data of the two entities (Dâkhil and Khârig al-Kurdûn): Each “Bandar” is considered as only one entity.

d) The 1917 census

98The east of the Nile Valley and the oases were joined in only one mudîriyya called “al-Saharâ’ al-Sharqiyya wa-l-wâhât”. Consequently, this unit was inaccessible through the map interface. The same applies to the west which is called al-Saharâ’ al-Gharbiyya, and to Sinaï (Saynâ’).

e) The 1927 census

99Al-Saharâ’ al-Gharbiyya is preserved, but a new mudîriyya appears under the name of Saharâ’ al-Ganûbiyya (Southern Desert). Sinaï remains unchanged

f) The 1937 census

100No changes

g) The 1947 censuses

101The mudîriyya of the Red Sea (al-Bahr al-Ahmar) was created. So the 1996 code could be assigned. The city of Suez is divided into 7 qism, which correspond to those of the present muhâfaza. In such a way, we have assigned the present codes of 1996 to those entities. A zone called mantiqa al-Wustâ “median region” appears in the mudîriyya of the Red Sea. This signifies Bedouin camps (‘urban) for which neither the exact localization nor the 1996 code are known to us. The mudîriyya of Saharâ’ al-Ganûbiyya corresponds to the present muhâfaza of Wâdî al-Gadîd (New valley) but includes the oases of al-Bahariyya 1996 code to the Saharâ’ al-Ganûbiyya. Al-Bahariyya became a simple markaz which is Saharâ al-Ganûbiyya.

h) The 1960 census

102The term muhâfaza appears and replaces the term mudîriyya.

103The Red Sea becomes a muhâfaza, as well as the Wâdi al-Gadîd. In such a way, the 1996 codes could be assigned.

104The status of Bandar disappears: all the cities become madîna. Some of them are divided into many qism (2, 3 or more). In order to optimize the comparisons, the CD suggests a level of aggregation called “madîna”. This level aggregates the data of all the qism that make up the same madîna. However, this aggregation is purely statistic and does not involve an administrative entity.

105The level of qism was preserved as well in the database.

i) The 1966 census

106This was not a complete census but rather a count of the population. The only variables kept in the CD are the total population, male and female.

j) The 1976 census

107No changes

k) The 1986 census

108A certain number of contradictions was found between two official sources: the volumes of the census’ publication (PRR) and the volume of administrative divisions codes (CDA):

  • In the PRR, the qism called al-Shat of Suez was combined to qism al-Ganâyin in the census, whereas in the CDA it was coded separately.

  • Markaz Disûk: a manshiyya was taken in the census as part of markaz Disûk in the (PRR) while it is coded as to belong to markaz de Fuwwa (CDA).

  • Buhayra: `Izbat Murkus is called `Izbat al-Magd in the CDA, while `Izbat al-Magd is called `Izbat Murkus in the PRR.

  • Markaz Aswân: there exist 12 nâhya in the census but 14 in the CDA.

  • Qism al Ghardaqa (Red Sea): Gimsa is not represented in the PRR, but exists in the CDA.

  • Markaz al-Dab`a (Sinaï) exists in the CDA but not in the PRR.

  • Markaz Sîwa: Zaytûn does not appear in the PRR.

  • Qism abû Zunayma: Um Bagma does not appear PRR.

l) The 1996 census

109The agreements signed between CEDEJ and CAPMAS have availed data concerning all the territorial entities. This is not represented in any printed publication and concerns namely:

  • Madîna al-Shurûq and madîna al-Amal (muhâfaza of Cairo).

  • ‘Urbân al Ambaqiyya, al-Manâyif, al-Huwaytât in the qism called `Atâqa (muhâfaza of Suez).

  • The madîna of New Damietta (Dumyât al-Gadida).

  • Qaryat `Adnân Madanî in markaz wâdî al-Natrûn, Qura al-Khirrîgîn in madînat al-Nûbariyya al-Gadîda (muhâfaza of Buhayra).

  • 17 qarya in the markaz al-Qantara Sharq (muhâfaza al-Isma`îliyya) as opposed to 4 in the printed publication.

  • Qaryat Wasat in Nuwayba`, Ganûb Sinaï.

2.5. Sources used

  • Statistical Sources

  • Cartographic sources

  • Administrative, Historic and Diverse sources

2.5.1. Statistical sources

1101882: Égypte. Ministère de l’Intérieur. Direction du recensement.
Recensement général de l’Égypte, 15 Gamad Âkhar 1299-3 mai 1882, Le Caire, Imprimerie nationale de Bûlâq, 1884-1885, volumes I et II.

1111897: Égypte. Direction du recensement.
Recensement général de l’Égypte, 1 juin 1897 – 1er Muharram 1315, imprimerie nationale, Le Caire, 1898.
I. Résultats généraux du recensement : Basse-Égypte, gouvernorats et Provinces, 1897.
II. Haute-Égypte, Province, 1898
III. Bédouins, Basse et Haute-Égypte 1898.

1121907: الحكومة المصرية نظارة المالية
تعداد سكان القطر المصري في سنة 1325 هجرية - سنة 1907 ميلادية، بإدارة المسنر لويس مدير عموم مصلحة التعداد، (و هو من رجال الخدمة الملكية بالهند) المطبعة الأميرية بمصر, القاهرة 1909م.

1131917: Egyptian Government.
Ministry of Finance
Statistical Department
The Census of Egypt taken in 1917
Volume I: Village Returns.
It shows the area, Density, Number of Occupied Dwellings, sex, Religion, Civil status, Litera-cy and Blindness (Government Press, Cairo, 1920).

1141917: الحكومة المصرية. وزارة المالية. مصلحة عموم الإحصاء والتعداد
تعداد سكان القطر المصرى لسنة 1917، الجزء الأول:
جداول القرى تبين المساحة وعدد السكان بكل كيلومتر مربع وعدد المساكن المأهولة والجنس والديانة والحالة المدنية والإلمام بالقراءة والكتابة وفقد البصر، وطبعت بالمطبعة الأميرية بالقاهرة، 1920.

1151927: المملكة المصرية. وزارة المالية. مصلحة عموم الإحصاء والتعداد
المطبعة الأميرية بالقاهرة، 1929.
كراسة تعداد سكان محافظة القاهرة لسنة 1927.
كراسة تعداد سكان محافظة الإسكندرية لسنة 1927.
كراسة تعداد سكان محافظات القنال والسويس ودمياط لسنة 1927.
كراسة تعداد سكان مديرية الدقهلية لسنة 1927.
كراسة تعداد سكان مديرية الشرقية لسنة 1927.
كراسة تعداد سكان مديرية القليوبية لسنة 1927.
كراسة تعداد سكان مديرية الغربية لسنة 1927.
كراسة تعداد سكان مديرية المنوفية لسنة 1927.
كراسة تعداد سكان مديرية البحيرة لسنة 1927.
كراسة تعداد سكان مديرية الجيزة لسنة 1927.
كراسة تعداد سكان مديرية بنى سويف لسنة 1927.
كراسة تعداد سكان مديرية الفيوم لسنة 1927.
كراسة تعداد سكان مديرية المنيا لسنة 1927.
كراسة تعداد سكان مديرية اسيوط لسنة 1927.
كراسة تعداد سكان مديرية جرجا لسنة 1927.
كراسة تعداد سكان مديرية قنا لسنة 1927.
كراسة تعداد سكان مديرية أسوان لسنة 1927.
كراسة تعداد سكان محافظات الحدود لسنة 1927.

1161937: المملكة المصرية. وزارة المالية. مصلحة عموم الإحصاء والتعداد
تعداد سكان القطر المصرى لسنة 1937.
الجزء الأول من كتاب تعداد السكان لسنة 1937، طبعت بالمطبعة الأميرية بالقاهرة، 1940.
كراسة رقم 1- مديرية أسوان لسنة 1937.
كراسة رقم 2- مديرية قنا لسنة 1937.
كراسة رقم 3- مديرية جرجا لسنة 1937.
كراسة رقم 4- مديرية أسيوط لسنة 1937.
كراسة رقم 5- مديرية المنيا لسنة 1937.
كراسة رقم 6- مديرية بنى سويف لسنة 1937.
كراسة رقم 7- مديرية الفيوم لسنة 1937.
كراسة رقم 8- مديرية الجيزة لسنة 1937.
كراسة رقم 9- محافظة القاهرة لسنة 1937.
كراسة رقم 10- محافظة الإسكندرية لسنة 1937.
كراسة رقم 11- محافظات القنال والسويس ودمياط لسنة 1937.
كراسة رقم 12- مديرية البحيرة لسنة 1937.
كراسة رقم 13- مديرية القليوبية لسنة 1937.
كراسة رقم 14- مديرية الشرقية لسنة 1937.
كراسة رقم 15- مديرية الدقهلية لسنة 1937.
كراسة رقم 16- مديرية المنوفية لسنة 1937.
كراسة رقم 17- مديرية الغربية لسنة 1937.
كراسة رقم 18- محافظات الحدود لسنة 1937.

1171947: المملكة المصرية. وزارة المالية والإقتصاد. مصلحة الإحصاء والتعداد
تعداد سكان المملكة المصرى لسنة 1947، الجزء الأول، المطبعة الأميرية بالقاهرة، 1952، 1953.
كراسة رقم 1- مديرية أسوان لسنة 1947.
كراسة رقم 2- مديرية قنا لسنة 1947.
كراسة رقم 3- مديرية جرجا لسنة 1947.
كراسة رقم 4- مديرية أسيوط لسنة 1947.
كراسة رقم 5- مديرية المنيا لسنة 1947.
كراسة رقم 6- مديرية بنى سويف لسنة 1947.
كراسة رقم 7- مديرية الفيوم لسنة 1947.
كراسة رقم 8- مديرية الجيزة لسنة 1947.
كراسة رقم 9- مديرية البحيرة لسنة 1947.
كراسة رقم 10 مديرية الدقهلية لسنة 1947.
كراسة رقم 11 مديرية الشرقية لسنة 1947.
كراسة رقم 12 مديرية الغربية لسنة 1947.
كراسة رقم 13 مديرية القليوبية لسنة 1947.
كراسة رقم 14 مديرية المنوفية لسنة 1947.
كراسة رقم 15 محافظة القاهرة لسنة 1947.
كراسة رقم 16 محافظة الإسكندرية لسنة 1947.
كراسة رقم 17 محافظات القنال والسويس ودمياط لسنة 1947.

118جمهورية مصر
وزارة المالية والإقتصاد - مصلحة الإحصاء والتعداد
التعداد العام للسكان لسنة 1947- الجزء الأول - المطبعة الأميرية بالقاهرة، 1954.
18- كراسة رقم 18- محافظات الحدود.

119الجمهورية العربية المتحدة
مصلحة الإحصاء والتعداد
التعداد العام للسكان 1960.
الجزء الأول.
الهيئة العامة لشئون المطابع الأميرية، القاهرة، 1382هـ - 1962 م.
محافظة القاهرة.
محافظة الإسكندرية.
محافظة بورسعيد، محافظة السويس.
محافظة دمياط.
محافظة الدقهلية.
محافظة الشرقية.
محافظة القليوبية.
محافظة كفر الشيخ.
محافظة الغربية.
محافظة المنوفية.
محافظة البحيرة.
محافظة الإسماعيلية.
محافظة الجيزة.
محافظة بنى سويف.
محافظة الفيوم.
محافظة المنيا (مطبعة الإستقلال الكبرى).
محافظة أسيوط.
محافظة سوهاج.
محافظة قنا.
محافظة أسوان.
محافظات البحر الأحمر - الوادى الجديد - مطروح - سيناء.

1201966: جمهورية مصر العربية. رئاسة الجمهورية
الجهاز المركزى للتعبئة العامة والإحصاء
النتائج العامة لتعداد السكان بالعينة سنة 1966.
المجلد الثانى: الجداول الإجمالية والمحافظات الحضرية.
المجلد الثالث: محافظات الوجه البحرى.
المجلد الرابع: محافظات الوجه القبلى.
المجلد الخامس: محافظات الحدود.

1211976: جمهورية مصر العربية
الجهاز المركزى للتعبئة العامة والإحصاء
التعداد العام للسكان والإسكان 1976.
تعداد السكان - النتائج التفصيلية، القاهرة، سبتمبر 1978.
المجلد الأول:
محافظة القاهرة.
محافظة الإسكندرية.
محافظة بورسعيد.
محافظة السويس.
محافظة دمياط.
محافظة الدقهلية.
محافظة الشرقية.
محافظة القليوبية.
محافظة كفرالشيخ.
محافظة الغربية.
محافظة المنوفية.
محافظة البحيرة.
محافظة الإسماعيلية.
محافظة الجيزة.
محافظة بنى سويف.
محافظة الفيوم.
محافظة المنيا.
محافظة أسيوط.
محافظة سوهاج.
محافظة قنا.
محافظة أسوان.
محافظة البحر الأحمر.
محافظة الوادى الجديد.
محافظة مطروح.
محافظة سيناء (مناطق محررة).

1221986: جمهورية مصر العربية
الجهاز المركزى للتعبئة العامة والإحصاء
التعداد العام للسكان لسنة 1986.
تعداد السكان - المجلد الثانى:
النتائج النهائية، مطابع الجهاز، القاهرة.
محافظة القاهرة.
محافظة الإسكندرية.
محافظة بورسعيد.
محافظة السويس.
محافظة دمياط.
محافظة الدقهلية.
محافظة الشرقية.
محافظة القليوبية.
محافظة كفرالشيخ.
محافظة الغربية.
محافظة المنوفية.
محافظة البحيرة.
محافظة الإسماعيلية.
محافظة الجيزة.
محافظة بنى سويف.
محافظة الفيوم.
محافظة المنيا.
محافظة أسيوط.
محافظة سوهاج.
محافظة قنا.
محافظة أسوان.
محافظة البحر الأحمر.
محافظة الوادى الجديد.
محافظة مطروح.
محافظة شمال سيناء.
محافظة جنوب سيناء.

1231996: جمهورية مصر العربية
الجهاز المركزى للتعبئة العامة والإحصاء
التعداد العام للسكان لسنة 1996.
النتائج النهائية، لتعداد السكان، القاهرة، ديسمبر 1998.
محافظة القاهرة.
محافظة الإسكندرية.
محافظة السويس.
محافظة بورسعيد.
محافظة دمياط.
محافظة الدقهلية.
محافظة الشرقية.
محافظة القليوبية.
محافظة كفرالشيخ.
محافظة الغربية.
محافظة المنوفية.
محافظة البحيرة.
محافظة الإسماعيلية.
محافطة الجيزة.
محافظة بنى سويف.
محافظة الفيوم.
محافظة المنيا.
محافظة أسيوط.
محافظة سوهاج.
محافظة قنا.
محافظة أسوان.
محافظة الأقصر.
محافظة البحر الأحمر.
محافظة الوادى الجديد.
محافظة مطروح.
محافظة شمال سيناء.
محافظة جنوب سيناء.

2.5.2. Cartographic sources

  1. Ministry of Finance, Egypt. Survey of Egypt. Index of place names appearing at normal 1:100.000 scale Map Series of Egypt, Cairo, Government Press, 1932

  2. A series of military maps, 1993, varied scales (26 muhâfaza)

  3. Diverse: the CEDEJ library owns a unique collection of the World on “Egypt”, it com-promises about 6000 maps of diverse areas, series or scales. When it was necessary, missing information were completed from this collection, errors and omissions were corrected, etc. In this respect, the user is invited to refer to the work of Jean-Luc Ar-naud: Cartographie de l’Égypte, CEDEJ, 1994.

2.5.3. Administrative Sources

124محمد رمزى، القاموس الجغرافى للبلاد المصرية من عهد قدماء المصريين إلى سنة 1945، مطبعة دار الكتب والوثائق القومية، القاهرة، 1968.

125الجهاز المركزى للتعبئة العامة والإحصاء، دليل الوحدات الإدارية بجمهورية مصر العربية، ديسمبر 1991.

126الجهاز المركزى للتعبئة العامة والإحصاء، دليل الوحدات الإدارية بجمهورية مصر العربية، يناير 1996.

2.6. The rules of transliteration

127Most of the censuses were only published in the Arabic language. For the first time, the CD presents an exhaustive list of cities, villages and Egyptian shiyâkha transcribed in Latin letters. The transliteration Arabic-Latin faces traditionally two types of problems.

a) The transliteration itself

128The table below shows the rules followed:

أ) مقابل الحروف

أ

a

ر

r

ف

f

إ

i

ز

z

ق

q

أُ

u

س

s

ك

k

ب

b

ش

sh

ل

l

ت

t

ص

s

م

m

ث

th

ض

d

ن

n

ح

h

ط

t

ه

h

خ

kh

ظ

z

و

w

د

d

ع/ء

c/’

ى

y

ذ

dh

ب) تشكيل الحروف واستخدام الشدّة والحروف الممدودة... الخ:

التشكيل:

قَريَة

قِ سم

مُدُن

مصرْ

Qarya

Qism

mudun

Misr

Brief vowels:

a

i

u

-

الفتحة -

الكسرة -

الضمّة -

السكون -

الحروف الممدودة:

ش ارع --

الكبرى

طري ق -

حروف -

shâric -

al-kubrâ

Tarîq

hurûf

Long vowels:

â

î

û

ا - ىَ -

ي -

و -

الشدّة

المنوف يّ ة

Al-minûfiyya

 Doubled letters

حرف الواو:

أنور

قرون

 

Anwar

qurûn

Le “و”:

- semi-vowel

- elements of stress

- حرف منطوق

- حرف مدّ

حرف “ى”:

مدير ي ة

مدي رية

 

mudîriyya

mudîriyya

Le “ي”:

- semi-vowel

- elements of stress

حرف منطوق

حرف مدّ

أسماء المدن والقرى

والأحياء والشوارع...
فى حالة وجودها فى
القاموس الفرنسى
تكتب كما هى

port-said

Bilbîs

Toponyms:

- Orthography in use if it shows in the dictionary

- otherwise

Transliteration

b) The vocalization

129For certain toponyms, there are sometimes different possibilities of vocalization. The reference adopted in the CD is the work: Le Dictionnaire Géographique de l‘Égypte depuis les anciens Égyptiens jusqu’en 1945, de Mohammed Ramzi.

Table des illustrations

Titre Figure 1: The chart showing the administrative divisions of the Egyptian territory
URL http://books.openedition.org/cedej/docannexe/image/1836/img-1.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 32k

© CEDEJ - Égypte/Soudan, 2019

Conditions d’utilisation : http://www.openedition.org/6540

Acheter

Rechercher dans OpenEdition Search

Vous allez être redirigé vers OpenEdition Search