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The Eastern Desert of Egypt during the Greco-Roman Period: Archaeological Reports

 | 
Jean-Pierre Brun
, 
Thomas Faucher
, 
Bérangère Redon
, 
et al.

Textile Contrasts at Berenike

Felicity Wild und John Peter Wild

Volltext

  • 1 Sidebotham 2011; Sidebotham and Zych 2011; Sidebotham 2015.

1The Red Sea port of Berenike lies almost off the bottom of the map in the far south-eastern corner of the Roman Empire (Fig. 1). Residents, ancient and modern, have always been acutely conscious of the attenuated lines of communication and supply that lead to the site, and govern their lives. Elsewhere in this volume the archaeology and history of Berenike is reviewed in greater detail by other members of the Berenike project, and key results of the most recent research are presented for the first time.1 It is sufficient to note here that it was a vibrant, cosmopolitan port, full of contrasts in every aspect of its daily life. The following brief overview of the textile finds concentrates on two types of contrast: one reflects changes through time, the other the spectrum of the site’s ethnic diversity.

Fig. 1

Fig. 1

Map of Roman Egypt and the location of Berenike (drawn by J.P.Wild).

© J.P. Wild

2The present writers took part in the study seasons at Berenike from 1995 to 2001. After an intermission of some eight years Alexandra Pleşa from the Free University of Amsterdam has now taken over the recording and study of the textiles, and her first interim report will be published shortly.

  • 2 Wild and Wild 1996; 1998; 2000; 2007; Wild 2006.

3During the first eight seasons of excavation some 3,400 textile fragments were recovered, and have been recorded in detail. Almost all of them are comparatively small (Fig. 2).2 They were found in rubbish deposits, which were often heavily eroded (Fig. 3). Moreover, they were impregnated and degraded with salt from the rising local water-table. Many of them were stiff like cardboard, and had to be recorded in that condition because there was insufficient water on site in those days to wash them repeatedly.

Fig. 2

Fig. 2

Tray of typical rags from the early Roman midden at Berenike (BE99 trench 31.7.PB2) (2281-I).

© J.P. Wild

Fig. 3

Fig. 3

Eroded rubbish deposit on the site of the later Roman town at Berenike.

© J.P. Wild

  • 3 Bagnall, Helms and Verhoogt 2005, 4-5; cf. Sidebotham and Zych 2011, pp. 52-57.
  • 4 Sidebotham 2011, pp. 259-282.
  • 5 Sidebotham 2011, 280 with the bibliography.

4There are two principal deposits of rubbish at Berenike. The earlier –ringed on the plan in Fig 4– were interleaved middens (‘trash dumps’) containing material jettisoned during the Neronian and early Flavian periods.3 The datable pottery and dated ostraka indicate a closing date in the reign of Titus, as Rodney Ast has stated elsewhere in this volume. The pre- and early Flavian settlement, however, that was responsible for the build-up of the middens has not yet been located and investigated. The later rubbish deposits, by contrast, were occupation layers in and between buildings in the prominent late fourth- and fifth-century town further to the east.4 A historical source referring to events in AD 524-525 reveals a settlement by then in terminal decline.5 There is no post-Roman occupation.

Fig. 4

Fig. 4

Plan of Berenike at the end of the 2001 season. The trenches cut into the early Roman midden are ringed in yellow (drawn by Martin Hense, reproduced by courtesy of S.E. Sidebotham and the Berenike Project).

© M. Hense

  • 6 Wild 2003, p. 39; Dross-Krüpe 2012, pp. 219-220.
  • 7 Tab.Vindol. II, 346; P.Mich. VIII, 467, 468, 471, 477; Propertius, Eleg. IV, 3, l.18, l.33 (the rea (...)

5The early textile group can be considered first. The pre- and early Flavian wool fabrics were of excellent quality, presumably reflecting the tastes and standards of the military element in the contemporary population. Papyri indicate that the Roman army were particularly demanding customers for Egyptian weavers. A much-quoted papyrus (BGU VII, 1564), for instance, lays down exact and detailed specifications for a military tunic, 4 cloaks and a wool blanket on order from the weavers of Philadelphia; but, despite the fact that they had received an advance payment for the work, a later document contains their plea for more time to complete the order.6 It is no wonder, therefore, that soldiers commonly had recourse to the open market or the generosity of relatives to cover their clothing needs.7

6Clothing dyed in reds (Fig. 5) and blues, often with narrow tapestry-woven clavi (Fig. 6), was standard attire. Checks (Fig. 7) and variegated stripes (Fig. 8) are more representative of furnishing fabrics, of which there were plenty at Berenike to ease the otherwise Spartan surroundings.

Fig. 5

Fig. 5

BE95 1815: red-dyed wool textile in plain tabby weave (early Roman).

© J.P. Wild

Fig. 6

Fig. 6

BE99 3205: wool textile recycled from garment (tunic?) with dark-blue clavus (early Roman).

© J.P. Wild

Fig. 7

Fig. 7

BE01 3120: wool tabby textile with green-blue and red check pattern (early Roman).

© J.P. Wild

Fig. 8

Fig. 8

BE99 1681: scrap of blue-grey striped wool furnishing (?) fabric (early Roman).

© J.P. Wild

  • 8 Cardon, Granger-Taylor and Nowik 2011; Sheffer and Granger-Taylor 1994.

7The largest early Roman textile find (measuring over 64 cm x 40 cm) is a recycled object incorporating pieces of tunic with clavi and a dark brown open weave which may have served as a lining fabric (Fig. 9, 10). The textile’s precise function in this form is not self-evident; but it highlights the challenge of making sense of small scraps of fabric. Future progress on this issue at Berenike will depend on Hero Granger-Taylor’s invaluable discussions of the larger, more diagnostic textile fragments from Didymoi and Masada.8

Fig. 9

Fig. 9

BE00 2048: recycled wool textile incorporating ‘purple’-dyed clavi (obverse).

© J.P. Wild

Fig. 10

Fig. 10

BE00 2048: reverse of recycled textile BE00 2048 with remains of possible lining in dark wool tabby.

© J.P. Wild

8Linen clothing was worn less often than wool at Berenike, a phenomenon noted at other Eastern Desert sites, as Lise Bender Jørgensen reveals elsewhere in this volume. The fragment in Fig 11 seems to have been the corner of a fine-woven decorative textile, perhaps a coverlet. The apparently empty band still contains traces of narrower bands successively in red, blue and green wool yarn, together with knotted warp ends along one edge and tiny wool-wrapped bobbles integral with the original tapestry-woven structure on the adjacent edge. Fig 12 shows a length of everyday flax webbing in basket weave.

Fig. 11

Fig. 11

BE99 1962 corner of a linen textile in plain tabby weave with vestiges of red wool weft in a (now empty) tapestry-woven band.

© J.P. Wild

Fig. 12

Fig. 12

BE99 1875: flax webbing with paired warp.

© J.P. Wild

  • 9 Batcheller 2001.

9Goat hair in naturally occurring colours was employed for hard-wearing bags (Fig. 13) and straps (Fig. 14). The hair was probably harvested from local animals, and locally woven. The yarn was regularly plied for extra tensile strength; for it was recognised that goat hair fibres with their less prominent surface scale structure interlock less readily than sheep’s wool fibres.9 Goat hair remained a major resource throughout Berenike’s history.

Fig. 13

Fig. 13

BE01 2747: scrap of very dark brown goat-hair fabric with stripes in other natural colours.

© J.P. Wild

Fig. 14

Fig. 14

BE01 2926: narrow goat-hair webbing with repaired and reinforced terminal loops.

© J.P. Wild

  • 10 Cardon, Granger-Taylor and Nowik 2011, pp. 276-280.

10Many of the wool (but not linen) textiles ended their useful life in amalgams of rags sewn together with goat-hair thread into thick pads (kentrones).10 They may have served some as yet undefined utilitarian purpose, possibly as cushioning for the burdens of pack animals or as fenders for shipping. The example in Fig 15 measures about 40 cm x 30 cm overall. Similar amalgams turn up in late Roman contexts in Berenike, too.

Fig. 15

Fig. 15

BE98 1106: amalgam of old rags converted into padding.

© J.P. Wild

  • 11 Wild and Dross-Krüpe, forthcoming, for a full account of the weave and its place in Roman textile t (...)
  • 12 Vogelsang-Eastwood 1988; Thompson 2003, 207-209; Ciszuk 2004.

11An unexpected and important find from the midden complex was an example of wool taqueté, otherwise known as weft-faced compound tabby or vestis polymita (Fig. 16, 17).11 The reversible pattern in taqueté was woven by a semi-mechanised process still practised in Iran today on the immense vertical zilu loom (Fig. 18, 19).12 The Berenike fragment is arguably the earliest securely stratified and dated taqueté in the Roman world. The technique, however, may have been invented in Ptolemaic Alexandria two centuries earlier.

Fig. 16

Fig. 16

BE97 0118: detail of a wool textile in weft-faced compound tabby weave (taqueté) carrying registers of linked motifs in dark blue weft on an apparently undyed background.

© J.P. Wild

Fig. 17

Fig. 17

BE97 0118: drawing of the surviving area of pattern on the wool taqueté BE97 0118.

© J.P. Wild

Fig. 18

Fig. 18

Diagram of the principle of two-colour reversible taqueté (with paired pattern warp) (by courtesy of Chris Verhecken-Lammens).

© C. Verhecken-Lammens

Fig. 19

Fig. 19

Diagram of two-colour reversible taqueté with cross-section (above) in weft direction (after De Moor 1993).

© J.P. Wild

  • 13 Wild 1997.

12The sheer quantity of cotton cloth identified at Berenike was initially surprising –between 18% and 28% of the early textile corpus, depending on find-spot: for cotton is normally regarded as an exotic fibre.13 Most of it was plain (Fig. 20), some of it very fine indeed –and some of it was woven as blue check (Fig. 21).

Fig. 20

Fig. 20

BE98 0933: piece of cotton cloth in plain tabby weave with Z-spun yarns and a transverse border of warp loops.

© J.P. Wild

Fig. 21

Fig. 21

BE99 1848: fragment of blue check cotton cloth with Z-spun yarns.

© J.P. Wild

  • 14 Wild and Wild 2014a, pp. 211-212; Wild and Wild 2014b, 90, pp. 100-102; Sidebotham 2011, pp. 223-22 (...)

13There is a technical feature to be explained at this point. A spinner can spin yarn on a hand-spindle either in a clockwise or an anti-clockwise direction. To avoid confusion, the clockwise direction is described by textile archaeologists as ‘Z-spin’, anti-clockwise as ‘S-spin’. The central stroke of the letter corresponds to the direction in which the fibres lie in the spun yarn (Fig. 22). Spin direction was dictated in antiquity by local convention. Spinners in the Nile Valley normally produced S-spun yarn. The cottons shown in Figs 20 and 21, however –and most other cottons from the early Roman middens– contain only Z-spun yarn. (They can be described as ‘Z/Z-spun cottons’, i.e. Z-spun yarn in both warp and weft.) That suggests that they are intrusive to the Nile Valley, and strong circumstantial evidence from archaeology and written sources points to India as their origin.14

Fig. 22

Fig. 22

Diagram clarifying the distinction between Z-spun yarn (clockwise twist) and S-spun yarn (anti-clockwise twist).

© J.P. Wild

14The middens yielded two remarkable types of Indian cotton artefact which deserve comment here.

  • 15 Wild and Wild 2001, pp. 214-215; Wild 2004.
  • 16 Schoeffer, Cotta and Beentjes 1987; Wild and Wild 2001, pp. 215-217; Whitewright 2011.

15The first of them is sailcloth. A piece of crumpled medium-weight cotton fabric (BE97 0103) (Fig. 23A, 23B) displays narrow bands which had been sewn to it both horizontally and vertically to form a grid pattern. It echoes the appearance of the sails frequently depicted in Roman art,15 but paralleled by just one find that is unequivocal: part of a linen sail from a late Ptolemaic or early Roman burial near Luxor.16

Fig. 23A

Fig. 23A

BE97 0103: fragment of cotton sail in Z/Z-spun yarn with vertical and horizontal reinforcing strips sewn to it.

© J.P. Wild

Fig. 23B

Fig. 23B

BE97 0103: diagram of the sail fragment with reinforcing strips and a repair patch.

© J.P. Wild

  • 17 Wild 2002.
  • 18 Graefe 1979, pp. 121-123, Abb.133, Taf.124, 2.
  • 19 Sidebotham and Zych 2011, p. 142, Fig. 12-57, 12-58, 12-59 with the bibliography.

16The bands at Berenike were either purpose-woven webbing (Fig. 24) or plain cloth strips with the raw edges turned under (Fig. 25).17 Their function can be seen on a detailed depiction of a ship at Ostia (Fig. 26).18 Where the reinforcing bands cross, brailing rings were sewn, through which the ropes passed to raise or lower the sails. Wooden and cattle-horn brailing rings have come to light in some numbers at Berenike (Fig. 27) and Myos Hormos.19 The question of where such sails, designed to a Mediterranean blueprint, but made of Indian cotton, and repaired only with Indian thread, were actually constructed, is a topic of lively debate.

Fig. 24

Fig. 24

BE99 1512: length of Z/Z-spun cotton webbing with S-plied warp and blue lateral pinstripes.

© J.P. Wild

Fig. 25

Fig. 25

BE98 0827: strips of Z/Z-spun cotton cloth used to reinforce sails.

© J.P. Wild

Fig. 26

Fig. 26

Drawing of a ship on a funerary relief from Ostia showing brailing rings at junctions between reinforcing strips (after C.V. Daremberg and E. Saglio 1877-1919).

© C.V. Daremberg and E. Saglio

Fig. 27

Fig. 27

Brailing rings and detached length of Z/Z-spun reinforcing strip.

© S.E.Sidebotham

  • 20 Wild 2013.
  • 21 Wild and Walton Rogers 2007.

17The second type of notable textile is an item which Indian sailors aboard the ships in the India trade brought with them –comfortable cotton sleeping mats with a thick pile. They have stout plied warp and carry a pile of Ghiordes knots on one side, or in one case on both sides (Figs 28, 29).20 Their qualities are demonstrated well by this reconstruction in cotton by Lena Hammarlund (Fig. 30). Paradoxically, two closely similar knotted-pile mats of almost exactly the same date have been discovered in the auxiliary fort at Vindolanda near Hadrian’s Wall, at the opposite corner of the Empire; but they were made of wool.21 There is nothing like them known so far in the heart of the Empire.

Fig. 28

Fig. 28

BE99 1527: heavy cotton sleeping mat with two-sided pile of Ghiordes knots.

© J.P. Wild

Fig. 29

Fig. 29

BE99 1527: diagram of structure of knots in mat BE99 1527.

© J.P. Wild

Fig. 30

Fig. 30

Replica of a cotton mat like BE99 1527 with pile of cut knots (woven by Lena Hammarlund).

© J.P. Wild

18Neither cotton sailcloth nor cotton pile sleeping mats are known at Berenike after the Flavian period. This is unlikely to be a mere accident of deposition and survival.

  • 22 Sumner 2012, p. 118 Fig. 19.1; cf. idem 2009, p. 109, pl. 29.

19Fast forward now in time, some 250 years. Comparatively little was happening on the ground at Berenike. But in the Empire as a whole the period saw a slow revolution in Roman costume, under the influence of fashions on the periphery. Compare the clothing of the soldier in Fig 31 –a reconstruction by Graham Sumner based on second-century textiles from Mons Claudianus– noting the narrow unpretentious clavi on his cape and tunic, with the costume of a fourth-century officer shown on a wall painting in the catacomb on the Via Latina in Rome (Fig. 32).22 Note the elaborate figured tapestry-woven clavi, roundels and swastikas on his clothing. An increasing richness of dress, but coupled with a marked lowering of actual technical quality, can be observed in the Berenike textile repertoire, too.

Fig. 31

Fig. 31

Painting of a second-century decurion at Mons Claudianus by Graham Sumner based on archaeological finds from the site (by courtesy of Graham Sumner).

© G. Sumner

Fig. 32

Fig. 32

Painting of a member of the auxilia palatina in Rome by Graham Sumner based on a wall-painting in the catacomb on the Via Latina, Rome (by courtesy of Graham Sumner).

© G. Sumner

20The late Roman textiles were found in rubbish dumped in abandoned buildings in the late fourth/fifth-century town or in the alleyways between them (Fig. 33, 34).

Fig. 33

Fig. 33

View eastwards across the later Roman town at Berenike showing building outlines.

© J.P. Wild

Fig. 34

Fig. 34

Plan of the later Roman town at Berenike (earlier harbour front in grey). Numbers in red denote excavated trenches. (Drawn by Martin Hense, reproduced by courtesy of S.E.Sidebotham and the Berenike Project.)

© M. Hense

  • 23 Nauerth 2009, p. 104 Figs 5, 6 with the bibliography.

21Some pieces belonged to household furnishings, like the bright wool scraps in Figs 35 and 36. The tapestry-woven bud on the fragment in Fig. 37 is characteristic of linen curtains, which are marked by a scatter of repeated small motifs.23 A sixth-century mosaic in the church of San Apollinare Nuovo, Ravenna, illustrates the style and function (Fig. 38).

Fig. 35

Fig. 35

BE98 1009: scrap of striped wool cloth, possibly furnishing fabric (late Roman) (dimensions 2.8cm by 2.5cm).

© J.P. Wild

Fig. 36

Fig. 36

BE98 1013: fragment of striped wool textile with plied warp, possibly a furnishing fabric (late Roman).

© J.P. Wild

Fig. 37

Fig. 37

BE88 1076: linen curtain fragment with a small tapestry-woven motif (a bud?) inserted in dyed wool yarns.

© J.P. Wild

Fig. 38

Fig. 38

Curtain with scattered individual decorative motifs represented on a mosaic in the church of San Apollinare Nuovo, Ravenna (sixth century) (photo by courtesy of Cäcilia Fluck).

© C. Fluck

22Another textile scrap can be identified as the corner of a rectangular wool cloak, with a typical H-shaped blue tapestry motif in each corner (Fig. 39). While the form of the cloak is familiar (Fig. 40), the textile was woven from undyed pigmented wool and the quality of its workmanship is not of the best.

Fig. 39

Fig. 39

BE96 0205/0206: corner of a rough wool cloak with selvedge, twined transverse border and remains of a blue tapestry-woven H-motif.

© J.P. Wild

Fig. 40

Fig. 40

BE96 0205/0206: conjectural outline of the cloak represented by the fragments BE96 0205/0206 based on contemporary examples from graves in Lower Nubia.

© J.P. Wild

  • 24 Pritchard 2014, pp. 52-53; Wild and Dross-Krüpe, forthcoming.

23Fancy wool taqueté was not uncommon in late Roman Berenike (Fig. 41A, 41B, 42A, 42B). Surviving fragments are often well worn on one side, and virtually unworn on the other, confirming that they had served to encase feather bolsters on beds and couches.24

Fig. 41A

Fig. 41A

BE96 0227: scrap of wool taqueté with geometric pattern in red (dimensions 5.2 cm by 3.4 cm).

© J.P. Wild

Fig. 41B

Fig. 41B

BE96 0227: the probable overall decorative scheme of the taqueté BE96 0227.

© J.P. Wild

Fig. 42A

Fig. 42A

BE97 0029: wool taqueté with pattern of contiguous hexagons containing quartered lozenges in blue.

© J.P. Wild

Fig. 42B

Fig. 42B

BE97 0029: decorative scheme of wool taqueté BE97 0029.

© J.P. Wild

  • 25 Dross-Krüpe and Paetz gen. Schieck 2014; Wild and Dross-Krüpe, forthcoming.

24There are some exceptional items in the late assemblage, too. Figs 43A and 43B show some simple linear embroidery on what may have been a wool pouch flap. Embroidery was a very unusual mode of decoration in the Roman world.25

Fig. 43A

Fig. 43A

BE95 0043: embroidery in chain stitch on a blue and red wool ground weave (overall dimensions of re-assembled fragments c.10 cm by c.5 cm).

© J.P. Wild

Fig. 43B

Fig. 43B

BE98 0043: tracing of embroidered lines on BE97 0043.

© J.P. Wild

25There was much discussion about the possible function of the object appearing in Fig 44A. Parallels, including two more examples from Berenike to be published by Alexandra Pleşa, suggest that it was the casing of a child’s felt ball –created in a wrapping technique called ‘god’s eye’ (Fig. 44B).

Fig. 44A

Fig. 44A

BE98 1037: crushed blue felt ball covered with decorative wrapping yarns in the ‘god’s eye’ technique.

© J.P. Wild

Fig. 44B

Fig. 44B

BE98 1037: principle of the ‘god’s eye’ structure.

© J.P. Wild

  • 26 Schrenk 2004, pp. 47-50.
  • 27 Schrenk 2004, 50; on Berenike's church: Sidebotham 2011, pp. 272-275.

26On close examination the scrap of heavily abraded linen BE96 0290 (Fig. 45) was seen to have been decorated originally with lines of tiny blue wool loops filling a tongue-shaped motif that was framed in red. (The red may have been painted on the flax warp as a guide to the weaver.) A similar motif and technique can be observed in a detail from a much better preserved example of the same class of textile, now in the Abegg-Stiftung, Bern (Fig. 46). The complete textile is a wall-hanging found in Egypt –the so-called ‘Elijah hanging’– radiocarbon-dated to the fifth or early sixth century AD (Fig. 47).26 It measures 3 m high and at least 3.5 m wide, so presumably the Berenike fragment in its original state once adorned a public building in the late Roman town, arguably a church, to guess from the Christian iconography of the parallels.27

Fig. 45

Fig. 45

BE96 0290: fragment of linen with traces of lines of loops in blue wool yarn framed in red to form an incomplete tongue-shaped feature.

© J.P. Wild

Fig. 46

Fig. 46

Detail of the ‘Elijah’ hanging in the Abegg-Stiftung showing (upside down) a tongue-shaped motif (photograph by Christoph von Viràg, reproduced by courtesy of the Abegg-Stiftung, CH-3132 Riggisberg).

© C. von Viràg

Fig. 47

Fig. 47

The greater part of the ‘Elijah’ hanging in the Abegg-Stiftung (photograph by Christoph von Viràg, reproduced by courtesy of the Abegg-Stiftung, CH-3132 Riggisberg).

© C. von Viràg

  • 28 Wild and Wild 2008a, p. 231; Wild and Wild 2014a, pp. 220-221.

27Indian Z/Z spun cottons make up about 25% of the late assemblage. Check decoration in various styles was still very popular (Fig. 48, 49).28

Fig. 48

Fig. 48

BE97 0092: cotton check in Z-spun yarns.

© J.P. Wild

Fig. 49

Fig. 49

BE95 0078: scrap of cotton check in Z-spun yarns (dimensions 2.5cm by 3cm).

© J.P. Wild

  • 29 Wild and Wild 2014a, pp. 223-225.

28The most exciting late Roman cottons, however, were resist-dyed in blue, a technique known in Roman Egypt on wool, but associated especially with India. The motifs were first painted on the undyed cloth with a resist medium like wax. When the cloth was dipped into the dye bath, only the unwaxed, background, areas took up the dye. In the pieces shown in Figs 50 and 51 the motifs are dot rosettes, well documented in Indian art.29 Other fragments may depict a lotus bud (Figs 52A, 52B) and a four- or eight-petalled flower (Figs 53A, 53B). They may be interpreted as remains of wall hangings or curtains, but they could equally well be from clothing worn by resident Indians.

Fig. 50

Fig. 50

BE01 2706: resist-dyed cotton in Z-spun yarns with fringe and dot-rosette motifs.

© J.P. Wild

Fig. 51

Fig. 51

BE98 1105: resist-dyed cotton in Z-spun yarns with overall dot-rosette pattern (dimensions 11.5 cm by 10.5 cm).

© J.P. Wild

Fig. 52A

Fig. 52A

BE96 0219: resist-dyed cotton in Z-spun yarns with probable ‘lotus’ motif (dimensions 4 cm by 9 cm).

© J.P. Wild

Fig. 52B

Fig. 52B

BE96 0219: conjectural reconstruction of the fragmentarylotus’ motif on BE96 0219.

© J.P. Wild

Fig. 53A

Fig. 53A

BE94 116: resist-dyed cotton fragment in Z-spun yarns with partial floral decoration (dimensions 3.4 cm by 1.4 cm).

© J.P. Wild

Fig. 53B

Fig. 53B

BE94 116: conjectural reconstruction of the fragmentary floral motif on BE94 116.

© J.P. Wild

29In contrast to the Indian cotton, textiles woven exclusively from S-spun cotton and, therefore, (on the basis of the argument advanced above) likely to have been woven in the Nile Valley, are far less memorable. Figs 54, 55, 56, and 57 illustrate the range of qualities in circulation. Nevertheless, they make up another 25% of the textile finds from the late Roman town site.

Fig. 54

Fig. 54

BE95 0040: fragments of cotton cloth in S-spun yarns.

© J.P. Wild

Fig. 55

Fig. 55

BE96 0557: rectangle of medium-weight cotton cloth in S-spun yarns.

© J.P. Wild

Fig. 56

Fig. 56

BE96 0536 piece of densely woven cotton cloth in S-spun yarns.

© J.P. Wild

Fig. 57

Fig. 57

BE96 0614: strip of S/S spun cotton cloth with thick self-bands at intervals in weft.

© J.P. Wild

  • 30 Wild and Wild 2008b; Wild, Wild and Clapham 2008; Wild and Wild 2014c.
  • 31 Crowfoot 1984.
  • 32 Barnard 2008; 2013.

30In the hope of establishing the origin of the S-spun cottons more precisely, the present writers went to study the Meroitic and post-Meroitic (‘X-Group’) textiles from Qasr Ibrim in Lower Nubia, a town and fortress on the Nile about 180 km south of the First Cataract on the Nile at Aswan. During the first five decades AD, almost all clothing at Qasr Ibrim was woven from locally-grown cotton: all the yarn used was S-spun.30 We found strong echoes there of the Berenike S-spun cotton fabrics, but major differences, too. At Berenike there was no echo of the complex plaited Meroitic fringes of Qasr Ibrim.31 Moreover, the blue wool brocading (Fig. 58) and blue tapestry-woven bands (Fig. 59) on S-spun cottons at Berenike do not belong to the core Nubian tradition. One must look perhaps for their source closer to the Roman frontier and to the zone of immediate Roman influence. One is tempted to associate them with the so-called ‘Eastern Desert Dwellers’, often equated with the migrating Blemmyes, who had a significant presence at Berenike in later Roman times.32

Fig. 58

Fig. 58

BE96 0417: scrap of S/S spun cotton with remains of brocading in blue cotton yarn.

© J.P. Wild

Fig. 59

Fig. 59

BE96 0474: piece of medium-weight S/S spun cotton with two narrow bands in green-blue cotton yarn.

© J.P. Wild

31Most of the textiles discussed in this paper arrived at Berenike on the backs or in the baggage of their owners. We have seen evidence for the clothing of the local garrisons in and around the port in its earlier Roman phases. Indian sailors and merchants seasonally resident at Berenike jettisoned their distinctive rags on the spot throughout the site’s history. When in later years an influx took place of desert peoples from the south, their presence can be concluded from their rubbish. All told, the textiles offer a vivid snapshot of the port’s fluctuating population –it was an exciting, but challenging, place to be.

Acknowledgements

32We are grateful to Professors S.E. Sidebotham and W.Z. Wendrich for inviting us to contribute to the work of the Berenike Project and to the Pasold Research Fund, the Society of Antiquaries of London, the British Academy and the G.A. Wainwright Fund for Near Eastern Archaeology for travel grants. Drs Pamela Rose and Alan Clapham very kindly facilitated our recording and research on the textile corpus from Qasr Ibrim.

Literaturverzeichnis

  

Bagnall R.S., Helms C., Verhoogt A.M.F.W. 2005. Documents from Berenike II: Texts from the 1999-2001 Seasons. Papyrologica Bruxellensia 33, Bruxelles, Association Égyptologique Reine Elisabeth.

Barnard H. 2008. Eastern Desert Ware: Traces of the Inhabitants of the Eastern Deserts in Egypt and Sudan during the 4th-6th Centuries CE, Oxford, Archaeopress. 

Barnard H. 2013. “The desert hinterland of Qasr Ibrim”. In Qasr Ibrim, between Egypt and Africa: Studies in Cultural Exchange (Nino Symposium, Leiden, 11-12 December 2009). J. Van der Vliet and J.L. Hagen (eds), Louvain, Peeters, pp. 83-103.

Batcheller J. 2001. “Goat-hair textiles from Karanis, Egypt”. In The Roman Textile Industry and its Influence: A Birthday Tribute to John Peter Wild. P. Walton Rogers, L. Bender Jørgensen and A. Rast-Eicher (eds), Oxford, Oxbow, pp. 38-47.

Cardon D., Granger-Taylor H. and Nowik W. 2011. “What did they look like? Fragments of clothing found at Didymoi: case studies. In Didymoi : une Garnison romaine dans le Désert Oriental d’Égypte I: Les Fouilles et le Matériel. H. Cuvigny (ed), Cairo. IFAO.

Ciszuk M. 2004. Taqueté and damask from Mons Claudianus: a discussion of Roman looms for patterned textiles”. In Purpureae Vestes: Actas del I Symposium Internacional sobre Textiles y Tintes del Mediterráneo en Época romana (Ibiza, 8 al 10 noviembre, 2002). CAlfaro Giner, J.P. Wild and B. Costa (eds), València, University of València, pp. 107-113.

Crowfoot E. 1984. “Openwork fringes from Qasr Ibrim”. Meroitic Newsletter, 23, pp. 10-17.

Daremberg C.V. and Saglio M.E. 1877-1919. Dictionnaire des Antiquités grecques et romaines, Paris, Hachette.

De Moor A. 1993. Koptisch Textiel uit Vlaamse privé-versamelingen. Coptic Textiles from Flemish Private Collections, Zottegem, Provinciaal Archeologisch Museum van Zuid-Oost-Vlaanderen.

Dross-Krüpe K. 2012. “Stoff und Staat – Überlegungen zur Interaktion von Textilökonomie und römischer Staatlichkeit im 1.-3. Jh. n. Chr.”. In Ordnungsrahmen antiker Ökonomien: Ordnungskonzepte und Steuerungsmechanismen antiker Wirtschaftsysteme im Vergleich, Philippika, 53. S. Günther (ed), Wiesbaden, Harrassowitz, pp. 215-226.

Dross-Krüpe K. and Paetz gen. Schieck A. 2014. “Unraveling the tangled threads of ancient embroidery: a compilation of written sources and archaeologically preserved textiles”. In Greek and Roman Textiles and Dress: An Interdisciplinary Anthology. M. Harlow and M.-L. Nosch (eds), Ancient Textiles Series, 19, Oxford, Oxbow, pp. 207-235.

Fedeli P. 1984. Sexti Propertii Elegiarum Libri IV, Stuttgart, Teubner.

Graefe R. Vela Erunt. 1979. Die Zeltdächer der römischen Theater und ähnlicher Anlagen, Mainz, von Zabern.

Nauerth C. 2009. “Furnishing textiles in the Cairo Coptic Museum”. In Clothing the House: Furnishing Textiles of the 1st Millennium AD from Egypt and Neighbouring Countries. A. De Moor and C. Fluck (eds), Tielt, Lannoo, pp. 100-114.

Pritchard F. 2014. “Soft-furnishing textiles from the Egypt Exploration Fund Season at Antinoupolis, 1913-14”, British Museum Studies in Ancient Egypt and Sudan, 21, pp. 45-61.

Schoeffer M, Cotta D. and Beentjes A. 1987. “Les étoffes de rembourrage: du chiffon au vêtement et la voile de bateau”. Nouvelles Archives du Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle de Lyon, 25, pp. 77-80.

Schrenk S. 2004. Textilien des Mittelmeerraumes aus spätantiker bis frühislamischer Zeit, Riggisberg, Abegg-Stiftung, pp. 47-50

Sheffer A. and Granger-Taylor H. 1994. “Textiles from Masada: a preliminary selection”. In Masada IV: The Yigael Yadin Excavations 1963-1965: Final Reports. J. Aviran, G. Foester and E. Netzer (eds), Jerusalem, Israel Exploration Society, pp. 151-255.

Sidebotham S.E. 2011. Berenike and the Ancient Maritime Spice Route, Los Angeles, University of California Press.

Sidebotham S.E. 2015. “Results of fieldwork at Berenike (Red Sea Coast), Egypt, 2008-2012”. In Proceedings of the 22nd International Congress of Roman Frontier Studies, Ruse, Bulgaria, September 2012. L. Vagalinski and N. Sharankov (eds), Sofia, National Archaeological Institute and Museum, pp. 341-349.

Sidebotham S.E. and Zych I. (eds). 2011. Berenike 2008-2009: Report on the Excavations at Berenike. including a Survey in the Eastern Desert, Warsaw, Polish Centre for Mediterranean Archaeology.

Sumner G. 2009. Roman Military Dress, Stroud, History Press.

Sumner G. 2012. “Painting a reconstruction of the Deir el-Medineh portrait on a painted shroud and other soldiers from Roman Egypt”. In Wearing the Cloak: Dressing the Soldier in Roman Times. M.-L. Nosch (ed), Ancient Textiles Series, 10, Oxford, Oxbow, pp. 117-127.

Thompson J. 2003. “Looms, carpets and Talims”. In Tradition and Survival: Aspects of Material Culture in the Middle East and Central Asia. R. Tapper and K. McLachlan (eds), London, Frank Cass, pp. 205-216.

Tomber R. 2008. Indo-Roman Trade: From Pots to Pepper, London, Duckworth.

Tomber R. 2012. “From the Roman Red Sea to Beyond the Empire: Egyptian ports and their trading partners”, British Museum Studies in Ancient Egypt and Sudan, 18, pp. 201-215.

Vogelsang-Eastwood G.M. 1988. “Zilu carpets from Iran”, Studia Iranica 17, pp. 225-234.

Whitewright J. 2011. “Efficiency or economics? Sail development in the ancient Mediterranean”. In Maritime Technology in the Ancient Economy: Ship-Design and Navigation. W.V. Harris and K. Iara (eds), Journal of Roman Archaeology Supplement, 84, Rhode Island, pp. 89-102.

Wild F.C. 2002. “The webbing from Berenike: a classification”. Archaeological Textiles Newsletter, 34, pp. 9-16.

Wild F.C. 2004. “Sails, sacking and packing: textiles from the first century rubbish dump at Berenike, Egypt”. In Purpureae Vestes: Textiles y Tintes del Mediterráneo en Época romana: Actas del I Symposium Internacional sobre Textiles y Tintes del Mediterráneo en Época romana (Ibiza, 8 al 10 de noviembre, 2002). C. Alfaro, J.P. Wild and B. Costa (eds), València, University of València, pp. 61-67.

Wild F.C. and Wild J.P. 2001. “Sails from the Roman port at Berenike, Egypt”. International Journal of Nautical Archaeology, 30 (2), pp. 211-220.

Wild J.P. 1997. “Cotton in Roman Egypt: Some problems of origin”. Al-Rāfidān, XVIII, pp. 287-298.

Wild, J.P. 2003. “Facts, figures and guesswork in the Roman textile industry”. In Textilien aus Archäologie und Geschichte. Festschrift für Klaus Tidow. L. Bender Jørgensen, J. Banck-Burgess and A. Rast-Eicher (eds), Neumünster, Wachholtz, pp. 37-45.

Wild J.P. 2006. “Berenike, archaeological textiles in context”. In Textiles in situ: Their Findspots in Egypt and Neighbouring Countries in the First Millennium CE. S. Schrenk. (ed), Riggisberger Berichte, 13, Bern, Abegg-Stiftung, pp. 175-184.

Wild J.P. 2013. “The first Indian carpets – a view from Berenike”. In Drawing the Threads Together: Textiles and Footwear of the First Millennium AD from Egypt: Proceedings of the 7th Conference of the Research Group ‘Textiles from the Nile Valley’, Antwerp, 7-9 October 2011. A. De Moor and C. Fluck (eds), Tielt, Lannoo, pp. 74-85.

Wild J.P. and Dross-Krüpe K. Forthcoming. “Ars polymita, ars plumaria: the weaving terminology of taqueté and tapestry”. In Textile Terminologies from the Orient to the Mediterranean and Europe 1000 BC – AD 1000. M.-L. Nosch and C. Michel (eds), Ancient Textiles Series, Oxford, Oxbow.

Wild J.P. and Walton Rogers P. 2007. “A knotted-pile mat from the Roman fort at Vindolanda near Hadrian’s Wall”. In NESAT IX: Archäologische Textilien – Archaeological Textiles: Braunwald, 18.-21. Mai 2005. A. Rast-Eicher and R. Windler (eds), Glarus, North-European Symposium for Archaeological Textiles, pp. 71-78.

Wild J.P. and Wild F.C. 1996. “The textiles”. In Berenike 1995: Preliminary Report of the 1995 Excavations at Berenike (Egyptian Red Sea Coast) and the Survey of the Eastern Desert. S.E. Sidebotham and W.Z. Wendrich (eds), Leiden, Research School CNWS, pp. 245-256.

Wild J.P and Wild F.C. 1998. “The textiles”. In Berenike 96: Report of the Excavations at Berenike (Egyptian Red Sea Coast) and the Survey of the Eastern Desert. S.E. Sidebotham and W.Z. Wendrich (eds), Leiden, Research School CNWS, pp. 221-236.

Wild J.P. and Wild F.C. 2000. “The textiles”. In Berenike 98: Report of the 1998 Excavations at Berenike and the Survey of the Egyptian Eastern Desert including Excavations in Wâdi Kalalat. S.E. Sidebotham and W.Z. Wendrich (eds), Leiden, Research School CNWS, pp. 251-274.

Wild J.P. and Wild F.C. 2007. “The textiles”. In Berenike 1999/2000: report on the Excavations at Berenike. Including Excavations in Wâdi Kalalat and Siket, and the Survey of the Mons Smaragdus Region. S.E. Sidebotham and W.Z. Wendrich (eds), Los Angeles, Cotsen Institute of Archaeology UCLA, pp. 225-227.

Wild J.P. and Wild F.C. 2008a. “Early Indian cotton textiles from Berenike”. In South Asian Archaeology 1999: Proceedings of the Fifteenth Conference of the European Association of South Asian Archaeologists held at the Universiteit Leiden 5-9 July 1999. E.M. Raven (ed), Groningen, Egbert Forsten, pp. 229-233.

Wild J.P. and Wild F.C. 2008b. “Cotton: the new wool. Qasr Ibrim study season 2008”. Archaeological Textiles Newsletter, 46, pp. 3-6.

Wild J.P. and Wild F.C. 2014a. “Through Roman eyes: cotton textiles from early Historic India”. In A Stitch in Time: Essays in Honour of Lise Bender Jørgensen, Gotarch Series A: Gothenburg Archaeological Studies. S. Bergerbrant and S.H. Fossøy (eds), University of Gothenburg, pp. 209-235.

Wild J.P. and Wild F.C. 2014b. “Berenike and textile trade on the Indian Ocean”. In Textile Trade and Distribution in Antiquity/Textilhandel und–distribution in der Antike, Philippika, 73. K. Dross-Krüpe (ed), Wiesbaden, University of Marburg, pp. 91-109.

Wild J.P. and Wild F.C. 2014c. “Qasr Ibrim: new perspectives on the changing textile cultures of Lower Nubia” In Egypt In the First Millennium AD: Perspectives from New Fieldwork, British Museum Publications on Egypt and Sudan, 2. E.R. O’Connell (ed), Louvain, Peeters, pp. 71-85.

Wild J.P. Wild F.C. and Clapham A. 2008. “Roman cotton revisited”. In Purpureae Vestes II: Vestidos, Textiles y Tintes: Estudios sobre la Producción de Bienes de Consumo en la Antigüedad: Actas del II Symposium Internacional sobre Textiles y Tintes del Mediterráneo en el Mundo antiguo (Atenas, 24 al 26 de noviembre, 2005). C. Alfaro Giner and L. Karali (eds), València, University of València, pp. 143-147.

Abbreviations

BGU VII: Vierck P. and Zucker F. (eds), 1926. Papyri, Ostraka und Wachstafeln aus Philadelphia im Fayûm, Berlin, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin.

P.Mich. VIII: Youtie H.C. and Winter J.G. 1951. Papyri and Ostraca from Karanis, University of Michigan Studies, Humanistic Series 50, Ann Arbor.

Tab.Vindol. II: Bowman A.K. and Thomas J.D. 1994. The Vindolanda Writing Tablets: Tabulae Vindolandenses II, London, British Museum.

Anmerkungen

1 Sidebotham 2011; Sidebotham and Zych 2011; Sidebotham 2015.

2 Wild and Wild 1996; 1998; 2000; 2007; Wild 2006.

3 Bagnall, Helms and Verhoogt 2005, 4-5; cf. Sidebotham and Zych 2011, pp. 52-57.

4 Sidebotham 2011, pp. 259-282.

5 Sidebotham 2011, 280 with the bibliography.

6 Wild 2003, p. 39; Dross-Krüpe 2012, pp. 219-220.

7 Tab.Vindol. II, 346; P.Mich. VIII, 467, 468, 471, 477; Propertius, Eleg. IV, 3, l.18, l.33 (the reading of line 34 may be relevant but the text is corrupt) (ed. Fedeli 1984).

8 Cardon, Granger-Taylor and Nowik 2011; Sheffer and Granger-Taylor 1994.

9 Batcheller 2001.

10 Cardon, Granger-Taylor and Nowik 2011, pp. 276-280.

11 Wild and Dross-Krüpe, forthcoming, for a full account of the weave and its place in Roman textile technology.

12 Vogelsang-Eastwood 1988; Thompson 2003, 207-209; Ciszuk 2004.

13 Wild 1997.

14 Wild and Wild 2014a, pp. 211-212; Wild and Wild 2014b, 90, pp. 100-102; Sidebotham 2011, pp. 223-229; Tomber 2008, 44-50; eadem 2012, pp. 205-206.

15 Wild and Wild 2001, pp. 214-215; Wild 2004.

16 Schoeffer, Cotta and Beentjes 1987; Wild and Wild 2001, pp. 215-217; Whitewright 2011.

17 Wild 2002.

18 Graefe 1979, pp. 121-123, Abb.133, Taf.124, 2.

19 Sidebotham and Zych 2011, p. 142, Fig. 12-57, 12-58, 12-59 with the bibliography.

20 Wild 2013.

21 Wild and Walton Rogers 2007.

22 Sumner 2012, p. 118 Fig. 19.1; cf. idem 2009, p. 109, pl. 29.

23 Nauerth 2009, p. 104 Figs 5, 6 with the bibliography.

24 Pritchard 2014, pp. 52-53; Wild and Dross-Krüpe, forthcoming.

25 Dross-Krüpe and Paetz gen. Schieck 2014; Wild and Dross-Krüpe, forthcoming.

26 Schrenk 2004, pp. 47-50.

27 Schrenk 2004, 50; on Berenike's church: Sidebotham 2011, pp. 272-275.

28 Wild and Wild 2008a, p. 231; Wild and Wild 2014a, pp. 220-221.

29 Wild and Wild 2014a, pp. 223-225.

30 Wild and Wild 2008b; Wild, Wild and Clapham 2008; Wild and Wild 2014c.

31 Crowfoot 1984.

32 Barnard 2008; 2013.

Abbildungsverzeichnis

Titel Fig. 1
Bildunterschrift Map of Roman Egypt and the location of Berenike (drawn by J.P.Wild).
URL http://books.openedition.org/cdf/docannexe/image/5254/img-1.jpg
Datei image/jpeg, 80k
Titel Fig. 2
Bildunterschrift Tray of typical rags from the early Roman midden at Berenike (BE99 trench 31.7.PB2) (2281-I).
Impressum © J.P. Wild
URL http://books.openedition.org/cdf/docannexe/image/5254/img-2.jpg
Datei image/jpeg, 180k
Titel Fig. 3
Bildunterschrift Eroded rubbish deposit on the site of the later Roman town at Berenike.
Impressum © J.P. Wild
URL http://books.openedition.org/cdf/docannexe/image/5254/img-3.jpg
Datei image/jpeg, 216k
Titel Fig. 4
Bildunterschrift Plan of Berenike at the end of the 2001 season. The trenches cut into the early Roman midden are ringed in yellow (drawn by Martin Hense, reproduced by courtesy of S.E. Sidebotham and the Berenike Project).
URL http://books.openedition.org/cdf/docannexe/image/5254/img-4.jpg
Datei image/jpeg, 276k
Titel Fig. 5
Bildunterschrift BE95 1815: red-dyed wool textile in plain tabby weave (early Roman).
URL http://books.openedition.org/cdf/docannexe/image/5254/img-5.jpg
Datei image/jpeg, 148k
Titel Fig. 6
Bildunterschrift BE99 3205: wool textile recycled from garment (tunic?) with dark-blue clavus (early Roman).
URL http://books.openedition.org/cdf/docannexe/image/5254/img-6.jpg
Datei image/jpeg, 124k
Titel Fig. 7
Bildunterschrift BE01 3120: wool tabby textile with green-blue and red check pattern (early Roman).
Impressum © J.P. Wild
URL http://books.openedition.org/cdf/docannexe/image/5254/img-7.jpg
Datei image/jpeg, 224k
Titel Fig. 8
Bildunterschrift BE99 1681: scrap of blue-grey striped wool furnishing (?) fabric (early Roman).
Impressum © J.P. Wild
URL http://books.openedition.org/cdf/docannexe/image/5254/img-8.jpg
Datei image/jpeg, 140k
Titel Fig. 9
Bildunterschrift BE00 2048: recycled wool textile incorporating ‘purple’-dyed clavi (obverse).
URL http://books.openedition.org/cdf/docannexe/image/5254/img-9.jpg
Datei image/jpeg, 140k
Titel Fig. 10
Bildunterschrift BE00 2048: reverse of recycled textile BE00 2048 with remains of possible lining in dark wool tabby.
Impressum © J.P. Wild
URL http://books.openedition.org/cdf/docannexe/image/5254/img-10.jpg
Datei image/jpeg, 128k
Titel Fig. 11
Bildunterschrift BE99 1962 corner of a linen textile in plain tabby weave with vestiges of red wool weft in a (now empty) tapestry-woven band.
URL http://books.openedition.org/cdf/docannexe/image/5254/img-11.jpg
Datei image/jpeg, 116k
Titel Fig. 12
Bildunterschrift BE99 1875: flax webbing with paired warp.
URL http://books.openedition.org/cdf/docannexe/image/5254/img-12.jpg
Datei image/jpeg, 112k
Titel Fig. 13
Bildunterschrift BE01 2747: scrap of very dark brown goat-hair fabric with stripes in other natural colours.
URL http://books.openedition.org/cdf/docannexe/image/5254/img-13.jpg
Datei image/jpeg, 132k
Titel Fig. 14
Bildunterschrift BE01 2926: narrow goat-hair webbing with repaired and reinforced terminal loops.
URL http://books.openedition.org/cdf/docannexe/image/5254/img-14.jpg
Datei image/jpeg, 124k
Titel Fig. 15
Bildunterschrift BE98 1106: amalgam of old rags converted into padding.
URL http://books.openedition.org/cdf/docannexe/image/5254/img-15.jpg
Datei image/jpeg, 112k
Titel Fig. 16
Bildunterschrift BE97 0118: detail of a wool textile in weft-faced compound tabby weave (taqueté) carrying registers of linked motifs in dark blue weft on an apparently undyed background.
URL http://books.openedition.org/cdf/docannexe/image/5254/img-16.jpg
Datei image/jpeg, 228k
Titel Fig. 17
Bildunterschrift BE97 0118: drawing of the surviving area of pattern on the wool taqueté BE97 0118.
URL http://books.openedition.org/cdf/docannexe/image/5254/img-17.jpg
Datei image/jpeg, 96k
Titel Fig. 18
Bildunterschrift Diagram of the principle of two-colour reversible taqueté (with paired pattern warp) (by courtesy of Chris Verhecken-Lammens).
URL http://books.openedition.org/cdf/docannexe/image/5254/img-18.jpg
Datei image/jpeg, 80k
Titel Fig. 19
Bildunterschrift Diagram of two-colour reversible taqueté with cross-section (above) in weft direction (after De Moor 1993).
URL http://books.openedition.org/cdf/docannexe/image/5254/img-19.jpg
Datei image/jpeg, 156k
Titel Fig. 20
Bildunterschrift BE98 0933: piece of cotton cloth in plain tabby weave with Z-spun yarns and a transverse border of warp loops.
URL http://books.openedition.org/cdf/docannexe/image/5254/img-20.jpg
Datei image/jpeg, 204k
Titel Fig. 21
Bildunterschrift BE99 1848: fragment of blue check cotton cloth with Z-spun yarns.
URL http://books.openedition.org/cdf/docannexe/image/5254/img-21.jpg
Datei image/jpeg, 172k
Titel Fig. 22
Bildunterschrift Diagram clarifying the distinction between Z-spun yarn (clockwise twist) and S-spun yarn (anti-clockwise twist).
URL http://books.openedition.org/cdf/docannexe/image/5254/img-22.jpg
Datei image/jpeg, 44k
Titel Fig. 23A
Bildunterschrift BE97 0103: fragment of cotton sail in Z/Z-spun yarn with vertical and horizontal reinforcing strips sewn to it.
URL http://books.openedition.org/cdf/docannexe/image/5254/img-23.jpg
Datei image/jpeg, 160k
Titel Fig. 23B
Bildunterschrift BE97 0103: diagram of the sail fragment with reinforcing strips and a repair patch.
URL http://books.openedition.org/cdf/docannexe/image/5254/img-24.jpg
Datei image/jpeg, 56k
Titel Fig. 24
Bildunterschrift BE99 1512: length of Z/Z-spun cotton webbing with S-plied warp and blue lateral pinstripes.
Impressum © J.P. Wild
URL http://books.openedition.org/cdf/docannexe/image/5254/img-25.jpg
Datei image/jpeg, 192k
Titel Fig. 25
Bildunterschrift BE98 0827: strips of Z/Z-spun cotton cloth used to reinforce sails.
URL http://books.openedition.org/cdf/docannexe/image/5254/img-26.jpg
Datei image/jpeg, 136k
Titel Fig. 26
Bildunterschrift Drawing of a ship on a funerary relief from Ostia showing brailing rings at junctions between reinforcing strips (after C.V. Daremberg and E. Saglio 1877-1919).
Impressum © C.V. Daremberg and E. Saglio
URL http://books.openedition.org/cdf/docannexe/image/5254/img-27.jpg
Datei image/jpeg, 152k
Titel Fig. 27
Bildunterschrift Brailing rings and detached length of Z/Z-spun reinforcing strip.
Impressum © S.E.Sidebotham
URL http://books.openedition.org/cdf/docannexe/image/5254/img-28.jpg
Datei image/jpeg, 120k
Titel Fig. 28
Bildunterschrift BE99 1527: heavy cotton sleeping mat with two-sided pile of Ghiordes knots.
Impressum © J.P. Wild
URL http://books.openedition.org/cdf/docannexe/image/5254/img-29.jpg
Datei image/jpeg, 204k
Titel Fig. 29
Bildunterschrift BE99 1527: diagram of structure of knots in mat BE99 1527.
Impressum © J.P. Wild
URL http://books.openedition.org/cdf/docannexe/image/5254/img-30.jpg
Datei image/jpeg, 68k
Titel Fig. 30
Bildunterschrift Replica of a cotton mat like BE99 1527 with pile of cut knots (woven by Lena Hammarlund).
Impressum © J.P. Wild
URL http://books.openedition.org/cdf/docannexe/image/5254/img-31.jpg
Datei image/jpeg, 132k
Titel Fig. 31
Bildunterschrift Painting of a second-century decurion at Mons Claudianus by Graham Sumner based on archaeological finds from the site (by courtesy of Graham Sumner).
Impressum © G. Sumner
URL http://books.openedition.org/cdf/docannexe/image/5254/img-32.jpg
Datei image/jpeg, 56k
Titel Fig. 32
Bildunterschrift Painting of a member of the auxilia palatina in Rome by Graham Sumner based on a wall-painting in the catacomb on the Via Latina, Rome (by courtesy of Graham Sumner).
URL http://books.openedition.org/cdf/docannexe/image/5254/img-33.jpg
Datei image/jpeg, 60k
Titel Fig. 33
Bildunterschrift View eastwards across the later Roman town at Berenike showing building outlines.
Impressum © J.P. Wild
URL http://books.openedition.org/cdf/docannexe/image/5254/img-34.jpg
Datei image/jpeg, 880k
Titel Fig. 34
Bildunterschrift Plan of the later Roman town at Berenike (earlier harbour front in grey). Numbers in red denote excavated trenches. (Drawn by Martin Hense, reproduced by courtesy of S.E.Sidebotham and the Berenike Project.)
Impressum © M. Hense
URL http://books.openedition.org/cdf/docannexe/image/5254/img-35.jpg
Datei image/jpeg, 308k
Titel Fig. 35
Bildunterschrift BE98 1009: scrap of striped wool cloth, possibly furnishing fabric (late Roman) (dimensions 2.8cm by 2.5cm).
Impressum © J.P. Wild
URL http://books.openedition.org/cdf/docannexe/image/5254/img-36.jpg
Datei image/jpeg, 128k
Titel Fig. 36
Bildunterschrift BE98 1013: fragment of striped wool textile with plied warp, possibly a furnishing fabric (late Roman).
Impressum © J.P. Wild
URL http://books.openedition.org/cdf/docannexe/image/5254/img-37.jpg
Datei image/jpeg, 124k
Titel Fig. 37
Bildunterschrift BE88 1076: linen curtain fragment with a small tapestry-woven motif (a bud?) inserted in dyed wool yarns.
Impressum © J.P. Wild
URL http://books.openedition.org/cdf/docannexe/image/5254/img-38.jpg
Datei image/jpeg, 200k
Titel Fig. 38
Bildunterschrift Curtain with scattered individual decorative motifs represented on a mosaic in the church of San Apollinare Nuovo, Ravenna (sixth century) (photo by courtesy of Cäcilia Fluck).
Impressum © C. Fluck
URL http://books.openedition.org/cdf/docannexe/image/5254/img-39.jpg
Datei image/jpeg, 212k
Titel Fig. 39
Bildunterschrift BE96 0205/0206: corner of a rough wool cloak with selvedge, twined transverse border and remains of a blue tapestry-woven H-motif.
Impressum © J.P. Wild
URL http://books.openedition.org/cdf/docannexe/image/5254/img-40.jpg
Datei image/jpeg, 260k
Titel Fig. 40
Bildunterschrift BE96 0205/0206: conjectural outline of the cloak represented by the fragments BE96 0205/0206 based on contemporary examples from graves in Lower Nubia.
Impressum © J.P. Wild
URL http://books.openedition.org/cdf/docannexe/image/5254/img-41.jpg
Datei image/jpeg, 40k
Titel Fig. 41A
Bildunterschrift BE96 0227: scrap of wool taqueté with geometric pattern in red (dimensions 5.2 cm by 3.4 cm).
URL http://books.openedition.org/cdf/docannexe/image/5254/img-42.jpg
Datei image/jpeg, 260k
Titel Fig. 41B
Bildunterschrift BE96 0227: the probable overall decorative scheme of the taqueté BE96 0227.
URL http://books.openedition.org/cdf/docannexe/image/5254/img-43.jpg
Datei image/jpeg, 140k
Titel Fig. 42A
Bildunterschrift BE97 0029: wool taqueté with pattern of contiguous hexagons containing quartered lozenges in blue.
URL http://books.openedition.org/cdf/docannexe/image/5254/img-44.jpg
Datei image/jpeg, 200k
Titel Fig. 42B
Bildunterschrift BE97 0029: decorative scheme of wool taqueté BE97 0029.
URL http://books.openedition.org/cdf/docannexe/image/5254/img-45.jpg
Datei image/jpeg, 72k
Titel Fig. 43A
Bildunterschrift BE95 0043: embroidery in chain stitch on a blue and red wool ground weave (overall dimensions of re-assembled fragments c.10 cm by c.5 cm).
URL http://books.openedition.org/cdf/docannexe/image/5254/img-46.jpg
Datei image/jpeg, 80k
Titel Fig. 43B
Bildunterschrift BE98 0043: tracing of embroidered lines on BE97 0043.
Impressum © J.P. Wild
URL http://books.openedition.org/cdf/docannexe/image/5254/img-47.jpg
Datei image/jpeg, 44k
Titel Fig. 44A
Bildunterschrift BE98 1037: crushed blue felt ball covered with decorative wrapping yarns in the ‘god’s eye’ technique.
Impressum © J.P. Wild
URL http://books.openedition.org/cdf/docannexe/image/5254/img-48.jpg
Datei image/jpeg, 192k
Titel Fig. 44B
Bildunterschrift BE98 1037: principle of the ‘god’s eye’ structure.
Impressum © J.P. Wild
URL http://books.openedition.org/cdf/docannexe/image/5254/img-49.jpg
Datei image/jpeg, 44k
Titel Fig. 45
Bildunterschrift BE96 0290: fragment of linen with traces of lines of loops in blue wool yarn framed in red to form an incomplete tongue-shaped feature.
Impressum © J.P. Wild
URL http://books.openedition.org/cdf/docannexe/image/5254/img-50.jpg
Datei image/jpeg, 144k
Titel Fig. 46
Bildunterschrift Detail of the ‘Elijah’ hanging in the Abegg-Stiftung showing (upside down) a tongue-shaped motif (photograph by Christoph von Viràg, reproduced by courtesy of the Abegg-Stiftung, CH-3132 Riggisberg).
Impressum © C. von Viràg
URL http://books.openedition.org/cdf/docannexe/image/5254/img-51.jpg
Datei image/jpeg, 368k
Titel Fig. 47
Bildunterschrift The greater part of the ‘Elijah’ hanging in the Abegg-Stiftung (photograph by Christoph von Viràg, reproduced by courtesy of the Abegg-Stiftung, CH-3132 Riggisberg).
URL http://books.openedition.org/cdf/docannexe/image/5254/img-52.jpg
Datei image/jpeg, 212k
Titel Fig. 48
Bildunterschrift BE97 0092: cotton check in Z-spun yarns.
URL http://books.openedition.org/cdf/docannexe/image/5254/img-53.jpg
Datei image/jpeg, 80k
Titel Fig. 49
Bildunterschrift BE95 0078: scrap of cotton check in Z-spun yarns (dimensions 2.5cm by 3cm).
URL http://books.openedition.org/cdf/docannexe/image/5254/img-54.jpg
Datei image/jpeg, 52k
Titel Fig. 50
Bildunterschrift BE01 2706: resist-dyed cotton in Z-spun yarns with fringe and dot-rosette motifs.
URL http://books.openedition.org/cdf/docannexe/image/5254/img-55.jpg
Datei image/jpeg, 172k
Titel Fig. 51
Bildunterschrift BE98 1105: resist-dyed cotton in Z-spun yarns with overall dot-rosette pattern (dimensions 11.5 cm by 10.5 cm).
Impressum © J.P. Wild
URL http://books.openedition.org/cdf/docannexe/image/5254/img-56.jpg
Datei image/jpeg, 216k
Titel Fig. 52A
Bildunterschrift BE96 0219: resist-dyed cotton in Z-spun yarns with probable ‘lotus’ motif (dimensions 4 cm by 9 cm).
Impressum © J.P. Wild
URL http://books.openedition.org/cdf/docannexe/image/5254/img-57.jpg
Datei image/jpeg, 144k
Titel Fig. 52B
Bildunterschrift BE96 0219: conjectural reconstruction of the fragmentary ‘lotus’ motif on BE96 0219.
URL http://books.openedition.org/cdf/docannexe/image/5254/img-58.jpg
Datei image/jpeg, 56k
Titel Fig. 53A
Bildunterschrift BE94 116: resist-dyed cotton fragment in Z-spun yarns with partial floral decoration (dimensions 3.4 cm by 1.4 cm).
Impressum © J.P. Wild
URL http://books.openedition.org/cdf/docannexe/image/5254/img-59.jpg
Datei image/jpeg, 100k
Titel Fig. 53B
Bildunterschrift BE94 116: conjectural reconstruction of the fragmentary floral motif on BE94 116.
URL http://books.openedition.org/cdf/docannexe/image/5254/img-60.jpg
Datei image/jpeg, 72k
Titel Fig. 54
Bildunterschrift BE95 0040: fragments of cotton cloth in S-spun yarns.
URL http://books.openedition.org/cdf/docannexe/image/5254/img-61.jpg
Datei image/jpeg, 120k
Titel Fig. 55
Bildunterschrift BE96 0557: rectangle of medium-weight cotton cloth in S-spun yarns.
URL http://books.openedition.org/cdf/docannexe/image/5254/img-62.jpg
Datei image/jpeg, 148k
Titel Fig. 56
Bildunterschrift BE96 0536 piece of densely woven cotton cloth in S-spun yarns.
URL http://books.openedition.org/cdf/docannexe/image/5254/img-63.jpg
Datei image/jpeg, 156k
Titel Fig. 57
Bildunterschrift BE96 0614: strip of S/S spun cotton cloth with thick self-bands at intervals in weft.
URL http://books.openedition.org/cdf/docannexe/image/5254/img-64.jpg
Datei image/jpeg, 160k
Titel Fig. 58
Bildunterschrift BE96 0417: scrap of S/S spun cotton with remains of brocading in blue cotton yarn.
URL http://books.openedition.org/cdf/docannexe/image/5254/img-65.jpg
Datei image/jpeg, 180k
Titel Fig. 59
Bildunterschrift BE96 0474: piece of medium-weight S/S spun cotton with two narrow bands in green-blue cotton yarn.
URL http://books.openedition.org/cdf/docannexe/image/5254/img-66.jpg
Datei image/jpeg, 161k

Autoren

Independent researcher
Professor Emeritus, University of Manchester (United Kingdom)

© Collège de France, 2018

Nutzungsbedingungen http://www.openedition.org/6540