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Céramiques antiques en Lycie (viie s. a.C. - viie s. p.C.)

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Séverine Lemaître

Limyra in Lycia: Byzantine/Umayyad pottery finds from excavations in the eastern part of the city

Joanita Vroom

Texte intégral

Introduction

1In this article I will discuss the Post-Roman ceramic finds (with an emphasis on ‘Dark Age’ and Early Islamic wares) from excavations in the eastern part of Limyra on the Lycian coast. The excavation of the site has been carried out since 1969 under the direction of Prof. Jürgen Borchardt, and since 2002 under the direction of Dr. Thomas Marksteiner, both employed at the Archaeological Institute at the University of Vienna (Österreichisches Archäologisches Institut) in Austria.

  • 1 Cf. also Vroom 2005a.

2I will present here a selection of Late Antique and Byzantine/Umayyad ceramic finds from two excavation trenches in the eastern part of Limyra. It concerns trenches SO 21/1 and SO 21/2, which were excavated during the year 1996. The presentation of this material is intended as a contribution to the discussion of the pottery from the so-called ‘Dark Age period’ in Turkey in general, and in Lycia in particular1.

The site

  • 2 See Birgit Rückert’s in this volume.

3Limyra is a multi-period site on the Lycian coast near the modern port of Finike (ancient Phoenix). There is evidence of human activity on the site from Subgeometric/Archaic onward, as is shown by the presentation of pottery finds with geometric motives from Limyra (mainly from Sondages 9, 30 and 31) at this table-ronde2. The site was apparently inhabited until Ottoman times.

  • 3 Peschlow & Jacobek 1993, 65, pl. 8.5.

4The site of Limyra covers a substantial area which includes an acropolis, several cemeteries and a lower city in the plain of Finike. In the lower city the Late Antique walls form two enclosures on both sides of the stream Limyros, which runs through the ancient town and separates the site in a western and an eastern part (fig. 1). The double-scaled walls of the eastern city of Limyra were probably built during the 5th or 6th century A.D.3.

Fig. 1. Map of Limyra.

  • 4 Jacobek 1993, 111.
  • 5 See Jacobek 1991-1992, 173.

5The written sources indicate that Limyra was the seat of a suffragan bishop from the end of the 4th until the end of the 9th centuries4. Nowadays, one can still observe the remains of a Bishop’s church in the eastern part of Limyra, as well as the remains of a structure which has been tentatively identified as an ‘Episkopion’ or ‘Bishop’s palace’ by the Austrians excavators (although it is not sure yet what its function really was5). Recent excavations in this part of the town yielded large quantities of ceramic finds from Late Antique and Early Byzantine times.

  • 6 Vroom 1998.
  • 7 Ruggendorfer 1995; Pülz & Ruggendorfer 1995; Alanyalι et al. 1997b.

6At the request of the Archaeological Institute of the University of Vienna, I started in 1997 with the diagnosis, documentation and dating of the Post-Roman pottery excavated in the eastern city of Limyra6. That included all pottery after the Roman period, approximately from the 5th/6th century to Medieval (and even Ottoman) times. The sherds originated from trenches (SO) 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21 and 22 (fig. 2a), and were excavated in the years between 1993 and 1999 near a circa 8 metres wide paved ‘column street’ (or Säulenstrasse), as well as near the Bishop’s church and the ‘Bishop’s palace’7.

Excavation trenches SO 21/1 and 21/2

  • 8 Eisenmenger 1993; Eisenmenger & Mader 1995; Vroom 1998; Vroom 2004.

7According to the current typo-chronology, the largest part of the pottery from the excavations in the eastern part of Limyra can be dated in the time range from the late 4th until the late 7th century8. However, I would suggest here that it is possible to apply more accurate dates to several groups of these pottery finds from the eastern city. For instantly, it now seems certain that several types of wares found in Limyra were also used in later periods than the 7th century. Some wares (among them amphorae and domestic wares from the Byzantine/Umayyad period) to be discussed in this paper, can even definitively be dated to this later phase of occupation. Furthermore, other pottery types (e.g., a few forms of Cypriot Red Slip Ware) did probably not disappear in the mid/late 7th century, as is commonly assumed, but remained in use for a longer period.

Fig. 2a. Map of all excavation pits (SO 16-22) and detail of SO 21, in eastern part of Limyra.

Fig. 2b. Photograph of excavation pit SO 21 in eastern part of Limyra.

  • 9 Alanyalι et al. 1997a; 1997b, 381; Ruggendorfer 1999.
  • 10 Alanyalι et al. 1997a, 11, fig. 10; 1997b, 381 fig. 23.

8To substantiate these later dates, I will present in more detail the ceramic finds from two excavation trenches of the eastern city of Limyra, namely trenches SO 21/1 and SO 21/2 (fig. 2b). These two trenches are two quadrants of ca. 9 metres long and 5 metres wide, and were excavated during 1996 to the east of the earlier mentioned ‘column street’9. The small partition wall between the two quadrants had been put down at the end of the 1996 field season. Both trenches SO 21/1 and 21/2 revealed a junction of the 8,20 metres wide column street with another paved street. This last street is circa 10,85 metres wide and is going from the West to the East in the direction of the Bishop’s palace of Limyra. A third narrower street of circa 3 metres wide at this junction is going to the North, in the direction of the Bishop’s church. Noteworthy is also the find of a polychrome mosaic floor in the North-east of the trenches, probably for the decoration of a porticus (or hall) on the northern side of the large West-East street10.

Fig. 3. Graphs of percentages of pottery finds in excavation pits SO21/1 and SO 21/2 (FW = Fine Wares; AMP = Amphorae; CW = Coarse Wares; Ritual = Ritual Wares and Lamps = oil-lamps).

  • 11 P. Ruggendorfer, pers. comm.

9The excavations in trenches SO 21/1 and 21/2 yielded in 1996 a total of 690 diagnostic sherds, as well as many glass finds and some metal objects (like nails and hoes). One coin was found in the north-eastern corner of trench SO 21/1, above the pavement of the street leading to the bishop’s church. The coin is a sestercian of Valerian, and can be dated in 253-259 A.D.11. However, the coin seems to have no connection with the dating of the pottery found in trench SO 21/1, as will be argued below.

Li 96 SO 21/1

  • 12 See also Des Courtils et al. 2001, figs. 18 and 20 for unguentaria finds in Xanthos.

10Excavation trench SO 21/1 yielded a total of 431 pottery fragments from 10 samples. Of this total, 260 sherds (or 60%) were diagnostic; the rest of the material consisted mainly of tile and water pipe fragments. Of these 260 diagnostic sherds, 91 pieces (36%) consisted of fine wares, 86 pieces (33%) were amphora fragments, 75 pieces (28%) consisted of coarse wares, 5 pieces (2%) were unguentaria fragments and 3 pieces (1%) were sherds from oil-lamps (fig. 3)12. For the purpose of this paper, I will concentrate here on the dating of the most important fragments found in excavation trench SO 21/1 and will, therefore, focus the attention to samples KE 315 and KE 317.

11Sample KE 315 was found at the north-eastern corner of excavation trench SO 21/1, a stratum running over the demolished walls and the mosaic of the hall in the east of SO 21/1 (fig. 2a-2b). It yielded 54 diagnostic sherds: 13 pieces consisted of fine wares, 10 pieces from coarse wares, 20 pieces were amphora fragments, there was 1 oil lamp fragment (Bailey Q 3339 type) and 10 pieces belonged into the category ‘other’ (table 1).

Li So 21/1

KE 315

KE 317

Total

Cypriot Red Slip Ware

13

14

27

Cypriot Red Slip Ware imitation

2

2

Casserole (in local fabric)

2

2

Jug (in local fabric)

2

2

Judean frying pan

1

1

Unglazed kitchen ware

4

4

N. Syrian mortar

1

1

Palestinian cooking pot

3

3

Grey gritty cooking ware

2

2

Bailey Q 3339 oil lamp

1

1

Saucer-shaped lid (with glaze)

1

1

LR 1 amphora

2

1

3

LR 2 amphora

3

2

5

LR 5/6 amphora

2

2

LR 7 amphora

2

2

Other amphorae

13

10

23

Storage jar

1

1

Other

10

3

13

Total

54

41

95

Table 1. Pottery finds in samples KE 315 and KE 317 from Li SO 21/1.

12One of the finds from KE 315 was a lid fragment with splashes of glaze on the inside, as well as on the outside (cat. no 1, fig. 4E, pl. 1a-b). This seems to indicate that the lid was made in a pottery workshop which also produced glazed wares. Its shape has parallels with similar pieces found at the Yassi Ada shipwreck, as well as with examples recovered during excavations at Salamis in Cyprus and at Déhès in North Syria. A similar looking lid in a glazed version was also found during the excavations at Saraçhane in Constantinople where it was assigned by John Hayes to the ‘Glazed White Ware I’ – group of glazed wares. In general, this type of lid has been dated in the 7th century (or later), and on sites in North Syria (for example, in Déhès) even from the 7th to the 9th centuries.

13Noteworthy in this sample is also the rim fragment of an unglazed mortar in a white-greyish fabric with a rounded spout on the rim (cat. no 2, fig. 4A). The sherd seems to be of a mortar in a North Syrian fabric. Its shape has similarities with examples from Anemurium in Cilicia, from Déhès in Syria and from the Crypta Balbi excavations in Rome, which have all been found in a late 7th-begin 8th century context.

  • 13 Uscatescu 2003, 553.
  • 14 Catling & Dikigoropoulos 1970, 47 with further literature.

14Of the 6th (perhaps 7th) century are two rim fragments of deep casseroles and a base fragment of a jug with central button in sample KE 315 (cat. no 3-5, fig. 4B-D). All three fragments are made in a local fabric. The shape of the casseroles shows similarities with finds from Rome (Crypta Balbi excavations), from Constantinople (Saraçhane excavations), as well as from Syria (Déhès) and the Near East. Deep casseroles with small horizontal handles were the predominant type in Jordan and South Palestine during the Umayyad period, but were apparently also produced in Egypt (in the Nile Delta)13. Similar bases as the jug fragment in sample KE 315 (cat. no 5, fig. 4D) were also recovered in the East: at Mt. Nebo and at Beth Shan, for instance, as well as at’Ain el Jedide where such jugs with a central button were found together with an Umayyad coin of the 8th century14.

  • 15 Uscatescu 2003, 553.

15Another find from the Near East in this sample is a horizontal tubular handle or a so-called `wishbone handle’of a frying pan or casserole of probably Judean origin (cat. no 6, fig. 4F, pl. 2). This type of cooking ware is common on sites in the Near East (e.g., Israel, South Palestine and Jordan). For instance, it is present in Caesarea, Bethany, Jerusalem, Bethlehem, Jericho and Beirut, but rare outside this area15. In fact, until now similar pieces were only found at three sites outside the Near East: at Anemurium in Cilicia, at Kellia in Egypt and at Pegeia in Cyprus. Most of these casseroles with wishbone handles were dated in the 6th and 7th centuries.

16Furthermore, sample 315 yielded the rim fragment of a large transport amphora with a wide neck and everted rim (cat. no 7, fig. 4G, pl. 3). Although the rim looks unusually thick, the piece is probably a Keay type 62 from the 6th-early 7th centuries. The fabric is very chalky, which seems to suggest that this amphora fragment could come from the Seleucia/Northern Syria region.

Catalogue

1. Lid (KE 315): complete profile (fig. 4E, pls. 1a-b)

17Pres. H. 0.026; pres. W. 0.073; Diam. lid 0.140; Th. wall 0.004-5.

18Moderately soft, medium fine, dull orange to light yellow-orange fabric (core: 7.5 YR 8/3; ext: 5 YR 7/4; int: 7.5 Y 5/1) with a few fine lime and many fine to medium black, dark red and whitish mineral particles. Sandy feel. Saucer-shaped lid with round knob. Bears splashes of vitreous lead glaze in a greenish tinge (2.5 Y 4/3) in and out, indicating that the lid was made in a workshop which also produced glazed wares.

19Cf. for shape, Salamis (Diederichs 1980, pl. 24, no 306-8); Déhès, 7th-9th c. (Orssaud 1980, fig. 307, type 4); Yassi Ada shipwreck, mid 7th c. (Bass 1982, fig. 8-13, P41-2.) and Saraçhane (Hayes 1992, fig. 4, no 20 for a glazed version).

Fig. 4. Pottery finds from SO 21/1 KE 315: A = cat. no 2; B = cat. no 3; C = cat. no 4; D = cat. no 5; E = cat. no 1; F = cat. no 6; G = cat. no 7.

Pl. 1a. Pottery find from SO 21/1 KE 315: lid (cat. no 1 front). b. Pottery find from SO 21/1 KE 315: lid (cat. no 1 back).

2. Mortar with spout (KE 315): rim fragment (fig. 4A)

20Pres. H. 0.063; est. Diam. rim 0.280; Th. wall 0.010-12.

21Soft, very coarse, light grey fabric (7.5 YR 8/2) with very many medium black mineral inclusions and some medium voids. Chalky feel. Everted rim with rounded spout on top; convex divergent upper body.

22Cf. for shape, Amemurium, end 7th c. (Williams 1989, fig. 77); Déhès, 7th-9th c. (Orssaud 1980, fig. 305, type 6b); Crypta Balbi, 7th c. (Ricci 1998, 360-61, fig. 5, no 7-12 ‘vasi a listello’).

3. Casserole (KE 315): rim fragment (fig. 4B)

23Pres. H. 0.085; est. Diam. rim 0.260; Th. wall 0.007.

24Soft, medium coarse, light yellow orange to orange fabric (7.5 YR 8/3; core: 5 YR 7/6) with some medium lime, many medium black mineral inclusions and some large red iron (?). Sandy feel. Sliced rim for receiving a lid; convex divergent upper body.

25Cf. for shape, Déhès, 7th-9th c. (Orssaud 1980, type 6b?); Crypta Balbi, late 7th-begin 8th c. (Paroli 1992, 366, pl. 5, no 18-9); Saraçhane, 655-670 AD (Hayes 1992, fig. 38, no 11, deposit 29); Beirut, Umayyad (Reynolds 2003b, fig. 3, no 6) and, in general, for the Near East (Uscatescu 2003, fig. 4, no 39-45).

4. Casserole (KE 315): rim fragment (fig. 4C)

26Pres. H. 0.067; est. Diam. rim> 0.300; Th. wall 0.008-9.

27Same as cat. no 3.

5. Jug (KE 315): base fragment with central button (fig. 4D)

28Pres. H. 0.013; est. Diam base 0.060; Th. Wall 0.004.

29Soft, medium fine, pale orange fabric (5 YR 8/4; core: 5 YR 7/4) with some fine lime, and a few micaceous particles. Smooth feel. Recessed, deep concave base with a prominent convex boss at the centre; convex divergent lower body.

30Cf. for shape, Kornos Cave, mid 7th c. or late 7th /early 8th c. (Catling & Dikigoropoulos 1970, fig. 3, no 5-10, pl. XXXI) and Salamis Bench deposit, 650-725 AD (Catling & Dikigoropoulos 1970, fig. 7, no 9-12); Ain el Jedide, found together with an Umayyad coin of the 8th century (Hamilton 1935, pl. LXVII; Catling & Dikigoropoulos 1970, 47 with further literature). See also, for finds in Jordan, mid 8th c. (Uscatescu 2003, fig. 6, no 76-77).

6. Frying pan (KE 315): handle fragment (fig. 4F, pl. 2)

31Pres. L. 0.063; Diam. handle 0.030; Th. wall 0.017-21.

32Soft, medium fine, orange fabric (5 YR 7/8) with some, fine to medium lime, a few fine micaceous particles and very many fine to medium voids. Rough, powdery feel. Horizontal tubular handle (also known as ‘wishbone’ handle).

33Cf. for shape, Nessana (Colin Baly 1962, pl. 52, no 76); Kellia (Egloff 1977, pl. 17, no 10); Anemurium (Williams 1989, 62, no 358, fig. 32 with further literature); Pegeia on Cyprus (Bakirtzis 1996, fig. 5a-b): Caesarea and Sebastos (Adan-Bayewitz 1986, 125, fig. 3.21-22; Uscatescu 2003, 553, fig. 4, no 46-7) and in general (Sodini & Villeneuve 1992, fig. 8, no 11).

Pl. 2. Pottery find from SO 21/1 KE 315: handle fragment of frying pan (cat. no 6).

7. Large transport amphora (KE 315): rim fragment (fig. 4G, pl. 3)

34Pres. H. 0.057; est. Diam. ext. rim 0.140; Th. wall 0.006-13.

35Soft, medium fine, light grey to pink fabric (ext: 7.5 Y 8/2; int: 5 YR 8/3) with a few fine lime and a few fine black and red mineral inclusions. Chalky feel. High, wide neck with everted, thickened rim.

36Cf. for shape, Tunisia, 6th-early 7th c.? (Keay 1984, type 62) and in general (Peacock & Williams 1986, 202-4, class 51).

Pl. 3. Pottery find from SO 21/1 KE 315: rim fragment of spatheion (cat. no 7).

37Let’s now look at the ceramic finds from another sample in SO 21/1. Sample KE 317 was found at the north-eastern corner of the excavation trench, circa 25 cm. above the pavement of the (3 metres wide) narrow street leading to the bishop’s church. It yielded 41 sherds: 16 pieces consisted of fine wares, 7 pieces of coarse wares, 15 pieces were amphora fragments and 3 pieces belonged into the category ‘other’ (table 1).

38Among the fine wares is a dish of Cypriot Red Slip Ware (cat. no 8, fig. 5A). This is the so-called ‘well form’ dish with in-turned rim, flaring body and flat base, which was found in Anemurium in a well fill of post-630 AD. The interior is covered with a sparse, vague slip; the exterior body is decorated with rouletting. Apart from Anemurium, it has also been found in later contexts at Perge (Turkey), at Dhiorios and at Kalavasos-Kopetra (Cyprus), as well as in Alexandria (Egypt).

39In the same category of slipped fine wares belongs a neck-shoulder fragment of a closed vessel (probably a jug) with wavy incised lines on the shoulder and a sparse brownish slip on the outside (cat. no 9, fig. 5B, pl. 4). Until now, one similar jug has been published as part of the Kornos Cave group on Cyprus, where it was dated ca. 550-750 A.D. Furthermore, a few sherds of closed shapes (perhaps small pitchers) have been recovered at Kalavasos-Kopetra, also on Cyprus. Despite the suspected Cypriot origin, it is possible that the shape could also be an unknown variant (or imitation) of Cypriot Red Slip Ware. A production centre for imitations of Cypriot Red Slip Ware has been suggested, for instance, by John Hayes on the south coast of Turkey, mainly because the site of Perge in Pamphylia (near Antalya) has yielded unknown shapes.

Fig. 5. Pottery finds from SO 21/1 KE 317: A = cat. no 8; B = cat. no 9; C = cat. no 10; D = cat. no 12.

  • 16 P. Reynolds, pers. comm.

40Sample 317 also yielded a rim fragment (and a handle fragment) of a grey gritty cooking ware (cat. no 10, fig. 5C). The fabric is coarse, moderately soft with very many black and white (angular) mineral inclusions (quartz?) and some large mica. The vessel is perhaps a variant of the Aegean type Fulford (Carthage) Casserole 35 with a reduced and micaceous fabric, which was probably made in Samos or usually near Samos16. A similar shape of the Limyra fragment can be distinguished at the Balboura survey in Lycia, where it was dated by Pamela Catling-Armstrong in the late 8th century, as well as at the Saraçhane excavations in Constantinople where it was found in an 8th to 10th century context.

41Noteworthy are also two body fragments of a bag-shaped LR amphora 5/6, with incised wavy lines on the exterior wall (cat. no 12, fig. 5D). The fabric is soft, medium coarse and light brownish in colour, with some lime and black quartz inclusions and very many mica. LR amphorae 5/6 with similar incised decoration and similar fabric were found at excavations in Palestine (e.g., Caesarea, Akko, Beth She’an/ Keisan) and in Jerusalem, where they were dated from the 6th century to the first half of the 8th century. They were also recovered at Gortys on Crete in a 7th-8th century context.

8. Cypriot Red Slip dish, ‘Anemurium well form’ (KE 317.1): complete profile (fig. 5A)

42Pres. H. 0.055; est. Diam. rim 0.285; Th. wall 0.007-13.

43Medium fine, soft, pale orange fabric (ext: 5 YR 8/4; int: 5 YR 7/4). The interior is covered with sparse, vague, dull reddish brown slip (5 YR 5/3). The exterior body is decorated with rouletting. Broad, shallow dish with rounded rim (with off-set on interior); straight divergent body; flat base with standing ring.

44Cf. for shape, Anemurium, post-630 AD (Williams 1989, 34-5, no 191-94, fig. 15; Dhiorios (Catling 1972, 9 fig. 5 P28 and P95); Kalavasos-Kopetra (McClellan & Rautman 1994, fig. 4, no 4; Rautman et al. 2003, fig. 5.3, no 32-34); see also Perge (Firat 2000, fig. 3 for similar example, but with ring foot).

9. Closed vessel with straight and wavy incised lines (KE 317.1): shoulder fragment (fig. 5B, pl. 4)

45Pres. H. 0.126; est. Diam. neck 0.166; Th. wall 0.009.

46Medium fine, moderately soft, pale orange to orange fabric (ext: 5 YR 8/4 and 7/3; int: 2.5 YR 6/6) with some medium lime and black mineral inclusions. Smooth feel. There is a sparse, brownish slip on the outside. Out: straight and wavy incised lines. Straight symmetrical neck; convex convergent upper body.

47Cf. for shape, Kornos Cave, mid 7th c. (Catling & Dikigoropoulos 1970, 46, no 1, fig. 3, pl. 30); Salamis (Diederichs 1980, pl. 19, no 193) and Kalavasos-Kopetra (Rautman et al. 2003, 165, fig. 5.3, no 36-37); see also Perge for imitations of Cypriot Red Slip Ware (Atik 1995, 161 and Firat 2000).

Pl. 4. Pottery find from SO 21/1 KE 317: shoulder fragment of closed vessel (cat. no 9).

10. Grey gritty cooking ware (KE 317.1): rim fragment (fig. 5C)

48Pres. H. 0.043; est. Diam. rim 0.140; Th. wall 0.005-6.

49Moderately soft, coarse, grey to yellowish grey fabric (core: 5 Y 5/1; ext: 2.5 Y 6/2 and 5/1; int: 2.5 Y 5/1) with very many medium black and white (angular) mineral inclusions and some large mica. Rough feel. Laminated break. No slip. Everted rim with straight lip; straight convergent upper body.

50Cf. for shape, Saraçhane, 8th-10th c. (Hayes 1992) and Balboura survey, late 8th c. (Armstrong forthcoming).

11. LR amphora 1a (KE 317): base fragment

51Pres. L. 0.092; pres. W. 0.116.

52Moderately soft, medium coarse, dull orange fabric (7.5 YR 6/4) with some fine lime, many fine black and red mineral inclusions and a few fine micaceous particles. Very sandy feel. Convex divergent base with concentric grooves. Same as cat. no 22.

12. LR amphora 5/6 (KE 317.1): 2 body fragments with incised wavy lines (fig. 5D)

53Pres. L. 0.075; pres. W. 0.124; Th. wall 0.008-10.

54Soft, medium coarse, light brownish grey fabric (7.5 YR 7/2) with some medium lime, black mineral inclusions and very many fine mica. No slip. Straight and wavy incised lines on the outside.

55Cf. for shape, Gortys, 7th-8th c. (Rendini 1988, 272, no 276, fig. 223) and Palestine: e.g., Caesarea, Acre, Beth She’an/Keisan and Jerusalem, 6th to first half 8th c. (Magness 1993, 228-29: storage jars form 6a).

Li 96 SO 21/2

56Excavation trench SO 21/2 yielded a total of 259 sherds, of which 219 fragments (or 85% of the total finds in the trench) were diagnostic. Of these 219 diagnostic sherds, 80 fragments (36%) consisted of fine wares, 59 pieces (27%) were amphora fragments, 76 pieces (35%) consisted of coarse wares, 2 pieces (1%) were unguentaria fragments and 2 pieces (1%) were sherds from oil-lamps (fig. 3). It may be noted that the percentages of the various wares in both trenches SO 21/1 and SO 21/2 are quite equal (fig. 3). Attention will be drawn here to samples KE 313 and KE 312.

57Sample KE 313 was found outside the apses in SO 21/2, ca. 3,5 m. to the southeast, on the pavement of the large street. It yielded 38 sherds: 10 pieces consisted of fine wares, 4 pieces of coarse wares, 11 pieces were amphora fragments and 3 pieces belonged to the category ‘other’ (table 2).

Li So 21/2

KE 313

KE 312

Total

Phocaean Red Slip Ware

1

1

Cypriot Red Slip Ware

10

20

30

Cypriot Red Slip Ware imitation

9

9

Unglazed Kitchen Ware (local)

2

25

27

Palestinian cooking pot

2

5

7

Palestinian frying pan

1

1

Burnished cooking pot

1

1

Glazed cooking pot

1

1

Casserole (later)

1

1

Unguentarium

1

1

Bailey Q 3339 oil lamp

2

2

LR 1 amphora

2

8

10

LR 5 amphora

4

4

LR 7 amphora

10

5

15

Bag-shaped jar

1

1

Other amphorae

9

13

22

Storage jar

1

1

Other

3

11

14

Total

38

110

148

Table 2. Pottery finds in samples KE 313 and KE 312 from Li SO 21/2.

58Sample KE 313 contained possibly one of the earliest finds in both trenches, namely a toe fragment of a Knidian amphora with a streaky reddish brown slip on the outside (cat. no 13, fig. 6, pl. 5). At the excavations of Agios Philon on Cyprus similar fragments were found in the last occupation layers of the site; that is to say from the 3rd to the 7th centuries.

59The amphora toe was found together with a convex lid fragment with a painted chequer decoration in a red/brownish colour on top (cat. no 14, pl. 6). A similar decoration technique is generally seen on painted wares which were found on Crete (e.g., the so-called ceramica sovradipinta from Gortys and dated there between the end of the 6th and the 8th centuries). Furthermore, this sort of painted wares was recovered in North Syria and the Near East during late Umayyad/Abbasid times (in Syria even until the 9th century). Also, similar painted wares have been found along the South coast in Turkey: at sites such as Xanthos and Perge, as well as at Antioch and at the monastery of Alahan and Kilise Tepe in Cilicia.

Fig. 6. Pottery find from SO 21/2 KE 313: Knidian amphora (cat. no 13).

Pl. 5. Pottery find from SO 21/2 KE 313: toe fragment of Knidian amphora (cat. no 13).

Pl. 6. Pottery find from SO 21/2 KE 313: painted lid fragment (cat. no 14).

13. Knidian amphora (KE 313): toe fragment (fig. 6, pl. 5)

60Pres. H. 0.103; pres. W. 0.066; Diam. Toe 0.019; Th. wall 0.007.

61Moderately soft, medium coarse, pale (reddish) orange fabric (ext: 5 YR 8/3; int: 2.5 YR 7/4; core: 5 YR 6/4) with a few fine lime, some large black mineral inclusions and a few fine micaceous particles. Smooth feel. Streaky reddish brown slip (10 R 5/4) on the outside. Pointed toe of a Knidian amphora

62Cf. for shape, Ayios Philon in Cyprus, found in last occupation layer: 5th-7th c. (Du Plat Taylor & Megaw 1981, fig. 42, no 363-4).

14. Painted lid fragment (KE 313) (pl. 6)

63Pres. L. 0.065; pres. W. 0.060.

64Moderately soft, medium fine, light yellow orange fabric (7.5 YR 8/3) with many medium black and red mineral particles. Sandy feel. Matt, orange-brown slip (5 YR 6/6) painted as chequer-decoration on top of lid.

65Cf. for similar painted decoration, Alahan and Kilise Tepe in Cilicia (Williams 1985, 41-47, pls. 75-84; M. Jackson, pers. comm.); Antioch (Waagé 1948, 58-59, fig. 36) and see for painted wares of late Umayyad/Abbasid times from North Syria and the Near East in general (Uscatescu 2003, fig. 6, no 73-80).

Fig. 7. Pottery finds from SO 21/2 KE 312: A = cat. no 15; B = cat. no 16.

66Trench SO 21/2 yielded also sample KE 312, near the SW-corner of the trench, circa 25 cm. above the pavement of the large street. It contained 110 sherds: 30 pieces consisted of fine wares, 35 pieces of coarse wares, 31 pieces were amphora fragments, 11 pieces belonged to the category ‘other’. Finally, there was one part of an unguentarium, as well as two (Bailey Q 3339) oil lamp fragments (see table 2).

67This sample contains another example of an ‘Anemurium well form’ dish with in-turned rim and with rouletted decoration on the exterior body (cat. no 15, fig. 7A). Like the first one mentioned above (cat. no 8, fig. 5a in SO 21/1 sample KE 315), it can be dated post-630 AD.

68Another piece of slipped fine ware is a rim-handle fragment of a closed vessel, probably a one-handled jug from Asia Minor (?) (cat. no 16, fig. 7B, pl. 7). The sherd is in and out covered with a matt, orange slip. The shape of this fragment has similarities with examples from the Kornos Cave excavations which were dated in the 7th and early 8th centuries.

Pl. 7. Pottery find from SO 21/2 KE 312: rim-handle fragment of closed vessel (cat. no 16).

  • 17 Reynolds 2003a, fig. 5, no 11.
  • 18 P. Reynolds, pers. comm.
  • 19 Y y. Waksman, pers. comm.

69Particularly interesting are two rim-handle fragments of a so-called ‘Palestinian cooking pot’ with a sharply inturned rim and long strap handles (cat. no 17-18, fig. 8A-B, pl. 8). It is the most common Byzantine cooking pot of presumed Palestinian origin, and it is in the Near East also found in Umayyad contexts17. This wheel-ridged and thin-walled cooking pot in a red, ‘brittle ware’ fabric was first recognized at the kiln site of Dhiorios on North Cyprus, where it is generally dated in the mid 7th century (and according to the latest views even in the early 8th century). Recently, evidence for the production of this type cooking pot in the Near East has also been found at the excavations in Beirut, where it is typical of late 6th-7th century contexts with a continuation into the Umayyad period18. Similar vessels were manufactured in at least two other production sites distinct from Dhiorios: one of them was probably located in the neighbourhood of Tell Keisan (in West Palestine); the other production site is of later date (namely of the 8th century) but as yet unlocated19.

70Sample KE 312 also contained two fragments of a glazed cooking pot with handle (cat. no 20, fig. 8C). The fabric is coarse, with very many white (angular) quartz inclusions. The vitreous lead glaze is put directly on the interior body of the vessel (without a slip), which creates some pinholes. A similar shape was found at the Saraçhane excavations in Constantinople in a 925-950 A.D. context.

Pl. 8. Pottery find from SO 21/2 KE 312: rim-handle fragment of cooking pot (cat. no 17).

71Of nearly the same gritty fabric is the handle fragment of another cooking pot, which is perhaps an imitation of a metal-made casserole or frying pan (cat. no 21, fig. 8D, pl. 9). Similar examples were found at Gortys on Crete in the late 7th-late 8th centuries (the ultimate phase of the monastery), as well as at the Saraçhane excavations in an early 10th century context.

Fig. 8. Pottery finds from SO 21/2 KE 312: A = cat. no 17; B = cat. no 18; C = cat. no 20; D = cat. no 21.

Fig. 9. Pottery finds from SO 21/1 KE 312: LR amphora 7 (cat. no 25)

  • 20 Armstrong 1998.

72Another handle fragment from sample KE 312 belongs to a cooking pot of the so-called ‘pattern burnished ware’ (cat. no 19). This ware is named by Pamela Armstrong after finds in Lycia (actually at the Balboura survey and at the excavations in Xanthos), because it has a decoration of burnished parallel lines made by a blunt tool across the wet-smoothed surface20. The fabric is fairly hard, fine and brick-red in colour, and reminds of the fabrics of ‘brittle ware cooking pots’ found in Eastern Turkey and Northern Syria. The origin of this ‘pattern burnished ware’ is not yet known. More fragments of pattern burnished cooking pots have been found at other contexts (similar in date to sample KE 3123) in the eastern part of Limyra, and will be published in the near future.

  • 21 Riley 1979, 212-16.
  • 22 Empereur & Picon 1986.
  • 23 Manning et al. 2000.
  • 24 Demesticha 2000, fig. 1, groups B and C.

73Of the amphorae sherds found in sample KE 312, a rim-shoulder fragment of LR amphora 1 in a very sandy, buff fabric merits closer attention (cat. no 22, fig. 10A, pl. 10). Many fragments of this amphora type found in Limyra have a tall narrow neck, a slightly everted rim, as well as a horizontal ridge ca. 1-2 cm. below the rim, where the double-grooved handles are usually attached. These features are characteristic for a type of Late Roman amphora 1 (the so-called LRA 1a) which was dated on Cypriot sites from the 2nd half of the 6th to the late 7th century. The LR amphora 1a is probably the smallest variant of a large group of LR 1 amphorae21. It was probably produced in West Cyprus, because kilns and wasters were found in Amathous22, at Zygi-Petrini23 and at Paphos24. It is common on sites in Egypt (although with a shorter neck) and Cyprus (e.g., Kellia, Salamis, Kornos Cave, Kalavasos-Kopetra), but not so much in the Aegean, France and Spain.

74Furthermore, there is a rim fragment of a LR amphora 5 (= Piéri type 3) in a soft and sandy grey fabric (cat. no 24, fig. 10B). The rim of this amphora is rising from the shoulder, there is no neck, and the body is globular. It is, in general, either from Caesarea in Palestine, or perhaps from the Mareotis region in Egypt: there is, for instance, an Egyptian production centre for these amphorae near Alexandria, at Abu Mena. Its shape can be dated in the 6th to late 7th /8th? centuries.

75Noteworthy are also several fragments and base fragments of a LR amphora 7 from the Nile region in Northern Egypt (cat. no 25, fig. 9, pl. 11). The fabric is moderately soft, coarse, and brown in colour, including much organic temper and some fine to medium white inclusions and a few fine micaceous particles. The amphora is very inelegantly made: it has a short neck with sharply carinated shoulder and two small handles; a long tapering body and solid spike. This amphora type is common on sites of the Late Roman and Early Islamic periods in Egypt, and can be dated from the 7th to the (late) 8th /9th centuries, or even later (into the 10th-11th centuries).

Fig. 10. Pottery finds from SO 21/1 KE 312: A = cat. no 22; B = cat. no 24; C = cat. no 26.

  • 25 A. Gascoigne, pers. comm.

76Finally, sample KE 312 yielded a rim fragment of a bag-shaped jar of the Early Islamic period (cat. no 26, fig. 10C). This is an imitation of a LR amphora 5 from Palestine or of a Mareotic amphora from Egypt. It is probably made in North Egypt, perhaps at workshops in the Nile Delta (at Abu Mena or at Térénouthis/Kôm Abu Billu?). It can be dated in the first centuries of the Arab invasions in Egypt, that is to say: in the Umayyad period as well as in the Abbasid period (circa 7th-end 9th centuries). In Old Cairo, for instance, these bag-shaped jars appear in contexts of 8th-9th century date, with some examples somewhat later25. In Jordan, they can be found at the excavations of Pella in a Late Umayyad context.

15. Cypriot Red Slip dish, ‘Anemurium well form’ (KE 312): complete profile (fig. 7a)

77Pres. H. 0.067; est. Diam. rim 0.330; Th. wall 0.008-10.

78Soft, medium fine, light yellow orange fabric (7.5 YR 8/3) with some large lime and some fine black mineral inclusions. Dull reddish brown slip (2.5 YR 5/4 to 5/3) slip in and out. The exterior body is decorated with rouletting. Broad, shallow dish with rounded rim (with off-set on the interior); straight divergent body; flat base with standing ring.

79Cf. for shape, Anemurium, post-630 AD (Williams 1989, 34-35, no 191-94, fig. 15); Dhiorios (Catling 1972, 9, fig. 5 P95); Kalavasos-Kopetra (McClellan & Rautman 1994, fig. 4, no 4; Rautman et al. 2003, fig. 5.3, no 32-34); see also Perge (Firat 2000, fig. 3 for similar examples, but with ring foot).

16. Red Slip Ware closed vessel (KE 312): rim-handle fragment (fig. 7B, pl. 7)

80Pres. H. 0.155; est. Diam. rim 0.073; Th. wall 0.005.

81Moderately soft, fine, pale orange to orange fabric (ext: 5 YR 8/4; core: 5 YR 7/6) with a few fine lime inclusions. Smooth feel. Vague, matt, orange slip (2.5 YR 6/6 to 6/8) in and out. Symmetrical thickened rim; straight symmetrical neck; convex convergent body; plain vertical handle.

82Cf. in general, Kornos Cave, 7th-early 8th c. (Catling & Dikigoropoulos 1970, fig. 3, no 5-8) and Emporio (Boardman 1989, figs. 32-3).

17. Cooking pot (KE 312): rim-handle fragment (fig. 8A, pl. 8)

83Pres. H. 0.034; est. Diam. rim 0.160; Th. wall 0.005.

84Moderately soft, medium coarse, orange fabric (5 YR 7/6) with very many medium black and white mineral inclusions and a few fine micaceous particles. Rough, rather gritty feel. Vertical flat paired handles attached to an in-turned rim rising from the upper wall.

85Cf. for shape, Dhiorios (Catling 1972, fig. 7 P96); Kellia, 550-650 AD (Egloff 1977, type 138-41, fig. 73, no 8); Kalavasos-Kopetra (Rautmanet al. 1993, fig. 2, no 11; id. 2003, fig. 5.16, no 198-200) and Beirut, 7th c. (Reynolds 2003a, fig. 5, no 11).

18. Cooking pot (KE 312): rim-handle fragment (fig. 8B)

86Pres. H. 0.024; est. Diam. rim 0.186; Th. wall 0.003-5.

87Soft, medium, orange-red fabric (2.5 YR 6/8; ext.: 7.5 YR 5/2 dull brown surface) with many fine black and white mineral inclusions and a few fine micaceous particles. Rough, rather sandy feel. Cooking pot with rim sharply inturned at top; vertical plain loop handles (nearly flat in section).

88Cf. in general, Kellia, 480-700 AD (Egloff 1977, fig. 52, no 1-3); Salamis bench deposit, 650-725 AD (Catling & Dikigoropoulos 1970, fig. 7, no 7-8); Carthage (Hayes 1978, fig. 15.50, deposit xxv); Anemurium, ca. 550-end 7th c. (Williams 1989, fig. 37, no 406-8, 89, fig. 62, no 581) and Beirut, Umayyad (Reynolds 2003b, fig. 3, no 1-3). See also in general, Salamis (Hayes 1980, fig. 5) and the Yassi Ada shipwreck (Bass 1982, fig. 8-15, P53).

19. Cooking pot (KE 312-2): handle fragment

89Pres. L. 0.056; pres. W. 0.035; Th. handle: 0.009.

90Fairly hard, medium, reddish brown fabric (5 YR 4/4) with very many small white medium mineral particles (quartz?) and some medium lime inclusions. Wet-smoothed surface (2.5 YR 5/6). Vertical ridged strap-handle.

91Cf. for shape, Saraçhane, mid 10th c. (Hayes 1992, fig. 63, no 4-5, deposit 39) and Lycia (Armstrong 1998, fig. 3).

20. Glazed cooking pot (KE 312): rim-handle fragment (fig. 8C)

92Pres. H. 0.146; est. Diam. rim 0.188; Th. wall 0.005-7.

93Moderately soft, coarse, orange fabric (5 YR 6/6) with very many medium white (angular) mineral inclusions. No core. Rough feel. Irregular/laminated break. No slip. Vitreous transparent glaze on the interior, dull reddish brown in tinge (5 YR 4/4), with pinholes. Tiny splashes of transparent glaze on the outside. Slightly everted, thickened rim; convex divergent lower body; vertical oval handle.

94Cf. for shape, Saraçhane, 925-950+ AD (Hayes 1992, fig. 182, no 15-6).

Plate 9. Pottery find from SO 21/2 KE 312: handle fragment of frying pan or casserole? (cat. no 21).

21. Frying pan or casserole? (KE 312): handle fragment (fig. 8D, pl. 9)

95Pres. L. 0.078; pres. W. 0.039; Th. 0.017.

96Moderately soft, coarse, light yellow orange fabric (7.5 YR 7/3; core: 10 YR 4/2) with very many medium to coarse flint inclusions (up to 3 mm.). Rough, gritty feel. Horizontal flat handle with hole at the end.

97Cf. for shape, Gortys, late 7th-late 8th c. (Di Vita 1995, fig. 31, scodella ad ansa, ultima fase del monastero); Saraçhane, early 10th c. (Hayes 1992, fig. 59, no 14); Kellia (Egloff 1977, fig. 54, no 7); Anemurium (Williams 1989, fig. 32, no 354).

22. LR amphora 1a (KE 312): rim-shoulder fragment (fig. 10A, pl. 10)

98Pres. H. 0.146; est. Diam. rim 0.086; Th. wall 0.007-9.

99Moderately soft, medium coarse, dull orange fabric (7.5 YR 6/4) with some fine lime, many fine black and red mineral inclusions and a few fine micaceous particles. Very sandy feel. Slightly everted rim with rounded lip; horizontal ridge below rim where the vertical grooved handles are attached; tall and narrow straight symmetrical neck; straight convergent upper body.

100Cf. for shape, Salamis (Diederichs 1980, 55, pls. 19-20, no 211-12; Hayes 1980, fig. 15); Kornos Cave (Catling & Dikigoropoulos 1970, no 4, pl. XXIXA); Kalavasos-Kopetra, 7th c. (McClellan & Rautman 1994, 306, fig. 10, no 35; Rautman et al. 2003, fig. 5.11, no 142-44) and at two shipwrecks in North-East Cyprus (Morris & Peatfield 1987, K109 and TS130, fig. 4). Found in the Crimean peninsula, in Rumania, in Alexandria (Riley 1979, 216), in Argos (Aupert 1980, 438, no 322, fig. 45) and in Anemurium (Williams 1989, 96, no 565, figs. 7 and 56). Also found in Egypt and in the Near East (Egloff 1979, 112, types 164-66; Zemer 1977, 76 (no 64); Adan-Bayewitz 1986, 102, Ill. 103, amphora type 5, p. 124, fig. 2:4). At the shipwreck of Yassi Ada recovered with coins of Heraclius (Bass 1982, 155-57, figs. 8-1/3).

Pl. 10. Pottery find from SO 21/2 KE 312: rim-shoulder fragment of LR amphora 1a (cat. no 22).

23. LR amphora 4 (KE 312): toe fragment

101Pres. H. 0.050; est. Diam. base 0.032.

102Fairly hard, coarse, dull orange to greyish yellow fabric (ext: 7.5 YR 7/4; int: 5 YR 7/4; core: 2.5 Y 6/2) with some coarse micaceous particles. Hackly feel. Toe terminating in a point.

103Cf. for shape, Sinai, 2nd half 7th-8th c. (Arthur & Oren 1998, 207) and in general (Peacock & Williams 1986, 198-199, class 49); see also for an example in Xanthos (Des Courtils et al. 2001, fig. 15).

24. LR amphora 5 (KE 312): rim fragment (fig. 10B)

104Pres. H. 0.061; est. Diam. rim 0.097; Th. wall 0.006-9.

105Soft, medium, dull orange fabric (7.5 YR 7/4) with many fine lime inclusions. Sandy feel. A bag-shaped body with a straight symmetrical rim and rounded lip rising from the shoulder. Combed lines on shoulder.

106Cf. for shape, (Riley 1979, fig. 92, no 358; Bonifay & Villedieu 1989, 28; Rautman et al. 2003, fig. 5.12, no 151; and in general Peacock & Williams 1986, 191-192, class 46); see for more examples found in Limyra (Böhmer, Eisenmenger & Mader 1993, 267).

25. LR amphora 7 (KE 312): handle fragments and base fragment (fig. 9, pl. 11)

107Pres. H. 0.156 and 0.154; est. Diam. neck 0.068; est. Diam. base 0.046; Th. wall 0.006-10.

108Moderately soft, coarse, dull brown fabric (7.5 YR 6/4 to 5/4) with many organics, some fine to medium white inclusions and a few fine micaceous particles. Smooth feel. A long neck with sharply carinated shoulder and two small vertical handles; straight convergent upper body; pointed solid spike. Thick ridging occurs from the shoulder to the rim. Very inelegantly made.

109Cf. in general (Peacock & Williams 1986, 204-205, class 52); Kellia (Egloff 1977, 177) and Kalavasos-Kopetra (Rautman et al. 2003, fig. 5.12).

Pl. 11. Pottery find from SO 21/2 KE 312: neck-handle fragments of LR amphora 7 (cat. no 25).

26. Bag-shaped jar (type LR amphora 5/6): rim fragment (fig. 10C)

110Pres. H. 0.052; est. Diam. Rim 0.010; Th. wall 0.007.

111Soft, fine, dull orange fabric (5 YR 6/4) with some fine lime and a few fine red inclusions. Smooth feel. Creamish firing surface (7.5 YR 8/2) in and out. Slightly everted rim; short convex symmetrical neck; straight convergent upper body.

112Cf. for shape, Kellia, 700-750 AD (Egloff 1977, types 187-188, pls. 60.5 and 61.5); Nile Delta, 1st centuries of Arab invasions (Ballet 1997, 58, fig. 16); Egypt, 7th c./Umayyad-Abbasid (Vogt 1997, pl. II, no 6); Ostrakine, Egypt, Umayyad (Arthur & Oren 1998, fig. 9.2) and Pella in Jordan, Late Umayyad (Walmsley 1988, fig. III. 9, no 1).

Conclusion

113Summarizing, we can conclude that the pottery finds in samples KE 313 and KE 315 of the Limyra excavations may be dated to the 6th to 7th centuries (perhaps even to the early 8th?) and that the pottery finds in samples KE 312 and 317, which are situated above the previous two samples, can be dated from the mid 7th to late 8th centuries. Sample KE 312 even stretches into the mid 10th century.

  • 26 Vroom 2004, 306 with further literature.

114These dates are purely based on new ceramic typology and chronology, but are supported by circumstantial evidence. Apart from the ceramic finds of the 8th, 9th and even 10th centuries from the two excavation trenches SO 21/1 and 21/2, this is also suggested by four other factors: 1) We know from the written sources that Limyra had a bishop until 879 A.D.; 2) Pieces of wood found above a pavement between the Bishop’s church and the ‘Bishop’s palace’ in the eastern part of Limyra, were dated by radiocarbon dating from the late 7th to late 9th centuries; 3) A coin of Basil II (A.D. 867-886) as well as several Anonymous Folles of the 11th century were recovered in Limyra; 4) Dating by thermoluminiscence of brick samples from an enlargement of the bishop’s palace also gave a late date. One sample was dated in the late 10th century; another one in the early 11th century. As the bricks were found in an architectural context, which means that they were used as building material, both dates give a clear hint to building activity at this late period26.

  • 27 Foss 1994, 39-40; cf. also Vroom 2005a.
  • 28 See also Vroom 2005b for more finds of the Middle Byzantine period in Limyra.

115In short, it seems quite probable that the eastern part of Limyra was not (completely) deserted after the 7th century as was previously assumed27. All factors seem to indicate that the site (at least the eastern part) was in function until the end of the 10th century–if not until the early 11th century28. My suggestion, therefore, is that some ceramic wares (such as the Early Islamic bag-shaped jar and some unglazed and glazed cooking pots) can be dated to this later phase of occupation. Furthermore, I would argue that other pottery types (such as the later forms of Cypriot Red Slip Ware and the painted wares) did not suddenly disappear in the late 7th century, as is generally assumed, but probably remained in use for a longer period.

116The majority of the Byzantine/Umayyad wares found in excavation trenches SO 21/1 and 21/2 in the eastern part of Limyra consists of fine wares and amphorae which were imported from South-East Turkey, Cyprus, Egypt and the Near East. Imports of red slip wares come mainly from workshops on Cyprus (or from a production centre on the Turkish south coast?), while amphorae seem to have come from the Near East and North Africa (especially Egypt). It is interesting that we can distinguish fragments of LR amphora 1, LR amphora 2, LR amphora 5 and LR amphora 7. Several pieces of kitchenware seem to be imported from the Near East and Cyprus as well, such as the North Syrian mortar, the Judean frying pan and the Palestinian cooking pot.

  • 29 Foss 1993, 20; Kislinger 1999, 148-49.
  • 30 Papacostas 2001, 113.

117It is not surprising that we find these imported wares on the site, because Limyra belonged also in Late Antiquity to an important but complex trade system, which connected various regions of the East Mediterranean. A wide variety of wares seem to have travelled towards the town from all directions: from Syria and Palestine, as well as from Egypt via Cyprus to the Turkish coast. This trade went perhaps directly to Lycia, or indirectly through other centres such as Attaleia in Pamphylia (in fact, recently a LR 7 amphora as well as fish remains from Egypt were discovered at the excavations of nearby Sagalassos). Apparently, Limyra benefited from its topographical position on the main shipping route between Constantinople, the Near East and Egypt. The Lycian coast continued to be the natural port of call for ships from Egypt, and relations between the two remained important as they had been in earlier times. The imperial grain fleet still stopped to collect supplies from the great Roman granaries, and the local timber was always of value to the treeless Egyptians29. Likewise, contacts with the Holy Land grew with Christianity and the fashion for pilgrimage. Written sources suggest, for instance, a brisk traffic between Cyprus and Egypt mainly in the 7th century, usually for pilgrimage purposes30.

118Even for the period after the early or mid 7th century (with the loss of Byzantine territories in the East to the Persians and the Arabs) there is little reason to suppose that contact between Limyra and the Arab regions in the East Mediterranean ceased to exist or abruptly stopped. This is shown by the range of pottery finds in trenches SO 21/1 and 21/2, which includes fragments of Cypriot/Palestinian cooking pots, of LR amphora 7, of LR amphora 5/6 and of an Umayyad imitation of this amphora type from Egypt. Furthermore, one can notice influences of pottery shapes and decoration-techniques from the Umayyad period in a local fabric, such as in the painted lid, the slice-cut casseroles and the jugs with central button.

  • 31 Reynolds 2003b, site BEYBEy 045.
  • 32 Reynolds 2003b, 732-733.
  • 33 Browning 1977-1979, 107.

119Noticeably absent in trenches SO 21/1 and 21/2 are, however, fragments of Egyptian Red Slip Wares, of LR amphora 2/13 variants, of pilgrim flasks and of basins, which do occur in an Umayyad deposit from 8th century Beirut together with the other above mentioned wares31. Closer study of this pottery assemblage from Beirut has shown there was much trade between Beirut and Egypt during the Umayyad period32. Furthermore, trade with the Muslim world is mentioned many times by Arab sources describing Cyprus during the early Middle Ages. This island may have played an important strategic role as a neutral territory for merchants from both the Byzantine and Arab world, situated as it is within a day’s sailing distance from both the Lycian coast with Limyra and Syria33.

Acknowledgements

120First and foremost, I would like to thank Prof. Jürgen Borchhardt and Dr. Thomas Marksteiner for inviting me to study and publish the Late Antique and Byzantine/Umayyad pottery finds from Limyra. I am also much obliged to Dr. Peter Ruggendorfer for giving me valuable information on the excavations of trenches SO 21/1 and SO 21/2 in the eastern part of Limyra. Furthermore, I am indebted to Prof. John Hayes, Dr. Paul Reynolds, Dr. Alison Gascoigne, Dr. Yona Waksman, Pamela Catling-Armstrong, Prof. Jean-Pierre Sodini, Dr. Emmanuel Pellegrino, Dr. Birgit Rückert, Dr. Séverine Lemaître, Ay‚ e Caylak Tünker and Nalan Firat for their co-operation and willingness of sharing information with me. Ms. Selda Baybo was responsible for inking the pottery drawings, Mr. Niki Gail for the black-and-white photographs. The Packard Humanities Institute (USA) provided financial support for the preparation of this publication. All are gratefully thanked.

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Notes

1 Cf. also Vroom 2005a.

2 See Birgit Rückert’s in this volume.

3 Peschlow & Jacobek 1993, 65, pl. 8.5.

4 Jacobek 1993, 111.

5 See Jacobek 1991-1992, 173.

6 Vroom 1998.

7 Ruggendorfer 1995; Pülz & Ruggendorfer 1995; Alanyalι et al. 1997b.

8 Eisenmenger 1993; Eisenmenger & Mader 1995; Vroom 1998; Vroom 2004.

9 Alanyalι et al. 1997a; 1997b, 381; Ruggendorfer 1999.

10 Alanyalι et al. 1997a, 11, fig. 10; 1997b, 381 fig. 23.

11 P. Ruggendorfer, pers. comm.

12 See also Des Courtils et al. 2001, figs. 18 and 20 for unguentaria finds in Xanthos.

13 Uscatescu 2003, 553.

14 Catling & Dikigoropoulos 1970, 47 with further literature.

15 Uscatescu 2003, 553.

16 P. Reynolds, pers. comm.

17 Reynolds 2003a, fig. 5, no 11.

18 P. Reynolds, pers. comm.

19 Y y. Waksman, pers. comm.

20 Armstrong 1998.

21 Riley 1979, 212-16.

22 Empereur & Picon 1986.

23 Manning et al. 2000.

24 Demesticha 2000, fig. 1, groups B and C.

25 A. Gascoigne, pers. comm.

26 Vroom 2004, 306 with further literature.

27 Foss 1994, 39-40; cf. also Vroom 2005a.

28 See also Vroom 2005b for more finds of the Middle Byzantine period in Limyra.

29 Foss 1993, 20; Kislinger 1999, 148-49.

30 Papacostas 2001, 113.

31 Reynolds 2003b, site BEYBEy 045.

32 Reynolds 2003b, 732-733.

33 Browning 1977-1979, 107.

Table des illustrations

Légende Fig. 1. Map of Limyra.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ausonius/docannexe/image/855/img-1.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 424k
Légende Fig. 2a. Map of all excavation pits (SO 16-22) and detail of SO 21, in eastern part of Limyra.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ausonius/docannexe/image/855/img-2.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 206k
Légende Fig. 2b. Photograph of excavation pit SO 21 in eastern part of Limyra.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ausonius/docannexe/image/855/img-3.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 311k
Légende Fig. 3. Graphs of percentages of pottery finds in excavation pits SO21/1 and SO 21/2 (FW = Fine Wares; AMP = Amphorae; CW = Coarse Wares; Ritual = Ritual Wares and Lamps = oil-lamps).
URL http://books.openedition.org/ausonius/docannexe/image/855/img-4.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 77k
Légende Fig. 4. Pottery finds from SO 21/1 KE 315: A = cat. no 2; B = cat. no 3; C = cat. no 4; D = cat. no 5; E = cat. no 1; F = cat. no 6; G = cat. no 7.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ausonius/docannexe/image/855/img-5.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 122k
Légende Pl. 1a. Pottery find from SO 21/1 KE 315: lid (cat. no 1 front). b. Pottery find from SO 21/1 KE 315: lid (cat. no 1 back).
URL http://books.openedition.org/ausonius/docannexe/image/855/img-6.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 79k
Légende Pl. 2. Pottery find from SO 21/1 KE 315: handle fragment of frying pan (cat. no 6).
URL http://books.openedition.org/ausonius/docannexe/image/855/img-7.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 29k
Légende Pl. 3. Pottery find from SO 21/1 KE 315: rim fragment of spatheion (cat. no 7).
URL http://books.openedition.org/ausonius/docannexe/image/855/img-8.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 28k
Légende Fig. 5. Pottery finds from SO 21/1 KE 317: A = cat. no 8; B = cat. no 9; C = cat. no 10; D = cat. no 12.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ausonius/docannexe/image/855/img-9.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 136k
Légende Pl. 4. Pottery find from SO 21/1 KE 317: shoulder fragment of closed vessel (cat. no 9).
URL http://books.openedition.org/ausonius/docannexe/image/855/img-10.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 56k
Légende Fig. 6. Pottery find from SO 21/2 KE 313: Knidian amphora (cat. no 13).
URL http://books.openedition.org/ausonius/docannexe/image/855/img-11.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 38k
Légende Pl. 5. Pottery find from SO 21/2 KE 313: toe fragment of Knidian amphora (cat. no 13).
URL http://books.openedition.org/ausonius/docannexe/image/855/img-12.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 35k
Légende Pl. 6. Pottery find from SO 21/2 KE 313: painted lid fragment (cat. no 14).
URL http://books.openedition.org/ausonius/docannexe/image/855/img-13.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 31k
Légende Fig. 7. Pottery finds from SO 21/2 KE 312: A = cat. no 15; B = cat. no 16.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ausonius/docannexe/image/855/img-14.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 85k
Légende Pl. 7. Pottery find from SO 21/2 KE 312: rim-handle fragment of closed vessel (cat. no 16).
URL http://books.openedition.org/ausonius/docannexe/image/855/img-15.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 64k
Légende Pl. 8. Pottery find from SO 21/2 KE 312: rim-handle fragment of cooking pot (cat. no 17).
URL http://books.openedition.org/ausonius/docannexe/image/855/img-16.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 25k
Légende Fig. 8. Pottery finds from SO 21/2 KE 312: A = cat. no 17; B = cat. no 18; C = cat. no 20; D = cat. no 21.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ausonius/docannexe/image/855/img-17.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 129k
Légende Fig. 9. Pottery finds from SO 21/1 KE 312: LR amphora 7 (cat. no 25)
URL http://books.openedition.org/ausonius/docannexe/image/855/img-18.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 104k
Légende Fig. 10. Pottery finds from SO 21/1 KE 312: A = cat. no 22; B = cat. no 24; C = cat. no 26.
URL http://books.openedition.org/ausonius/docannexe/image/855/img-19.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 101k
Légende Plate 9. Pottery find from SO 21/2 KE 312: handle fragment of frying pan or casserole? (cat. no 21).
URL http://books.openedition.org/ausonius/docannexe/image/855/img-20.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 31k
Légende Pl. 10. Pottery find from SO 21/2 KE 312: rim-shoulder fragment of LR amphora 1a (cat. no 22).
URL http://books.openedition.org/ausonius/docannexe/image/855/img-21.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 77k
Légende Pl. 11. Pottery find from SO 21/2 KE 312: neck-handle fragments of LR amphora 7 (cat. no 25).
URL http://books.openedition.org/ausonius/docannexe/image/855/img-22.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 127k

Auteur

Chercheur, Research Center for Anatolian Civilizations, Koç University, Istanbul, Turquie

© Ausonius Éditions, 2007

Conditions d’utilisation : http://www.openedition.org/6540