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Studies in Greek epigraphy and history in honor of Stefen V. Tracy

 | 
Gary Reger
, 
Francis X. Ryan
, 
Timothy Francis Winters

Part I. New inscriptions

Chapter 1. Two new attic decrees1

Voula N. Bardani

Texte intégral

  • 1 I would like to express my warmest thanks to the Director of the 1st Ephorate of Prehistoric and C (...)

Στεφάνωι Tracy
γραμμάτων ἀττικών δαίμονι

11 (fig. 1). FRAGMENT OF A DECREE. Upper left fragment of a pedimental stele of grey marble, broken on the right side and below. The original top, back, and left side are preserved; the pediment’s left corner is broken off. It was found on the 25th of February 2000, inside Hadrian’s Library, in a section cut through the South Wing. It is now kept in the Storeroom of Hadrian’s Library (3 Areos str.) which houses the finds from the area to the north of the Acropolis (Inv. no. BA 1429).

2H. 0,18 m.; W. 0,155 m.; Th. 0,135 m. (pediment), 0,11 (stele); LH. 0,006 m. (omikron, theta 0,005 m.).

185/4 ΝΟΝ-ΣΤΟΙΧ. ca. 40
Θ[ ε ο ΐ]
έπὶ Εύπολεμο[υ αρχοντος επὶ τής -- ca. 10 -- ỏγδό]-
ης πρυτανείας [ἧι Στρατόνικος Στρατονίκου Ἁμαξαν]-
τεὺς ἐγραμμάτ[ευεν' δήμου ψηφίσματα' Ἁνθεστηριῶ (?)]-
νος δεκάτει ὑστ[έραι, -- ca. 7 -- τῆς πρυτανείας' ἐκκλη]-
σία έμ Πειραιαῖ τ[ῶν προέδρων ἐπεψήφιζεν -- ca. 8 --]
Βακχίου Ἀγκ[υ]λῆθ[εν καὶ συμπρόεδροι’ ἔδοξεν τῶι]
[δ]ήμωι vv [- ca. 4 -]' []

lacuna

3Line 2: only a tiny portion of the dotted omicron is preserved.

  • 2 After studying the design of the prescripts of decrees of the 2nd century, Henry 1977, 82 and note (...)

4Line 8: after the iota of the word [δ]ήμωι follows a vacant space of two letters, followed by a lacuna of four letters and after that I discern the upper part of a vertical hasta (just below the eta of line 7); this trace belongs to the name of the proposer. Due to the break in the stone, we cannot be sure as to the exact length of the space that the cutter left vacant before inscribing the speaker’s name2.

5After studying the squeeze of the inscription, S. V. Tracy identified the cutter as “The Cutter of IG II2 913” (Tracy 1990, 71-79), one of the most important and prolific cutters working in Athens around 190 BC.

  • 3 Cf. IG, II2, 785, ll. 8-9 (archon Charikles) inscribed by the same cutter as our inscription.

6What remains of the text belongs to the prescript of a decree of the demos (ll. 4, 7-8). The approximate length of the lines can be restored from the certain restoration of l. 3. Although I also consider as safe the restoration of l. 7 (37 letters), it is not possible to determine if the cutter left a vacant space before the word ἔδoξεv3.

  • 4 IG, II2, 897, IG, II2, 898 + Ag., I, 7197 + 7199 (Habicht 1987, 64-71), IG, II2, 899 (Ag., XV, 179 (...)
  • 5 Cf. Pritchett & Meritt 1940, xxvii; Pritchett & Neugebauer 1947, 85; Meritt 1961, 236; 1964, 239, (...)

7Line 2. Five other decrees are known4 dating from the archonship of Eupolemos (PA, 5920); from the calendar equations it is not possible to determine the character of the year (cf. IG, II2, 897, commentary). Scholars of the Attic Calendar consider the year as an ordinary one (it was the first year of the 14th Metonic cycle)5.

8Line 2 fin. I consider the restoration safe because it is the only one by which the syllabic division rule is not violated.

9Line 3. Στρατόνικος Στρατονíκου Ἁμαξαντεὺς (PA, 12951) is known only as the secretary of the prytany in the year of the archonship of Eupolemos. The ephebe by the same name of 123/2 (PA, 12952; IG, II2, 1006 + SEG, 38, 114, col. IV, 113) is probably his grandson.

10Line 4. δήμου ψηφίσματα The singular form is equally possible (δήμου ψήφισμα). However, Henry (1977, 89) notes that the plural form was much more common. The earliest occurrence of this phrase dates to 229/8 (IG, II2, 832, l. 3).

11Line 4 fin. The restoration of the month is deduced from the prytany (l. 2 fin.), but is not absolutely certain.

12Line 6. For the meeting of the assembly έμ Πειραιεῖ, see Hansen 1987, 14 and note 109. In his study of the evidence for the 2nd century, McDonald 1943, 51-56, noted that an assembly took place in Peiraeus at some point in the last 10 days of the month, and plausibly identified it with the fourth and last assembly of the prytany (cf. Arist., Ath., 43.3).

13Line 7. Although the name Βάκχιος is a common one (cf. LGPN II s. v.), it is only attested once in the deme Ankyle, thus making it possible for the president to be a distant descendant of [Β]ακχίου I [Δ]ιονυσíου I [Ἀγ]κυλῆθε[ν] (IG, II2, 5245; 350-300 BC).

  • 6 One could possibly associate this decree with the stele IG, II2, 899 (Ag., XV, 179), which is the (...)

14Line 7 fin. I rule out the restoration ἔδοξεν τεῖ βουλεῖ καὶ τῶι I [δ]ήμωι, because that would make line 7 longer by approximately seven letters at least. The decree is non-probouleumatic6.

  • 7 This was the residence of the Turkish governor of Athens, known as voevodas. It was built in the s (...)

152 (fig. 2). THE PRYTANEIS OF AIGEIS (?) HONORED. Fragment of a stele of grey marble, broken on all sides. It was found in the area of Hadrian’s Library during the removal of the soil covering the Voevodaliki7. It is kept in the same Storeroom as the previous inscription (Inv. no. BA 108).

16H. 0,12 m.; W. 0,14 m.; Th. 0,115 m.; LH. 0,005-0,006 m. (omikron 0,004 m.).

init. s. II ΝΟΝ'ΣΤΟΙΧ. ca 48

vacat 0,012

[ἐπί ἂρχοντος, ἐπì τῆς Α] ἰγεῖδος ἓκ[της πρυτανείας]

[ἐ]γραμμάτευε[ν]

[]τει καì εἰκοσ[τεῖ]

['τῶν προέ]δρων ἐπεψή[φιζεν]

[καì συμκρόεδροι' ἔδοξεν τῶι] δήμ]]ωι Ηρα[]

[εἶπεν' ὑπὲρ ὦν ảπαγγέλλου]σιν οί πρυτ[άνεις τῆς Αἰγεῖδος?]

[τά πρό τ] ῶν ἐκ[κλησιῶν]

lacuna

17Line 2: of the dotted gamma only part of the horizontal hasta remains.

18Line 5: the letters ΔHM are inscribed in a rasura. The omega is superscribed over an iota without the stone’s surface having been chiseled away. Under the right half of the mu may be discerned an erased omega which in turn is superscribed on a tau.

19Line 5 fin.: the last preserved letter trace is the upper part of a vertical hasta that may belong to the letters iota or kappa.

20S. V. Tracy on the basis of the study of the squeeze concluded that the cutter is close to “The Cutter of IG, II2, 1329” (Tracy 1990, 125-127), but not identical with him. This particular cutter worked in the decade of 183/2-175/4, to which, judging from the letter-forms, we can approximately date the present text.

  • 8 The restoration of the tribe is almost certain. Although there is no rule as to when the demos cho (...)
  • 9 I do not provide the restorations in the text because the division of lines would necessarily be h (...)

21What is preserved forms part of the preamble of a decree of the demos (l. 5) by which honors are granted to the prytaneis of Aigeis8 (l. 6). The length of the lines (ca. 48) is deduced from the secure restoration9 of ll. 6-7: ὑπὲρ ὧν άπαγγέλλου]σιν οἱ πρυτ[άνεις τῆς Αἰγεῖδος? ὑπὲρ τῶν θυσιῶν ὧν ἔθυον τά πρò τ]ῶν ἐκ[κλησιῶν τῶι τε Ἀπόλλωνι τῶι Προστατηρίωι κλπ.].

22Considering the approximate number of letters in each line, I note the following:

  1. The name of the secretary of the prytany (l. 2 in.) is of a length of approximately 24 letters.
  2. LL. 3-4 are restored as follows: [---]τει καì εἰκοσ [τεῖ τῆς πρυτανείας ἐκκλησία --ca. 9-- τῶν προέ]δρων κλπ. The assembly was held most probably έμ Πειραιεῖ10.

23The possibility of our fragment belonging to an already published decree led me to the study of the texts of prytany inscriptions of the first half of the 2nd century BC. From the investigation I concluded that our fragment could possibly be:

  1. A fragment of the right part of stele IG, II2, 890 (Ag., XV, 174) dated to the archonship of Symmachos (188/7). The length of the lines (43-48), the prytany (l. 1), the length of the secretary’s name, the calendar equation (l. 3), the assembly held in the Peiraeus (l. 4) are all facts that permit the association of the two.
  2. A fragment of stele Ag., XV, 200 (Sonikos archon, 175/4).
  • 11 The inscription was first published by Boeckh (CIG, 112) ex schedis Fourmonti, and the information (...)

24The first inscription (IG, II2, 890) in question is missing11. The autopsy of the second (Agora Inv. No. 4253) showed that the letter-forms are different from those of our decree. It was inscribed by “The Cutter of Agora I 247” (Tracy 1990, 102).

  • 12 I owe the association of fragment EM 13406 with the inscription IG, II2, 890 to my colleague S. G. (...)
  • 13 According to S. V. Tracy there are alas very few diagnostic letters preserved on EM 13406, but tho (...)

25Since we do not possess any information concerning the missing inscription IG, II2, 890 (Ag., XV, 174), any attempt to associate it with our inscription would be entirely speculative. We do possess, however, one small piece of evidence that does somewhat strengthen this hypothesis. Recently, the small fragment EM 13406 (fig. 3), first published by Stroud 1971, 192-193 no. 42, pl. 34, was identified12 as the left part of ll. 16-20 of the missing stele IG, II2, 890. The autopsy of this fragment showed that the letters (as regards their forms, height and distances) are identical with those on the new fragment. Stephen Tracy confirmed the observation and concluded that they were cut by the same hand13. I am not, however, in a position to compare the marble, because of the small size of EM 13406.

  • 14 It should be noted here that if we accept the association, two corrections are necessary which der (...)

26The similarity between the two fragments strengthens the possibility of our inscription belonging to IG, II2, 890, but I cannot rule out the possibility of the two fragments belonging to two different stelai inscribed by the same cutter, with decrees granting honors to prytaneis. The relation of the present inscription, therefore, to the missing IG, II2, 890 must remain an open question, despite the strong evidence we possess for it14.

Notes

1 I would like to express my warmest thanks to the Director of the 1st Ephorate of Prehistoric and Classical Antiquities, Dr. Alcestis Choremi, for granting me permission to study and publish the above inscriptions. I would also like to thank Prof. Stephen Tracy for his readiness to study the squeezes and for his help in the question of dating and the identification of the cutters. I am also very grateful to my colleague Sofia Aliferi, who translated this paper from the Greek.

2 After studying the design of the prescripts of decrees of the 2nd century, Henry 1977, 82 and note 18) considers it noteworthy that very often the name of the speaker is preceded by uninscribed spaces, particularly in cases (such as ours) where the enactment formula does not occupy a separate line.

3 Cf. IG, II2, 785, ll. 8-9 (archon Charikles) inscribed by the same cutter as our inscription.

4 IG, II2, 897, IG, II2, 898 + Ag., I, 7197 + 7199 (Habicht 1987, 64-71), IG, II2, 899 (Ag., XV, 179), IG, II2, 1325 and Hesperia 15, 1946, 193-197 no. 38. The decree IG, II2, 900 (frr. a + b) by which the ephebes of the archonship of Eupolemos are honored, is dated in the year of Eupolemos’ successor (184/3).

5 Cf. Pritchett & Meritt 1940, xxvii; Pritchett & Neugebauer 1947, 85; Meritt 1961, 236; 1964, 239, and 1977, 181. A new fragment of IG, II2, 2323 (Mathaiou 1988, 13) supplies part of the name of Eupolemos and also part of the name of his successor [---κ]λέoυς.

6 One could possibly associate this decree with the stele IG, II2, 899 (Ag., XV, 179), which is the work of the same cutter (Tracy 1990, 73) and which preserves part of a decree of the boule, of the archonship of Eupolemos, granting honors to the prytaneis of Leontis and their officers. The new fragment could have belonged to the upper left hand part of the stele and accordingly to the preamble of the decree by which the demos honored the prytaneis as a group (the “first” decree, see Dow 1937, 3; Ag., XV, pp. 4-5). Autopsy of the stele IG, II2, 899 fr. a (EM 7547) + fr. b (I 6197 = EM 13346), however, proved that its thickness (0,145 m.) significantly exceeds what one would expect from its position on the stele, if the two fragments did indeed belong together.

7 This was the residence of the Turkish governor of Athens, known as voevodas. It was built in the second half of the 18th century at the SW corner of the Library of Hadrian and survived up to 1931. Today, only its foundations are visible, cf. Travlos 1993, 208, fig. 140.

8 The restoration of the tribe is almost certain. Although there is no rule as to when the demos chooses to honor the prytaneis, i. e. during their term of office or in the following prytany when they are only councillors, in view of the fact that the present decree was passed in the last ten days of the prytany (23rd-29th day), it is more probable that the prytaneis of the prytanising tribe are honoured here and not those who had served as prytaneis in the 5th prytany. Instances whereby the demos waits until the last days of the next prytany to honour the prytaneis, are few (Ag., XV, 165 of 197/6; Ag., XV, 212 of 169/8). Regarding the time when honors are granted and the relevant evidence, see Dow 1937, 7; Ag., XV, pp. 6-7.

9 I do not provide the restorations in the text because the division of lines would necessarily be hypothetical.

10 Cf. Ag., XV, 165, l. 3 (195/4); 171, l. 4 (170/69?); 174, l. 4 (188/7); 200, ll. 3-4 (175/4), 208, l. 4 (172/1?); 212, l. 4 (169/8). In all these cases, the assembly was held in the last ten days of the prytany, see above p. 47 (Line 6).

11 The inscription was first published by Boeckh (CIG, 112) ex schedis Fourmonti, and the information provided states that it was found in a private house (apud Alexandrum Παυαγιωτάκη).

12 I owe the association of fragment EM 13406 with the inscription IG, II2, 890 to my colleague S. G. Byrne. I warmly thank him for his willingness to inform me about it. The fragment was presented by S. V. Tracy in his talk on the project of the new edition of state decrees of the period 229/8-168/7 given at the Symposium in Honor of Christian Habicht, which was held in Athens (3-5 April 2006) under the auspices of the Greek Epigraphic Society with the collaboration of the Epigraphic Museum and the American School of Classical Studies at Athens.

13 According to S. V. Tracy there are alas very few diagnostic letters preserved on EM 13406, but those that are preserved are completely similar to those on BA 108. The serifs on the kappas, the short and wide tau, the alpha’s and the mu are all characteristic.

14 It should be noted here that if we accept the association, two corrections are necessary which derive from the fact that Aigeis held the sixth prytany in the archonship of Symmachos IG, II2, 890 + BA 108, l. 1): 1) The decree Ag., XV, 175 has to be dated to an archonship other than that of Symmachos (Meritt-Traill’s restoration), since Aigeis holds the ninth prytany (l. 12). 2) Accordingly we should discard the restoration of Aigeis as the prytanising tribe during the ninth prytany in the decree of the archonship of Symmachos Ag., XVI, 265 (l. 1). This restoration was Labarbe’s (1977, 78-79 no. 69; SEG, 28, 78), and was subsequently adopted by Woodhead.

Auteur

Greek Epigraphic Society, Athens, Greece

© Ausonius Éditions, 2010

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