Africae https://books.openedition.org/africae CC0 info@ifra-nairobi.net Nas terras do lago Niassa Este livro é sobre os habitantes da região do lago Niassa, os Nyanja, e suas experiências de viver em um território marcado por várias historicidades de territorialização, sendo a mais recente a delimitação das chamadas terras comunitárias. Por detrás deste marco de historicidade estão as transformações nos modelos, sistemas e processos de governação da terra em Moçambique nos últimos 30 anos. O livro procura situar as noções de comunidade e de normas e práticas costumeiras no domínio da posse da terra rural, ao questionar a perpetuação de modelos intervencionistas coloniais e pós-coloniais que colocam na condição de marginalidade noções e direitos costumeiros de uso da terra. Ao mostrar que a delimitação de terras comunitárias despoletou o debate sobre os critérios de pertença, argumento que a perpetuação de modalidades de territorialização assentes na reprodução de desigualdades transformou as categorias de inclusão em critérios de exclusão na reivindicação da posse da terra que, consequentemente, afectaram o estatuto das unidades sociais e de residência, seus representantes e hierarquias. Desta forma, o livro contribui para o debate antropológico sobre o lugar das territorialidades na construção do sentido de ser e estar no mundo, ao colocar ao mesmo nível as historicidades do território e dos seus habitantes para pensar especificamente a apropriação, os usos e pertença da terra numa dimensão de longo termo, ao mesmo tempo que analisa a posse e propriedade da terra incorporando as dimensões da pertença e as dinâmicas territoriais históricas.

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https://books.openedition.org/africae/6323 2024-03-06 Elísio Jossias Africae pt Africae
Concise Manual for Ceramic Studies This manual is intended to accompany the training of future ceramic specialists in the Arab world. Resulting from the collaboration of four major institutions of French archaeology abroad: the Section française de la direction des Antiquités du Soudan (Sfdas), the Institut français d’Archéologie orientale (Ifao), the Institut français du Proche-Orient (Ifpo) and the Centre français de recherche de la péninsule arabique (Cefrepa), it draws on the recent work of specialists from the Nile Valley, the Near East and the Arabian Peninsula to shed light on the theoretical reflections that have enriched ceramic studies in recent decades. Providing a genuine field tool, this volume is nonetheless a skilfully illustrated collection of the contribution of ceramic studies to the understanding of human history.

This is the English version of the manual. The bilingual version (English / Arabic) is available here:  https://page.hn/yq8gch

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https://books.openedition.org/africae/5605 2023-07-03 Romain David Africae en Africae
Afrobeat! Fela and the Imagined Continent In the seventies, as signs of decay began to show in the capitalist experiment of the newly independent African countries, a “bard of the misrule” emerged on the streets of Lagos. Often shirtless and armed with his trademark saxophone, Fela Anikulapo Kuti tore his way into popular culture with Afrobeat music. Blending ethno-traditional forms with the reigning highlife and jazz rhythms, Afrobeat drew lyrics from the flip side of neo-colonial society and Fela’s London and American experience in the sixties.

In the two decades that followed, Fela ruled the nights from Afrika Shrine, his signature night club, and the days from the turntables of the restless city dwellers along the Atlantic coastline. Fela’s Afrobeat became a dynamic mode of expression in the social history of post-independent West Africa and generated a counterculture that bonded through music, drugs, resistance politics—and ultimately, the nascence of an Afrocentric contemporary global culture.

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https://books.openedition.org/africae/6133 2023-06-22 Sola Olorunyomi Africae en Africae
Welcome to Mitchell’s Plain Under the apartheid regime, South Africa’s Mitchell’s Plain, situated close to Cape Town, was devised as a “model township.” A cutting-edge urban planning scheme would provide middle-class Coloured people—evacuated from their homes by racialised rehousing programmes—with exemplary living conditions. This flagship for the regime was inaugurated with fanfare in 1976, and heavily publicised not just within South Africa but also in the international press. Cohorts of political leaders and journalists were invited to admire first-hand how racial segregation could be paired with progressive social planning. A documentary film was commissioned for worldwide distribution: Mitchells Plain (1980).
Like other well-laid plans, however, Mitchell’s Plain would foil the designs of its architects. The vaunted utopian township was, for its inhabitants, deeply flawed: essential facilities such as schools and transport were thoroughly inadequate to the population’s needs. These sources of frustration generated a groundswell of civic activism. While the government had banked on separating the Coloured population from the national liberation movement, in 1983, Mitchell’s plain acquired important symbolic status as the birthplace of the United Democratic Front, an umbrella organisation of anti-apartheid associations. This event marked a turning point in the history of South Africa’s struggle for freedom.
This study chronicles the fortunes of Mitchell’s Plain: its conception and role as propaganda for the apartheid regime. It draws on official documentary sources, but also on interviews with the various social actors whose life-experience conveys a very different image of the process, to reconstitute from a critical and historical perspective, the ill-fated window-dressing efforts of the National Party government during its declining years.

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https://books.openedition.org/africae/3939 2023-01-27 Ludmila Ommundsen Pessoa Africae en Africae
A Complex Polity Weaving together ethnography and history, this book offers an in-depth analysis of the pre-colonial polity of the Meru of Kenya and its radical transformations from 1908 through the 1950s. It addresses the manifold issues of initiation and the politics of belonging, unravels the intertwined life courses of men and women, and disentangles the web of family life and the handover of power across political generations. Restoring two well-known instances of Meru politics to their rightful place―the enigmatic mûgwe and the famous njûûri ncheke-the book also offers a fresh reading of the controversial story of Mbwaa. It sheds light on the crisis of the 1930s affecting male and female initiations, and establishes a link with the demographic transformations and the radical shift that occurred during the 1950s. A Complex Polity renews the issue of the historicity of political generation-set systems in Meru, as well as elsewhere in Kenya and eastern Africa. More broadly, the work aims to promote comparative anthropology to enhance knowledge of African pre-colonial democracies and polities, and a deeper understanding of social and cultural change in the longue durée, linking precolonial and postcolonial Africa.

Peatrik’s book is not a simple ethnographic monograph, it is an innovative analysis on the topic of age grades… Her study lies, in its own right, among the classics of ethnology and among the most original and comprehensive works on this subject. It is recommended not only to the africanists and the anthropologists, but also to those who are interested in studying social and political systems.” Bernardo Bernardi, author of The Mugwe, a Failing Prophet, and of Age Class Systems.

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https://books.openedition.org/africae/3232 2022-06-21 Anne-Marie Peatrik, Richard Crabtree, Matthew Cunningham, Francesca Devalier, Jesse Kirkwood et Anne McDowell Africae en Africae
Small Atlas of Johannesburg After two decades of significant change, Johannesburg has been expanding and undergoing deep restructuring. Today, the city is going through an unprecedented development phase, initiated by new territorial dynamics resulting from urban policies, resident practices and market trends.

While Johannesburg aims to become a “World Class African City”, as a part of managing its growth it is essential to offer an accurate image of its strengths and weaknesses.

The issue of urban resilience has become central to the discourse on cities and calls for light to be shed on the evolutions that have shaped and continue to shape the city of Johannesburg.

In this light, we focus on major urban phenomena including:

  • The spatial evolution of the city where densification is not always synonymous with urbanity;
  • Increasing spatial differentiations according to population and housing;
  • Increasingly fragmented and extensive spatial structuring.
  • In this publication, special attention has been given to the compilation of former and recent data. These data, depending on objective geographic elements, show how “various cities” exist within the city.

Overcoming the limitations of the data was the main difficulty. Urban evolutions are rapid, but existing data are difficult to access and are often out of date or localised, as part of unsuitable divisions. Various comments have been written to shed light on the maps and facilitate their reading. The objective of this work is to create a coherent set of maps so as to offer a homogeneous vision of the city and urbanisation processes underlining it.

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https://books.openedition.org/africae/3472 2022-06-21 Karen Lévy et Laurent Chauvet Africae en Africae
Renegociar a Centralidade do Estado em Moçambique Nos últimos anos tanto os Estados do Sul como os do Norte empenharam-se em sucessivas reformas administrativas que parecem seguir os mesmos modelos. A maior parte das leituras destes processos, no que se refere aos países do Sul, nomeadamente os africanos, persistem em invocar o seu carácter de imposição a que os doadores os submetem. Sem que se faça uma verdadeira análise a nível local e sem estudos aprofundados, estas reformas têm sido apresentadas grosso modo como fracassos. Este trabalho pretende por isso contribuir para uma leitura crítica da sua execução e das práticas resultantes da respectiva aprendizagem, como modos de exercício do poder.

A partir de uma reconstituição empírica da implementação das medidas de descentralização, através do funcionamento dos municípios da cidade da Beira e das vilas de Mueda e Quissico, este livro pretende mostrar que a aprendizagem de uma reforma é influenciada pela historicidade das relações entre Estado e sociedade dentro do espaço da sua execução.

Combinando diversas abordagens de sociologia histórica para o estudo da administração, através destas reformas sucessivas, de sociologia de construção do Estado e de sociologia de acção pública, o trabalho defende a ideia de que a reforma da administração, nomeadamente a descentralizadora, ao permitir uma modificação das formas de articulação entre administração e cidadãos, participa na recomposição do Estado. Com efeito a observação empírica do funcionamento quotidiano dos municípios permite percebê-los como novas arenas de difusão e de aprendizagem entre Estado e administrados. Trata-se de um processo que deve resituar- se forçosamente na intersecção dos desafios específicos dos lugares de implementação e dos quadros subjacentes às reformas.

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https://books.openedition.org/africae/3552 2022-06-21 Egídio Guambe Africae pt Africae
Désordre colonial dans la propriété Cet ouvrage porte sur les conséquences multiples de l’imposition coloniale de la propriété privée dans une île du lac Victoria, l’île de Bussi, qui devient en 1900 la propriété privée du Premier ministre et Régent du royaume du Buganda colonial, sir Apolo Kagwa. Trois thèmes enchevêtrés sont abordés, entre les années 1880 et les années 1920 : l’arrivée brutale de la propriété privée occidentale dans un royaume africain qui ne la connaissait pas, l’importance oubliée des îles et des rivages du lac Victoria au sein du royaume et l’émergence d’un nouveau parti politico-religieux qui s’oppose à l’oligarchie coloniale au pouvoir au Buganda.
Cette recherche aboutit à une relecture profonde, à partir de ce petit espace lacustre, de l’histoire de l’ensemble du royaume du Buganda et de l’Ouganda colonial entre 1885 et 1925, et plus largement du gouvernement indirect et de la globalisation de la propriété privée. Elle complexifie ainsi l’histoire du Buganda en y intégrant les espaces lacustres, approche inédite dans l’historiographie sur l’Ouganda colonial. Elle permet de déconstruire les traditions historiques actuelles et de montrer que leurs racines remontent pour la plupart au Buganda des années 1920 et sont héritées des habitants du lac Victoria.
L’ouvrage démontre que la tension autours des chefs héréditaires claniques au Buganda est autant une tension géographique entre gens du lac et gens de la terre qu’une tension entre pouvoirs anciens claniques et un pouvoir de patronage modernisateur (comme le veut l’historiographie). D’autre part, ce travail souligne que la montée en puissance d’organisations politiques et religieuses réformistes, annonçant les mouvements nationalistes, est particulièrement nourrie par le mécontentement foncier des anciens habitants du lac et de ses rivages. Leur colère est également causée par les effets de la lutte menée par les autorités contre la maladie du sommeil. Leur vie a en effet été ravagée par une crise écologique coloniale qui les a menés à un exil forcé, loin du lac et des zones contaminées par la maladie.
Les sources foncières très riches portant sur l’île de Bussi montrent l’autonomie des acteurs africains dans un contexte de gouvernement indirect. Elles donnent un éclairage unique à l’histoire de la globalisation de la propriété comme à l’histoire de la colonisation et de sa contestation.

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https://books.openedition.org/africae/3719 2022-06-21 Henri Médard Africae fr Africae
Histoire et civilisation du Soudan Les pyramides de Méroé ont fait rêver des générations de voyageurs, mais le Soudan dont elles sont l’emblème demeure largement méconnu. D’où cet ouvrage encyclopédique, première synthèse sur les brillantes civilisations qui s’y sont succédé, de la préhistoire à la période contemporaine, marquée, malgré les difficultés, par une réelle fécondité artistique. Des spécialistes reconnus y font état des découvertes scientifiques les plus récentes ; il n’en est pas moins facile d’accès grâce à la clarté des contributions et à l’abondance de l’iconographie. Il est préfacé par l’auteur de Méroé et de Port-Soudan, Olivier Rolin.

« Le Soudan est la laisse de haute mer des cultures méditerranéennes : difficilement atteint par la marée, il garde sur ses sables lointains ce qu’ailleurs le flux a depuis longtemps remporté. Mais on ne saurait réduire les cultures soudanaises à des imitations tardives et obstinées de concepts forgés en Égypte. Dans bien des domaines, elles ont innové ou porté à leur perfection des éléments empruntés et recombinés » (Claude Rilly).

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https://books.openedition.org/africae/2677 2022-01-17 Olivier Cabon Africae fr Africae
50 ans d’archéologie française au Soudan Le Soudan est une passion française. Ses vestiges archéologiques, d’une beauté intemporelle, nourrissent en France une fascination de plus de deux siècles. Elle s’exprime par une étroite coopération dont le maître d’œuvre est depuis 1969 la Section française de la direction des Antiquités du Soudan (SFDAS).

Préfacé par Nicolas Grimal, professeur au Collège de France et membre de l’Institut, l’ouvrage retrace, en même temps que l’histoire du Soudan, ces cinquante années de recherches, de découvertes, de préservation et de valorisation d’un précieux patrimoine. Dû aux meilleurs spécialistes et riche de nombreuses cartes, d’illustrations rares et de photographies saisissantes de Claude Iverné, il présente les fouilles les plus édifiantes. Il est une somme, et un carnet de voyage aussi savant que plaisant.

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https://books.openedition.org/africae/3042 2022-01-17 Marc Maillot Africae fr Africae
Kenya in Motion 2000-2020 This edited volume offers a broad understanding and particular visions of Kenya in the first quarter of the twenty-first century. By bringing together rigorous yet accessible contributions, it shows how, since the 2002 transition, Kenya has been striving for change through economic modernisation and political liberalisation. The planned transformations are coming to fruition, even if the legacies of the past and political habits are slowing down the process. The various chapters take us from developmental capitalism to extreme poverty and enduring inequalities, from reforms on paper to mixed results in multiple sectors: decentralised governance, natural resources, land, and education. They also explore Kenya’s ancient and colonial history and the diversity of its population. Thus, the book helps understand contemporary political, religious and community cleavages, the asymmetries between towns and the countryside, between Nairobi and the coast, in a country open to the world, as much through trade and finance as through art networks.

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https://books.openedition.org/africae/2390 2021-06-08 Marie-Aude Fouéré, Marie-Emmanuelle Pommerolle et Christian Thibon Africae en Africae
Remembering Nyerere in Tanzania This edited volume is about the rekindled investment in the figure of the first president Julius K. Nyerere in contemporary Tanzania. It explores how Nyerere is remembered by Tanzanians from different levels of society, in what ways and for what purposes. Looking into what Nyerere means and stands for today, it provides insight into the media, the political arena, poetry, the education sector, or street-corner talks.

The main argument of this book is that Nyerere has become a widely shared political metaphor used to debate and contest conceptions of the Tanzanian nation and Tanzanian-ness. The state-citizens relationship, the moral standards for the exercise of power, and the contours of national sentiment are under scrutiny when the figure of Nyerere is mobilized today.

The contributions gathered here come from a generation of budding or renown scholars in varied disciplines (history, anthropology, political science). Drawing upon materials collected through extensive fieldwork and archival research, they all critically engage the existing literature about Tanzania and prevailing political narratives to explore how nationhood is (re)imagined in Tanzania today through assent and contest.

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https://books.openedition.org/africae/643 2020-12-15 Marie-Aude Fouéré Africae en Africae
Indian Africa Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania have minorities from the Indian sub-continent amongst their population. The East African Indians mostly reside in the main cities, particularly Nairobi, Dar es Salaam, Zanzibar, Mombasa, Kampala; they can also be found in smaller urban centres and in the remotest of rural townships. They play a leading social and economic role as the)’ work in business, manufacturing and the service industry, and make up a large proportion of the liberal professions. They are divided into multiple socio-religious communities, but united in a mutual feeling of meta-cultural identity.

This book aims at painting a broad picture of the communities of Indian origin in East Africa, striving to include changes that have occurred since the end of the 1980s. The different contributions explore questions of race and citizenship, national loyalties and cosmopolitan identities, local attachment and transnational networks. Drawing upon anthropology, history, sociology and demography, Indian Africa depicts a multifaceted population and analyses how the past and the present shape their sense of belonging, their relations with others, their professional and political engagement. This book is a must-read for contemporary researchers, students, policy practioners as well as the general reader.

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https://books.openedition.org/africae/847 2020-12-15 Adam Michel Africae en Africae
Rural-Urban Dynamics in the East African Mountains This edited volume brings to light how much the development of the mountains of East Africa relates to their surrounding fast-growing towns and cities. The contributors, most of them geographers from both East Africa and France, explore three cases: Mount Kenya (Kenya), Mount Elgon (on its Ugandan side), and the Uporoto Mountains (Tanzania). They adopt a comparative perspective with earlier research and other East African mountains, such as Mount Kilimanjaro. The 12 chapters focus on one major recent upheaval: the growing urbanization that shapes new mountain systems. This phenomenon gives rise to the following questions: What are the links between rural and urban changes in such contexts? What are their impacts on livelihoods and development? This book, covering social and environmental issues relating to rural-urban exchanges and transformations, is the first of its kind for African mountains.

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https://books.openedition.org/africae/1048 2020-12-15 Sylvain Racaud, Bob R. Nakileza, François Bart et Bernard Charlery de la Masselière Africae en Africae
Kenya’s Past as Prologue During the run-up to Kenya’s 2013 general elections, crucial political and civic questions were raised. Could past mistakes, especially political and ethnic-related violence, be avoided this time round? Would the spectre of the 2007 post-electoral violence positively or negatively affect debates and voting? How would politicians, electoral bodies such as the IEBC, the Kenyan civil society, and the international community weigh in on the elections? More generally, would the 2013 elections bear witness to the building up of an electoral culture in Kenya, characterized by free and fair elections, or would it show that voting is still weakened by political malpractices, partisan opinions and emotional reactions? Would Kenya’s past be inescapable or would it prepare the scene for a new political order?
Kenya’s Past as Prologue adopts a multidisciplinary perspective - mainly built upon field-based ethnography and a selection of case studies - to answer these questions. Under the leadership of the French Institute for Research in Africa (Institut français de recherche en Afrique, IFRA), political scientists, historians and anthropologists explore various aspects of the electoral process to contribute in-depth analyses of the last elections. They highlight the structural factors underlying election and voting in Kenya including the political system, culture and political transition. They also interrogate the short-term trends and issues that influence the new political order. The book provides insight into specific case studies, situations and contexts, thus bringing nuances and diversity into focus to better assess Kenya’s evolving electoral democracy.

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https://books.openedition.org/africae/1377 2020-12-15 Christian Thibon, Marie-Aude Fouéré, Mildred Ndeda et Suzan Mwangi Africae en Africae
Music and Dance in Eastern Africa This collection of articles cuts across the Eastern African region, with authors interrogating varying themes in different historical periods that speak not only to the practice of music and dance but also to the performances that characterize these practices.
The book dedicates itself to research in music and dance, while engaging with colonial and contemporary political and historical realities within the Eastern African region. Inevitably, themes that grapple with urbanization and the emergence of urban spaces for entertainment, as well as the imagination of culture by the colonialist form a key window into the research and understanding of music and dance.
The ever-present performance of ethnic identities that shape most of our socio-political contexts adds to the overall texture of this book. At the same time, the debate and question of gender in music and dance is also comprehensively covered, in an attempt to delineate gender relations in the region.
Articles that employ a cross-genre approach to music and dance have enriched the wide perspective of understanding African societies and the realities that emanate from everyday lives in Eastern Africa.
A useful addition to the growing literature of popular culture in Africa, this book takes a multidisciplinary angle and can easily fit within the disciplines of political science, urban studies, literature, sociology and media studies. The book contributes to the recurrent dialogue towards emphasizing the relevance of the study of songs and dances in a larger context within humanities and social sciences.

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https://books.openedition.org/africae/1622 2020-12-15 Kahithe Kiiru et Maina wa Mũtonya Africae en Africae
Where Women Are While the drama of the complicated 2017 General election in Kenya unfolded and the clash between the patriarchs dominated the headlines, women were once again relegated to a secondary position in the public conversation. ‘Flower girls’. ‘Someone’s Wife’. These are some of the terms used to describe Kenyan women in politics - as simply accompanying and supporting men rather than having complex identities and public lives of their own. Yet Kenyan women were present and active, pushing against layers of structural and physical gendered violence to claim space in the political arena.
This collection captures some of the stories and experiences of women participating in the heated 2017 general election in Kenya in order to shed light on the nuances and complexities facing women who choose to enter electoral politics. From stories of rural women using traditional social networks to access political power, to young urban women defying expectations and confronting an electorate that was conditioned to ignore them, these stories not only highlight the problems that women face but also the ingenious ways they navigate the spaces that do exist. Kenyan women are present and active in politics and this book works to see and understand where they are.

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https://books.openedition.org/africae/1808 2020-12-15 Nanjala Nyabola et Marie-Emmanuelle Pommerolle Africae en Africae
Le Kenya en marche, 2000-2020 Cet ouvrage offre une saisie synthétique et des visions particulières du Kenya en ce premier quart du XXIe siècle. Il rassemble des contributions rigoureuses et accessibles pour montrer comment, depuis l’alternance de 2002, le Kenya s’efforce de changer par la modernisation économique et la libéralisation politique. Les transformations annoncées voient le jour, même si les legs du passé et les habitus politiques en ralentissent la marche. Les différents chapitres nous mènent du capitalisme développemental kényan à la grande pauvreté et aux inégalités vivaces, des réformes sur le papier aux mises en œuvre en demi-teinte dans de multiples secteurs : gouvernance décentralisée, ressources naturelles, foncier, éducation. L’histoire ancienne et coloniale, la diversité du peuplement au Kenya permettent de mieux comprendre les clivages politiques, religieux et communautaires, les asymétries entre villes et campagnes, entre Nairobi et la côte, dans un Kenya ouvert sur le monde, autant par le commerce et la finance que par les réseaux de l’art.

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https://books.openedition.org/africae/2009 2020-12-15 Marie-Aude Fouéré, Marie-Emmanuelle Pommerolle et Christian Thibon Africae fr Africae