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A Complex Polity

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Anne-Marie Peatrik

Index

Texte intégral

A

Abbadie, A. d’, 77, 437

Abélès, M., 20, 21, 437

abortion and infanticide, 49, 91, 243, 355- 358, 365-366, 388-389, 394, 399; see also demography (regulation of growth and fertility rate; new demographic regime)

Accomplished persons (mwariki), 37, 44-50, 57-60, 109-113, 137, 187-188, 207, 219, 234, 241, 255, 261, 268, 385-386; funerals for —s, 57-60, 113-114, 115-116

Adamson, J., 240-241, 253-254, 316, 381, 437

age and generation, differentiation of, 20-22

age class, see age (age-set), generation (generation sub-set)

age, — criterion, 17; — set, 18-22, 25-27; — and life cycle, 41-62: life cycle of men, 45-47, life cycle of women, 47-50; age and age grade, 19, 36, 41, 50-53, 56-57, 62-64, 73, 87-88, 243, 259, 274, 295, 329, 384- 386, 427-428; — and gender, 41-42, 45, 53-56, 101, 255-258; — at marriage, see also demography, ritual begetting, generation

Ahlberg, B. M., 406, 437

alliance of marriage, 77-80, 84, 131-132, 415; prohibition and preference, 36, 127-131, 133-137, 145-157, 183-184, 192-194, 295- 296, 305-306; bride-wealth, 78-79, 138-145, 182-184, 253, 255, 401, 405; ndûgû payments, 116, 139, 145-157, 183, 193, 380, 397, 401; omaha terminology, 36, 130- 131, 147-152, 183-184, 193, 197-198; wife-givers wife-stakers relationships, 140-143, 145-159, 184, 193, 198, 255-258, 293-294, 400-401; co-affines, 155-157, 183-184, 199, 213, 253; see also generation and —, girane

Almagor, U., 20, 66, 302, 343, 345, 437, 438, 446

Ambler, C.H., 168, 226, 315, 336, 345, 357, 437

androgyny, 236-237, 244-247, 297-300; see also body, mûgwe

Arabs, 313, 337, 341

Arkell-Hardwick, A., 33, 225, 420, 437

Arseniev, V., 20

Athens, 17

B

Baechler, J., 20, 438

Baganda, 352

Barabaig, 234, 262

Baraguyu, 295

Baxter, P. T. W., 20, 186, 233-234, 343, 438

bee (hive, honey, mead), 83, 103-104, 161, 217, 279-280, 293, 297-299, 321, 330, 333; see also gaaru for warriors, mûgwe

Beecher, L. J., 170, 438

Beidelman, T. O., 295, 438

Bernard, F. E., 27, 99, 404, 438

Bernardi, B., 19, 25, 76, 121, 213, 277, 279, 285-289, 292, 294-296, 298-300, 303, 315, 319-323, 361, 380, 381, 413, 438

Bijogo, 54, 189

Bischofberger, O., 25, 312, 438

blacksmith, 29, 37, 104, 106, 141, 151, 169, 171, 180, 204, 207-211, 220, 229, 231, 244, 253, 257, 294, 303-312, 318, 321, 326, 331, 347-348, 370-372, 383; see also mûgwe, Mbwaa

blessings and curses, 44, 107, 114, 116, 118, 155, 205, 207, 231, 261-262, 280, 282, 297- 298, 307, 325, 379, 396

blood-price, prohibition of vendetta, 83, 120, 163, 165, 167, 171-172, 229; see also war and generation, Mbugi

body and person (conception of —), 41-62, 89-92, 108-109, 114, 116, 118, 133-137, 152-153, 189-194, 238-239, 252-253, 256- 257, 259, 274-275, 294-300, 320-322, 328, 364, 394-399; see also dualism, healing associations, mûgwe

Bonini, N., 20, 438

Bonnefoy, Y., 439

Bonte, P., 20, 199, 439

Borana (Chuchu), 18, 19, 23, 54, 77, 83, 186, 188, 198, 231, 232, 234, 277, 312, 334, 343, 354, 376, 411, 413

Brantley, C., 25, 439

Brown, Jean, 304, 311-312, 439

Brown, M., 418, 439

Buijtenhuijs, R., 357, 439

Bushong, 376

C

Caldwell, J. & P., 406

cattle complex, 18

cattle links, 102-103, 106, 144-147, 150, 157- 158, 176-177, 200, 380-381, 397-398

Chagga, 376

Champion, A. M., 213-214, 304, 439

Chanler, W. A., 33, 217, 221-227, 233, 249, 260, 305, 363, 417-420, 439

Chesnais, J.-C., 410, 439

childhood, 42-44

Chrétien, J.-P., 23, 336, 439

Chuka, 38, 88, 168, 180, 213, 231, 285, 291- 292, 312, 324, 379, 399

Ciokaraine, 480

circumcision, 23, 26, 31, 45, 69-70, 73, 87, 116, 127-130, 159, 178, 185-186, 203-213, 356, 384-385; origin and mode of —, 167- 168, 180; circumcisor, 66, 85-86, 204-207; see also filiation, ritual begetting, generation set and -subset, female circumcision

clan, 42, 100, 118-124, 157; — and colours, 120, 136-137, 174-176, 251-252, 263-264, 279-280, 286, 296-297, 322; see also filiation, gichiaro, names

class, category, group (either age or generation, as concepts), 52-54, 63-64, 77-80, 87-89, 118-119, 273-274, 383-384

co-affines, see alliance of marriage

Collard, C., 21, 437

colonization, 23, 26-27, 37, 63-64, 351-386, 417-422; see also decolonization

colours, codes of —, 60, 65, 120, 136-137, 216, 222, 252, 267, 279-280, 297, 316, 322, 333, 335, 423-425

Copet-Rougier, E., 193, 197, 439, 443

Cordell, D.D., 394, 439

curses, see blessings

cycle of the sun, cycle of the rain, 27-29, 60-61, 71-72, 103, 237-239, 251, 260-261, 297-301, 309-311, 327-329, 398-399; see also economy (agro-pastoralism), blacksmith, generation (division or cycle), mûgiro, mûgwe, sacrifice

D

Dassanetch, 66, 198, 345, 413

Dawson, M.H., 226, 410, 440

De Heusch, L., 303, 336, 440

death (inauspicious), 57-60; see also mûgiro

death rituals, see mûgiro

death sentence, see njuri ncheke

decolonization, 29-30, 33-34, 277, 304, 360- 362, 381-384

demography, demographic drift of generations, overageing and underageing, 19, 22, 36, 88-92, 196, 392, 394, 412, 414; age at marriage, 50, 54, 79, 88, 90-91, 247, 358; child spacing, 91, 107-108, 389-391, 395- 397; monogamy, polygyny, polyandry, 79, 83-84, 89, 91, 156-157, 191, 195, 247- 248, 273-274, 385, 388-391, 401-402, 412; sex ratio, 55, 91, 244-245, 395; lifespan, 47-48, 50, 54-56; age structure, 55, 86, 88, 91-92, 178-179, 409-410; net migration, 105-106, 176, 231, 397, 399, 404; populating, 121-124, 314, 344-346, 406-408; population density, 27, 103, 383-384, 404, 411, 423; population threshold, 406-408, 414; population survey, 27, 37, 85, 122- 123, 218-219, 354-355, 399, 406-411, 423; regulation of growth and fertility rate, 85, 89-92, 178-180, 182-183, 192-193, 195, 235, 388, 392-399, 406-408, 411-412; new demographic regime, 37, 353, 360, 363, 380-381, 399-406

descent group and age class, 18-19, 21-22, 199-200, 344-345

Désveaux, E., 412, 440

Digo, 199

Dinka, 335

diviner, divination, 118, 153, 206, 208-209, 228-229, 231, 232, 235, 238, 240-241, 256, 261, 289, 318-321, 326-328, 333, 314-342, 366-367, 379; see also Mbwaa

domestic cycle, see family kraal

dualism, dual division, left/right, 25, 57, 70-71, 91, 97-98, 152-153, 194, 214-216, 269-270, 278-283, 285-291, 297, 300-302, 309-311, 327-328, 339-342; see also body

Dugast, S., 20, 440

Dundas, C., 213, 440

Dyson-Hudson, N., 19, 406, 440

E

ear piercing ritual (gûtûra matû), 45-46, 52, 108-111, 153, 244, 385

economy; stepped ecosystems, 27-29, 100- 101, 408-409; agro-pastoralism, 23-24, 61, 102-104, 200, 225; household —, 20, 43, 100-106, 169-170; ritual and —, 104-105, 108-109, 111-112, 199, 271-273; barter and trade tibû, 73, 104-105, 225, 231, 260, 307- 309; invention of —, see Mbugi; modernizsation of —, 25-26, 29-30, 116-117, 157, 353-354, 357, 361-362, 371-372, 382-383, 386, 390-391, 400-406, 408-409; see also cycle of the sun, cycle of the rain, cattle links

Eisenstadt, S., 18, 66, 440

Embu, 25, 30, 37-38, 87, 168, 227-228, 231, 291, 306, 312, 345, 352, 357, 359, 379, 420

ethnonyms (origins of —), 38, 165-167, 194, 221, 269, 280, 317-318, 328

Evans-Pritchard, E. E., 18-19, 440, 441

Ewaso Nyiro (Lorian), 227, 417, 419, 420

F

Fadiman, J. A., 223, 315, 318, 319, 336-344, 365, 373, 406, 440

family kraal and domestic cycle, 42-46, 96-100, 106-118, 200, 210, 404-405

famines, 33, 61, 86, 167, 178, 292, 353-355, 357, 363, 408

father and daughter relationship, 49, 77-78, 80, 243-245, 256

father of the day, 116, 185-186, 204-205, 207- 208, 210-213, 281; see also ritual begetting

Fathers of the country, 19, 37, 46, 50, 52, 66-69, 72-74, 76, 79, 117, 182, 195, 213, 218, 220, 232-233, 262, 277-312, 363, 377, 385, 428; kiama, 46, 50, 65, 83, 217, 245, 259, 270, 281-288, 317-319, 324-331, 352- 363, 373-380; see also colonization, blacksmith, generation and handover of power, war, warriors, mûgiro, mûgwe, njuri ncheke, territory (sovereignty)

Feierman, S., 337, 441

female circumcision, 45, 69, 80-81, 243- 258, 347-348, 356; origin of —, 180-181; female circumcisor, 204, 250-252; prohibition of —, 243, 253-254, 359-361, 379-380, 400-402; see also abortion and infanticide, ritual begetting, alliance of marriage

female warriors, see warriors, kaaria mothers

filiation, 18, 36, 45-46, 67-70, 84, 108-113, 124, 126, 157-159, 188-189, 212-213, 252- 253, 256-257, 274-275, 294, 328, 401, 410- 411, 415; patrilineal —, 96, 118, 120-121, 192; cumulative patrifiliation, 36, 192-194, 415; inheritance, 113-118; cognatic descent and matrilineal —, 36, 117-118, 192-200; see also gaaru, generation (generation divisions or cycles)

Fluzin, P., 441

Forde, D., 449

Fortes, M., 18, 441

Fosbrooke, H. A., 342, 441

Fratkin, E., 232, 441

Fricke, T., 394, 444

Fukui, K., 18, 441

G

gaaru for non-initiated boys, 48, 64-65, 85, 108, 121, 185, 212, 221; — for warriors, 36, 45, 69-70, 74, 79, 105-108, 121-122, 124, 151, 155, 157, 177-182, 186-188, 203- 240, 245, 264, 271, 281-284, 293-294, 297, 301, 323, 363, 382, 389-390, 408; — for father, 97, 107-108, 118, 152, 186, 205, 221, 250, 253, 256, 299, 307; mothers of —, 220, 284, 287, 294; origins of —, 177-182, 236-237

Gabbra, 188, 198

Galaty, J. G., 334, 441

Gedge, E., 417, 441

generation class, see generation

generation, 26, 30-31, 33-34, 162-164, 171- 172; generational system, 63-92, 195, 200, 203-204; interrelation of sets with grades, 64, 68, 72-74, 76-77, 87-88, 91-92, 198, 259-260; principles of recruitment 67-70, 76-77; handover of power (ntuiko) 19, 23, 36-37, 50, 70-77, 85-86, 277-291, 361-362, 378-379; generation divisions or cycles (gîtiba), 37, 70-72, 84, 86-87, 91, 109-110, 179-180, 188-192, 196-197, 220-221, 244, 272-273, 329; — subset, 69-70, 72-74, 79, 82; alternate —, 32, 43, 111-112, 125, 149, 367-368; abeyance of rules, 74-76, 85-88, 90, 182-183, 399; — and filiation, 67-70, 125-126, 184-189, 191-193, 221; — and alliance of marriage, 77-84, 91-92, 138-139, 156-157, 182-184, 189-192, 257-258; — and Omaha terminology, 131, 150-152, 183- 184; — and history, 26-27, 31-34, 69-70, 75, 85-88, 213, 227-228, 284, 317, 342-344, 351-352, 359-362, 384-385, 401-404; see also demography, women, gaaru, names (of generation), territory

Gentilini, M., 409, 441

gichiario, 133-136, 155, 164, 174, 225, 228-231, 235, 292, 339, see also clan

Giorgis, B. G., 38, 441

girane, 137-138, 296, see also alliance of marriage

Giriama, 25, 131, 378

Glazier, J., 25, 325, 336, 442

Glazier, P. G., 325, 442

Gogo, 262

Gorfain, P., 325, 442

Gray, M. St. G., 334, 442

Green, M., 336, 442

Gregory, J. W., 439

Gulliver, P. H., 19, 442

Gurage, 131

H

Hallpike, C.R., 19, 343, 398, 411, 442

handover of powers (ntuiko), see demographic drift, Fathers of the country, generation and —, kaaria mothers, new initiatons scales, structural crisis

Heald, S., 406, 442

healing associations, 355, 366-372, 374-375, 377-379, 383, 399; see also body and person, status (achieved status)

Heine, B., 66, 442

Henige, D.P., 442

Henry, C., 54, 189, 442

Héritier, F., 130, 193, 442

Héritier-Augé, F., 193, 439, 443

Herskovits, M.J., 18, 443

Hertz, R., 300, 443

Hjort, A., 443

Hobley, C. W., 314, 315, 317, 319, 443

hnel, L. von, 33, 221, 222, 224, 225, 417- 419, 443

Holding, E. M., 243, 382, 443

Homan, F. D., 443

honey, see bee, blessings and cursing, mûgwe

Hopkins, J. G., 314, 317, 358

Horne, E. B., 314, 319, 320, 323, 352-353, 354, 363, 364, 379, 406, 420-421

Hultin, J., 443

hunter, hunting, 103-104, 145, 168-170, 227, 229, 289, 366-372; see also healing associations, Mbugi

Huntingford, G. W. B., 126, 234, 240, 332, 443

I

Ik (s), 66, 343

illness and misfortunes, see body and person, healing associations, mûgiro, witchcraft

Imenti, 32, 38, 66, 69, 76, 136, 163, 165-167, 171, 178, 179-181, 211-216, 228, 231, 269, 286, 289-291, 306, 315, 324, 342, 348, 359- 360, 373, 378, 380, 421

infanticide, see abortion

inheritance, see filiation

initiation, 17-18, 30-31, 33, 36, 37, 44-46, 49-50, 52, 61-62, 70, 74, 77, 80, 82, 88, 110, 115, 142-143, 181, 203-213, 243-258, 274, 330- 331, 358-359, 384-386, 399-403; “Kimeru” versus “Kiswahili”, 31; origin of —, 167- 168, 180-181, 194-195; see also age grade, circumcision, divination, female circumcision, generation, healing associations, Mbwaa, mûgwe, new initiation scales, njuri ncheke, ritual begetting, status

Israelites, 317

J

Jacobs, A. H., 334, 342, 443

Janzen, J. M., 441

Jeanmaire, H., 17, 444

Joola, 54

Journet, O., 54, 444

Julliard, A., 54, 444

K

kaaria mothers, 26, 34, 50, 83-84, 191-192, 235, 262-275, 391, 400-402; see also women, warriors

Kabi, 165

Kalenjin, 179, 197-198, 332, 334

Kamba, 37-38, 208, 225, 229, 305, 314, 345, 371, 404, 418-419

Kamunchulu, J. T. S., 381, 395, 421, 444

Kangoi, B. M. I., 178, 180-181, 227, 278, 288, 293, 315, 318-319, 321-323, 373, 381, 452

Karamojong or Karimojong, 19-20, 25, 76, 195-197, 343, 406, 412, 413

Kenyatta, J., 33, 34, 199, 259, 444

Kershaw, G., 25, 55, 168, 444

Kertzer, D. I., 394, 444

Kettel, D. W. W., 197, 444

Keyo, 197

kiara (household waste pit), 42, 44, 57, 60, 96-98, 114, 118, 124, 142-143, 200, 283, 309, 321, 323, 329, 376

Kikuyu (Ekûû), 25, 37-38, 51, 54, 119, 152, 168, 184, 198-199, 200, 229, 306, 312, 334, 335, 345-346, 351, 354, 357, 380, 382, 404- 405, 410, 421

Kimambo, I.N., 312, 335, 444

Kinoti, C.A., 38, 444

Kinyua, J.I., 373, 401, 421, 453

kioncho, 78, 133, 182, 191, 261-262

Kiple, K.F., 409, 444

Kipsigis, 179, 323, 332-334, 344, 421

kitheega, see abortion

Klima, G.J., 234, 262, 444

Knutsson, K.E., 394, 444

Koinange, M., 480

Kolb, G., 419-420, 444

Komenjue (Komenjwe), Kaurawabechau (Becheu), 319, 321, 372, 373, 374, 384

Konso, 19, 398, 411

Kotrba, F., 445, 453

Kuria, 25, 88

L

La Fontaine, J.S., 54, 445

Lagoon Peoples (Ivory Coast), 18, 54

Lambert, H. E., 25, 55, 56, 69, 81, 82, 120, 136, 143-144, 159, 161, 163-168, 171, 174- 175, 177, 180, 184, 199, 211, 213-215, 224, 231, 278, 281, 287, 290-291, 295, 312, 314, 318-320, 323, 324, 340, 342, 344, 377, 397, 407, 421, 445; as a District Commissioner, 32, 243, 291, 314, 357-361, 372, 377, 379- 380, 399, 400, 421

Lamphear, J., 19, 232, 334, 342, 351, 420, 445

landconsciousness, Land Consolidation, 382- 383, 390, 405, 409

Lashomba, 224, 226

Laughton, W. H., 315, 330, 347-348, 445

left and right, see body and person, dualism, Mbwaa

Legesse, A., 19, 342-343, 354, 413, 445

Lensky, G., 74

Lévi-Strauss, C., 445

Lienhardt, R. G., 335, 445

life cycle, see age (and life cycle)

lifespan, see demography

Liria, 467

Locoh, T., 449

lovers relationship (bankiro), 83, 117, 189-190, 195, 233, 237, 263, 296, 368, 377, 395, 396; see also generation and alliance of marriage

Lowie, R.H., 17, 232, 446

Luba, 335

Lukes, S., 53, 446

Luo, 323

M

M’imanyra, A. M., 313, 336, 446

M’mugambi, 477

Maasai (Urû), 18, 19, 23, 69, 114, 117, 165- 166, 197, 228-229, 232, 234, 333-334, 343, 364, 413

Macha, 394

Mahner, J., 25, 78, 136, 177, 184, 286, 300, 446

Mair, L., 421

Malinowski, B., 199

Mallart Guimera, L., 335, 368, 446

Maquet, J., 18, 446

Marrou, H.-I., 17, 446

maternal kin (touring before initiation) kurîria, 142-143, 153-155, 204, 248-249, 400-401

Mau Mau, see decolonization

Maybury-Lewis, D., 302, 446

Mbeere, 25, 37, 87, 231, 304, 306, 312, 325, 373, 379

Mbugi, Murutu and Mûkunga, myth of, 161- 163, 165, 167, 168-177, 194, 200, 221, 229, 269, 286, 289, 292, 294, 310, 315, 329, 346

Mbwaa, myth of, 37, 161, 199, 310, 313-346, 351, 369, 371-372

mechanical model, statistical model, 67-70, 79, 88-91, 193, 247, 400-401

melting pot, 345-346

Menget, P., 149, 446

Meru (Tanzanie), 38, 300

Middleton, J., 19, 21, 25, 364, 446

Migwani, 345

Mijikenda, 25, 119, 199, 317, 340

Moi, D. A., 34

Molnos, A., 407, 411, 446

Moore, S. F., 376, 447

Motio, Chanler’s guide, 222, 224-226, 418

mother of the day, 204, 250, 252-253; see ritual begetting

Mûciî Mûkûrû, 88, 285, 293, 399

mûgiro, 57, 153, 159, 188, 190-191, 209, 226, 235, 244, 256, 302-303, 326-328, 366, 378, 391, 394

mûgwe, 25, 37, 121, 205, 220, 232, 236, 277- 312, 315, 319, 321-322, 329, 361, 377-378; — and handover of power, 277-291; —’s body and person, 291-303; sacred “king”, 285, 298-303, 310-312

Mukogodo, 299, 370

Müller, H., 35, 447

Mumoni, 315, 345

Mungeam, G.H., 420, 447

Murdock, G.P., 23, 197, 447

Muriuki, G., 447

Muruku, 477

Muthaara, 221, 222, 223, 225, 226, 227, 228, 285, 288, 289, 418, 419-420

Mwambia, S.P.K., 411, 447

Mwariama, 480

Mwaniki, H.S.K., 228, 420, 447

Mwanzi, H.A., 179, 332-333, 447

Mwimbî, 38, 164-166, 174, 213, 229, 290, 324

Mwoko, 293

N

name (onomastics), — of generation sets, 26, 31-33, 55, 66-67, 80-84, 282-284; — of generation subsets, 66, 69-70, 82; — of gîtiba, 70-71, 244, 354; — of sets of spouses, 81-83, 246, 258, 284; — of warriors gaaru, 216-217; — of territorial sections, 28-29, 278-280, 285-286, 423-425; — of clans, 118-124, 316-319; personal — of generation-nthukî, 79, 186-187, 233- 234, 381; —s acquired personally by men, 42-47, 65, 79, 113, 185-187, 192-193, 211, 234; —s acquired personally by women, 42-44, 47-49, 144, 192-193, 246, 256-257

Nandi, 69, 232, 277

Ncherû, 380-382

Ndaminuki (M’iminuki), 476

Ndegwa Ngunyura, B. J., 30, 447

Ndembu, 336

Ndorobo (Wanderobbo), 227, 231-232, 419

Needham, R., 131, 278, 300, 302, 447

neighborhood (ntoora), 45, 100, 121-123, 258; see also family kraal, territory, territorial section/subsection

Neumann, A. H., 33, 227, 419-420, 447

new initiations scales, 30, 37, 52, 210, 243, 253, 266-268, 271, 285-286, 358, 364-365, 380-382, 384-386, 400-402

ngaa, Ngaa, Mwiko jwa Ngaa, 234, 248, 268- 270, 278, 285, 289, 313, 317-318, 319-321, 323-325, 326, 327, 328, 330, 333, 337, 341, 342, 351

Ngaï/Murungu, 47, 60, 107, 109, 116, 161, 171, 205, 219-220, 251, 270, 288, 298, 332, 398; see also Accomplished persons, Mbugi (wa Ngaï), blessings, sacrifice

Njeru, B. K., 411, 447

njuri ncheke, 30, 85, 104, 187, 355, 357, 358, 360, 361, 366, 371, 372-384, 385, 399

Njuwe, 174, 180, 234, 319, 334

non-initiated, 325; — boys, 45, 64-66, 384; — girls, 47-49, 65, 79-80, 142-143, 243- 249; conflicts between — and warriors, 49, 65-66; see also abortion, gaaru for non-initiated boys, generation (handover of power), maternal kin

numbers, symbolism of, 42, 53, 211, 283, 297-298; counting, 56-57, 61, 71, 119-120; see demography (population survey)

Nurse, D., 37, 448

Nyaga, D., 30, 448

Nyamwezi, 300

Nyangatom, 20, 35, 233, 428

Nyika, see Mijikenda

O

oath, 63, 75, 208, 224-227, 323, 328, 353, 368, 372, 375, 380, 381-383; see also ordeal

Ogot, B. A., 336, 448

Ole Sankan, S. S., 333, 448

omaha terminology, see alliance of marriage

ontogenesis, ontogeny, 41, 57, see also body and person

oral literature (ngono cia ngombe, njuno, ndwibo), 161-168, 248-251, 262-268, 313-325, 347- 348; see also kaaria, Mbugi, Mbwaa

Orde Browne, G., 168, 213, 448

ordeal, 31, 208-210, 320-321, 353, 375-376

Oromo, 19, 77, 233, 334, 394, 421, see also Borana, Gabbra, Macha

P

Pare, 312, 334

Parkin, D., 131, 378, 448

Paulme, D., 18, 448

peace, see war

Peatrik, A.-M., 20, 35, 36, 51, 57, 89, 195, 196, 200, 234, 334, 342, 345, 394, 412, 448

Peristiany, J.G., 332, 449

person, category of person, see body

Philippson, G., 37, 340, 449

Piché, V., 394, 439

Pilon, M., 449

Pison, G., 395, 449

Pokomo, 25

Pokot, 69, 198

Prins, A. H.J., 421, 449

R

Radcliffe-Brown, A.R., 197, 449

Rendille (Mathara), 225, 228-231, 234, 411, 417

Rigby, P., 262, 449

Rimita, D. M., 168, 209, 373, 375, 378, 449

rite de passage, 17, 57, 212, 279-280, 331-332; see also Mbwaa

ritual begetting, 185-186, 212-213, 234-237, 274-275, 298-299, 307-308, 328, 331-332, 395-396, 415

Rosa, P., 345, 449

Roscoe, J., 352, 449

Ruel, M. J., 25, 449

Rwandans, 302

S

Saberwal, S., 25, 450

sacred king, see mûgwe, blacksmith

sacrifice and vital breath, 109, 111, 219-220, 234-236, 295-296, 299, 319-322, 327; see also Mbwaa, Ngaï/Murungu

Saint-Kizito (tragedy of), 34-35, 336

Samburu (Thamburu, Thuku), 19, 228, 231

Sanders, E. R., 23, 450

Scattered dwellings, 29, 36, 95-96, 100-101, 158, 194-196, 408

Schapera, I., 19, 243, 450

Schurtz, H., 17, 450

Shackleton, E. R., 174, 450

Shambaa, 337-338

Sharman, J., 340, 342

Smith, P., 302, 325, 450

Somali, 26, 30, 225, 231, 303, 360-361, 364

sororate, 133, 138, 171, 173-174; see also alliance of marriage (co-affines), Mbugi

sovereignty, see territory (and —), State, Fathers of the Country

Sparta, 17

Spear, T. T., 38, 336, 340, 450

Spencer, P., 19, 228, 234, 262, 418, 450

State, 195-196, 232, 311-312, 351-352, 365; see also warriors, Fathers of the country, territory and sovereignty

status, status inconsistency, 21-22, 36, 72-77, 83-84, 113-115, 237-239, 271-272, 348; ascribed —, achieved —, 50-53, 85-86, 212, 366, 372, 374-375, 379-382; see also age and grading, structural crisis, demography (demographic drift of generations, over-ageing and under-ageing, regulation of growth and fertility rate), generation (handover of power)

Stewart, F. H., 21, 411, 413, 451

structural crisis, 35-37, 72-77, 85-88, 291, 378- 379, 414-415; see also demography (demographic drift of generations, over-ageing and under-ageing)

T

Tait, D., 19, 446

Taita, 119, 334-335

Tapinos, G., 451

Tate, H. R., 451

Tcherkézoff, S., 300, 302, 451

territorial section, see territory

territory, territorial section or subsection, 100-101, 121-124, 158, 216, 227-228, 278- 280, 282-289, 363, 423-425; — and sovereignty, 168-169, 172, 177-179, 231-232, 282-285, 288-291, 311-312, 365, 414-415; sacred places, 205, 218-220, 224-225, 231, 240-241, 281-282, 286-295, 323-324, 372- 373; territorial conflicts, 115, 360-361, 365, 369-372, 381-384, 404-406, 409; see colonization, decolonization, gaaru for warriors, settlements, Mbugi, Mbwaa, njuri ncheke, Fathers of the country, neighborhood, land consciouness

Thagicu, 37; Thaicho, 80; Thaichû 122, 200, 249, 352, 418, 425; Thaichû/Kabulele, 123, 249; Daitcho 418; Daichû 419

Tharaka, 38, 165, 166, 174, 180, 213, 227, 228, 231, 234, 285, 291-292, 304, 312, 315, 317, 319, 320, 324, 334

Thomas, L.M., 358, 451

time, conceptions of —, 44, 54-62, 70-71, 77, 86-88, 98-99, 112-113, 118, 125-126, 131, 149-150, 188-190, 197-198, 216-217, 234-235, 251-252, 271-272, 283-284, 308, 322-323, 330-332, 334-335, 351, 353-354, 361-362, 394-396

Toposa, 197

Tornay, S., 20, 35, 53, 196-197, 234, 428, 451

Toweett, T., 332-333, 451

Townsend, N., 25, 451

Tschokwe, 307

Tugen, 197

Turkana (Kirio), 73, 76, 180, 229, 232, 323, 334, 345, 420

Turnbull, C. M., 66, 343-344, 451

Turner, V., 336, 451

Turton, D., 18, 441

twins, 296, 395

V

Van Gennep, A., 17, 212, 452

Vansina, J., 376, 452

Verdeaux, F., 54, 452

Vignikin, C., 449

Ville, J.-L., 20, 452

Vimard, P., 449

Viveiros de Castro, E., 193, 452

Volpini, D., 315, 452

W

war, — and age-set, 18-19, 225, 315; — and generation set, 181-182, 195-196, 414; weapons, 138, 211-212, 221-226, 305; enemies, 229-232, 234-235; types of war, 223, 226-232; war and ritual, 43, 234-237; war and peace, 70-72, 228-229, 232, 284; decline of traditional war, 86-87, 217, 352-353, 364-365, 372-373, 381-383; see generation and history

warriors, 25, 34, 45-46, 79-80, 105-107, 203- 241, 352, 358-359, 364-365; — lamalle, 31, 66, 204-210, 215, 217, 271, 381, 385; waangi state, 46, 172, 233, 334, 238, 269, 275, 364; see ritual begetting, gaaru for warriors, kaaria mothers, non-initiated, Fathers of the country, female warriors

widow (status of), 102, 113, 115, 117, 190

wife-givers wife-takers relationships, see alliance of marriage

Willis, J., 340, 452

witchcraft, 208, 329, 366, 368, 370-372, 374, 375, 377, 378, 379, 382, 391, 400; see also njuri ncheke, healing associations, blacksmith

woman, women, 243-275; life cycle of, 50-56, 117-118; sets of spouses, 72, 77-84, 196, 258-262; kaaria and handover of power, 191-192, 262-275, 391, 400-402; — and mbwa, 316, 329-330, 332-333; — ntindiri, 260-261, 299-300; confronting women, 32-33, 359, 380-381, 382, 391, 399-402; see colonization, demography, female circumcision, kaaria mothers, name (of sets of spouses)

Y

Yemenis, 26

Z

Zanaki, 25, 88, 312

Zanzibari (former name for Swahili), 222, 225, 417, 419

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