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Rural-Urban Dynamics in the East African Mountains

 | 
Sylvain Racaud
, 
Bob R. Nakileza
, 
François Bart
, 
et al.

Part 2

5. Rethinking the future of rural landscapes in relation to cities in the mountain regions of East Africa: Case of Mt Elgon in Uganda

Bob R. Nakileza

Texte intégral

1The debate on the urban and rural areas has gained momentum in recent times and, in particular, the dynamics of the interactions and linkages. In the East African mountains the development of towns is a recent phenomenon, barely two decades old, that has hardly been explored critically. Tacoli (2007) indicated that most development theory and practice is implicitly based on the dichotomy between “rural” and “urban” areas, populations and activities. Policies are still divided along spatial and sectorial lines with urban and rural planners operating independently of each other and yet the reality on the ground depicts close interacting livelihoods with both a rural and urban mix. Rural-urban interactions include linkages across space (such as flows of people, goods, money and information); and sectorial interactions, which include “rural” activities taking place in urban areas (such as urban agriculture) or activities often classified as “urban” (such as manufacturing and services) taking place in rural areas. Rural-urban interactions are also affected by macro level factors e.g. the Structural Adjustment Programme and economic reforms, and local historical, socio-cultural and ecological factors.

2Soja (1969) observed that Akin Mabogunje’s analysis cogently argues that both the rural and urban components must be considered together, even if the primary stress is on implications for rural development. Urban-generated activities significantly affect rural areas. Agricultural land use, for example, is not simply an adaptation to local factors of soil, rainfall, population density and taste mediated by cultural or traditional preferences. Whenever an element of exchange is involved, the patterns of land use, as well as those of marketing, settlement and circulation, will be affected by such additional factors as distance to an urban centre, transportation costs and facilities, and supply and demand ratios. Observations on the spatial analysis of integration are meant not only to suggest future possibilities for geographical research in Africa, but to indicate the critical need to view geographical problems within a system framework. It is of utmost importance that rural studies, whatever the disciplines involved, avoid conceptual isolationism and explicitly recognize the wider social, economic and political context which embraces rural areas. The current paper embraces this position in its analysis.

3Spatial development policies which have attempted to integrate rural and urban dimensions have often failed because they were based on inaccurate generalisations about the relationship between the two (Tacoli 2007). This calls for greater understanding of such interplays and the related implications of each dimension. The urban-rural linkages have increased in recent years particularly in the developing world, including mountains as reflected in migrations and urban expansions among others. The intensification of rural-urban linkages with respect to environmental flows has occurred as a result of increased urban demands for rural resources such as land, water, and air (Braun 2007). The most visible change is associated with the physical expansion of urban areas, as urbanization has led to the extension of urban space onto rural space to accommodate growing populations and growing levels of economic activity. As indicated by Braun (2007), water is a resource with strong spatial dimensions, as interregional water flows provide critical links between urban areas and their surroundings. Many of the rivers flow from mountain regions to adjacent or far-reaching lowlying regions. However, many cities across the world are situated near waterways, hence the likely negative ecological implications in terms of loss of ecosystems and degradation of water systems. Urban areas release waste in local waterways hence contamination, which can in turn cause health problems for downstream users and damage aquatic systems (Millennium Ecosystems Assessment 2005). It has been observed that urbanization also creates pressure on elements of agricultural production, as it increases demand. That can lead to environmental degradation if the intensification entails ill-applied external inputs (Millennium Ecosystems Assessment 2005). Additionally, increased demand for certain agricultural products such as meat and grains can lead to the rise of monocultures, which have contributed to reduced biodiversity in rural areas.

4Agriculture and forestry are the main land types and play a key role in the management of natural resources in rural areas and in determining the rural landscape (EC 2009 cited in Schouten et al. 2009). Thus, agriculture being the backbone of the rural economy largely carried out by the smallholders (>80 %), is one of the key sectorial flows in rural areas. Agricultural growth engenders both backward linkages in the form of increased demand for farm inputs such as fertilizers and farm equipment, and forward linkages, as increased farm income from sale of produce translates into increased demand for consumption of goods and services (Mellor 1995, Diao et al. 2007). These linkages can subsequently lead to rural transformation, with an expansion of the rural non-farm economy and better linkages with the rest of the economy, with increasing sectorial and spatial flows between rural and urban areas. Changes in the global economy are part of the driving forces in modification of rural areas (Primdahl and Swaffield 2011, Afriyie et al. 2013). Rising consumer incomes and urbanizing lifestyles have increased the demand for high-value agricultural products, which include meat and fish, fruits, vegetables and dairy products. To meet these demands, most agricultural producers in developing countries, including those in mountains, are diversifying toward these products. However, the resulting changes in the rural landscape have been less explored in East Africa. This paper hypothesises that the emerging changes and consequences in the rural landscape have (i) a close relationship to the medium towns/centres in the mountain areas of East Africa and (ii) implications for policy and land use planning for sustainable use. To explore this, a case study of Mt Elgon was used.

Landscape analysis in Mt Elgon

Conceptualisation and framework of landscape analysis

5Conceptions of landscape are numerous and vary greatly in the scientific community plus everyday discourse (Backhaus et al. 2008). However, the conceptions themselves change with the alteration of the landscape realities (Kienast et al. cited by Backhaus et al. 2008) and thus new images and landscape values are required. Landscapes being relative and dynamic make it hard to provide a conclusive definition. But it can be regarded as a product resulting from the interaction of people with nature or the environment. Thus it has a mediatory function between people and the natural environment. The role of landscape in mediating between the natural environment and human activity is not immediate and spontaneous, but rather dependent upon acquired rules, models and cultural patterns (Backhaus et al. 2008). This study adopts the four poles of a landscape perception model; that is nature, culture, the individual and the society. As argued by Backhaus et al., (2008) landscape perception can be considered between the poles of nature and culture. Focusing only on human beings, another polarity can be easily discerned, that is between the individual and society—the former characterized by their perceptions of landscape while the latter by the way space is organized, managed and appropriated by different social groups. These poles were instrumental in framing the research questions and guiding the field inquiries in Mt Elgon landscape that has lots of stakes and interests when compared to the past (> three-four decades ago).

Study area

6The study focused on the general environment in the mountain areas in East Africa. Detailed investigations on interactions and landscape changes were undertaken in the hinterlands (rural environment) and urban centres (small and medium) in Mt Elgon (fig. 17).

Figure 17. Location of Mbale and Kapchorwa in relation to other districts and towns in Mt Elgon, Uganda

Figure 17. Location of Mbale and Kapchorwa in relation to other districts and towns in Mt Elgon, Uganda

7Much of the mountain landscape is fragile with steep slopes dominating as altitude increases above 1,500 m. Areas above 2,500 m are mainly natural landscape, under nature conservation such as National parks and Forest reserves, some of which were designated way back in the 1930s. However, most of the land below 2,500 m is agricultural landscape, constituted of cultivated farmlands with different crops, grazing and woodlots. The population in Mt Elgon stands at about 1.8m inhabitants (UBOS 2014); all the districts have experienced an increase in population though overall the population doubled between the census period 2002 to 2014 in the original Mbale district encompassing the districts of Manafa, Bududa and Sironko. Urban centres are few and scattered but expanding due to increasing population, economic and political development. The main towns in the Mt Elgon area are Mbale and Kapchorwa, with a total population of 123,721 (25 %) and 12,345 (11.8 %) respectively (UBOS 2014). Kween (3,576), Bukwo (7,686) and Bududa (6,730) have the least urban population. A number of town councils have been designated following the formation of new districts such as Bulambuli, Bududa, Bukwo and Kween. Market centres have also mushroomed in a number of places providing opportunities for the exchange of goods between the low- and high-land population.

Methods

8This study employed a multi-scale approach (household, local, regional) and triangulated methods involving use of images, field survey and secondary data sources.

9Interviews with selected informants (farmers, traders and district officials) were carried out to establish their response on flows, actors and observed changes in the area. Questionnaires were intended to capture information on the quantities of flows and perceptions on resultant changes in ecological and livelihood conditions. Participatory Rural Appraisal/Focus Group Discussions were particularly useful in obtaining the views of selected respondents on underlying past changes and causes and future predictions. Observations were done for landscape types at various spatial scales, and consequent alterations. Secondary data sources were important in understanding the recorded trends and patterns in landscapes. Discussions were held with decision/policy makers in the area (e.g. Chief Administrative Officers, Town planners) on their general view of the green spaces in the town and rural areas (e.g. forests, wetlands).

10Images and relevant geographic datasets to analyse urban land changes were obtained for Mbale town. Landsat MSS data for 1973 images were pre-processed, and then classified using supervised and unsupervised classification methods to derive a Land Use and Land Cover (LULC) map for Mbale town. To enhance accuracy, ground-truthing was done using both GPS collected field data and aerial photographs. The images were classified into LULC categories ranging from agricultural fields, built up area and rangelands to forest cover. The post-classified 2001 and 2005 LULC maps were obtained from the Multipurpose Landcover Database Africover and reclassified into four categories. The 2001 and 2005 LULC maps were originally produced from visual interpretation of digitally enhanced high-resolution LANDSAT TM images (Bands 4, 3, 2) acquired mainly in the period 2000-2001. All three post-classified 1973, 2001, and 2005 LULC maps for Mbale town were further analysed to understand land transitions for different time intervals (i.e, 1973- 2001, 1973-2005, and 2001-2005). Land use changes were analysed using change detection methods. Final LULC maps were created using ESRI’s ArcGIS 10.1. Illustrative graphics and map production was done using CorelDraw X3.

Results and discussion

Arable land use change between 1960 to 2010

11Much of the land outside the conservation areas (<2,500 m) that was under forest or bush in the 1960s has been converted to grazing and/or cropland (fig. 18 and 19, table 6 and 7). As also observed by Soini (2007) and UNDP (2013b) in most areas, what remains outside the national park are remnants of natural forests and natural vegetation since most of the natural forests have been cleared for agriculture. The conversion is mainly attributed to population growth, urbanization, government policy and institutional dynamics.

Figure 18. Land use cover type in Mt Elgon in 2012

Figure 18. Land use cover type in Mt Elgon in 2012

Figure 19. Land use change on Mt Elgon.

Figure 19. Land use change on Mt Elgon.

Source: Kitutu G.M. and Bamutaze Y.

Table 6. Arable land use types of change from 1960s to 2012

Table 6. Arable land use types of change from 1960s to 2012

Table 7. Status of the forests in some districts in Mt Elgon

Table 7. Status of the forests in some districts in Mt Elgon

Updated from Soini, 2007; Topographic sheet.1: 50,000 and corroborated with personal field observations.

12Land use change from annual to perennial crops e.g. maize, barley and wheat to banana mixed with coffee or coffee grown with annuals, has been driven by numerous factors including government policy of crop diversification, shift in market demand in the region, globalization, and decline in crop yield following over-cultivation. In more recent years since 1990s, horticultural crops have emerged as dominant second season crops largely grown for sale to boost farmer income earnings. Growing of horticultural crops, however, has negative consequences such as accelerated erosion, nutrient depletion, including generating land use conflicts. As noted by Tacoli (2002) demand from urban consumers for high value horticultural produce can stimulate production by small farmers, but, at the same time, the expansion of urban centres often involves competition over the use of essential natural resources such as land and water.

13Another distinct observation is that of changing access to land and declining per capita plot/farm sizes. Individuals rarely own more than 1-2 acres of land for cultivation. The plots are also fragmented with individuals owning on average 2-4 plots in different places. High prices for land restrict access by the poor particularly in peri-urban and urban areas; a plot of land approximately costs US $ 220 to 420 per acre in rural areas and US $ 550 to 830 per acre in peri-urban areas.

  • 1 Land use and landscape patterns in (a) Kapchorwa and (b) Mbale (Source: Google Earth, 2013) (c) Enc (...)

14Ox ploughing along contours is a common practice especially on the mid to upper altitudinal part of Kapchorwa, Kween and Bukwo districts (Photo 10e)1; this was reportedly attributed to the influence from the mountain side of Kenya. Almost distinct terraced landscape characterizes the farmlands that have long been under this cultivation practice (Photo 10a). The terraced fields, often rectangular, are grown with annual crops such as barley, wheat and maize. This contrasts sharply with most farmlands in Mbale, which are hand cultivated, less distinct and largely of varying shapes (Photo 10b).

Photo 10. Photos of Land Use in Mt Elgon (Nakileza)

Photo 10. Photos of Land Use in Mt Elgon (Nakileza)

15Agro-forestry practices have also shaped the landscape particularly in the rural areas. Trees such as eucalyptus are grown on small woodlots along the rivers/streams or elsewhere on farmlands as deemed necessary by the farmer (s). Other trees such as Grevilia spp. are commonly integrated on farmlands in different patterns and seem to be replacing the indigenous species e.g. Markhamia lutea, Cordia africana. Tree growing is being promoted by Non-governmental Organisations, Community based Organisations and government departments. Considering the prevailing campaigns for environmental protection coupled with a high demand for tree products from urban and rural areas, tree growing in woodlots is likely to increase.

16Evidence of changes in climate conditions (rainfall and temperatures) is well reported in Mt Elgon (e.g. UNDP 2013a, NEMA 2014, Kansime et al. 2013). Statistically significant increasing trends in annual rainfall and the distribution both on the annual and seasonal scales have been observed (Kansime et al. 2013). But the effect of climate change on rural landscape is less perceived or articulated. Some farmers recognize that intensive rains contribute to slope failures especially on steep land. Slope failures alter the shape and fertility of the land through soil displacement downslope. Delays in rain seasons or prolonged dry spells are commonly reported. Increased warming conditions have induced farmers to grow crops including trees hitherto considered unfavourable at high altitude; for instance mangoes and groundnuts. In Mt Rwenzori, the Kabalore Research Centre (2011) reported changes in response to climate change and that small scale farmers in the area had planted trees and diversified their livelihood strategies as part of the adaptation strategy to climate change. As indicated by Osman-Elasha (2009), in sub Saharan Africa the IPCC report of 2007 showed continued climate change and impacts such as increased disasters and reduced food production in the region; it further showed that these changes will be compounded by non-climate factors such as endemic poverty, hunger, high prevalence of disease, chronic conflicts, low levels of development and low adaptive capacity. Elsewhere, in Europe, Schouter et al. (2009) noted that in future, climate change could further distort the impact of agricultural practices on rural areas. The growing seasons will be extended, the variability of the climate will increase, which will lead to severe changes in productivity and effects on the nature and shape of rural areas.

Non-arable land use change

17The Mt Elgon National Park (MENP) in Uganda covers an area of 1,110 square kilometres. The analysis of satellite imagery by Petursson et al. (2013) showed that between 1973 and 1988, almost 15,500 ha of native forest were lost within the boundary of the Mt Elgon Forest Reserve alone.

  • 2 Dense network of secondary earth roads extend into the more fragile part of the mountain particular (...)

18Observed distinct changes in non-arable land use include arable land converted to built-up areas, track roads to all weather roads (tarmac roads) and footpaths to seasonal roads including tracks. The road network density (fig. 20)2 has relatively increased especially in the southern part of the Mt Elgon region and this is explained by government policy and programmes of extending services nearer to the people through the decentralization policy in relation to population growth and establishment of new institutions. The estimated length of the highways and secondary roads is 1268 km; 80 % of this belongs to the secondary roads. However, this estimation excludes the feeder roads and recently constructed secondary roads. Data on these feeder and secondary roads was not readily available.

Figure 20. Road network in the Mt Elgon region

Figure 20. Road network in the Mt Elgon region

19The number of urban centres and therefore the area under urbanization has increased over the years throughout the districts in the entire Mt Elgon region.

  • 3 Figures in bracket indicate total population in urban area.

Table 8. Urban centres in different districts in the Mt Elgon region3 (UBS 2014)

Table 8. Urban centres in different districts in the Mt Elgon region3 (UBS 2014)

20Expansion of urban settlements in Mt Elgon (fig. 21) has encroached on the rural areas, particularly grazing and cropland on the fringes; new brick/concrete buildings have replaced the traditional round huts (Photo 10c). Table 9 shows the details of the expansion of Mbale town hence encroachment on the surrounding agricultural areas. The built-up area increased seven fold within five years, (2000 to 2005). One of the driving factors is “modernization” as dictated by the urban planning development. Concrete buildings with block/brick walls or fences have sprung up replacing hedges. This was reportedly done for security reasons but it has also become a common fashion for the rich and middle class. Adesina (2007) similarly observed that economic growth drives urban expansion in the form of the construction of businesses, dwellings, roads, leisure centres etc., and the metropolitan regions face the growing problems of urban sprawl, including a decline in natural vegetation, wildlife habitats and agricultural land.

Figure 21. Expansion of Mbale town over the years 1973 to 2005

Figure 21. Expansion of Mbale town over the years 1973 to 2005

Table 9. LULC change metrics (area in Sq. Metres) in Mbale town

Table 9. LULC change metrics (area in Sq. Metres) in Mbale town

21In some urbanising rural areas such as Sipi in Kapchorwa district, opportunities for tourism development have emerged due to the high amenity value of the landscape. The demand for recreation by urban dwellers from nearby and afar has promoted tourism development in Sipi. The area has a series of attractive physical features such as waterfalls and beautiful caves. Hotels and restaurants have sprung up along the Sipi to Kapchorwa road to offer services to the tourists. Other related resultant developments in Sipi include diversification of employment opportunities particularly for the rural youth and women; they are engaged as well in selling handicrafts and horticultural produce.

Impact of rural landscape change on socio-ecological stability and wellbeing

22Changes in the rural landscape can have economic and social outcomes for inhabitants. Traditions, rural identity and the community sense can play a large role in this development. In this way, disturbances that would jeopardize the landscape can affect farmers, but can also have large impacts on the local non-farming community (Schouten et al. 2009). Both negative and positive impacts are associated with changes in the rural landscape in Mt Elgon (this is in agreement with findings by Primdahl and Swaffield (2011)). White et al. (2008) also indicated that related to population growth, rural land development and the associated loss of rural open space are expected to have a number of social, economic, and ecological implications. Planting of trees has an important role in stabilizing the soils especially on steep slopes. Many farmlands were observed to have low or even no tree cover, particularly those cultivated with horticultural crops and where oxploughs are used in the Kapchorwa district. Reduced tree cover on farmlands, however, often leads to accelerated (i) windstorms that cause destruction of houses, schools etc., (ii) fuel wood scarcity, (iii) mass movements including soil erosion and landslides. Landslides have become a common phenomenon on moderate to steep cultivated and settled slopes (>150) causing the death of many people and loss of property. Studies (e.g. Knapen et al. 2006, Kitutu 2010, Mugagga et al. 2011) revealed the interplay between land use change and landslide prevalence in Mt Elgon; they observed accelerated landslide occurrence on steep cultivated slopes. In this study, however, we observed that sites of past landslides are now either planted with eucalyptus trees or abandoned for grazing. This management practice leads to stabilizing the scars thus reducing the risk of secondary slides.

23As already indicated, the network of roads, tracks and footpaths has increased over time. Those networks are important for easing the movement of goods and people, but unfortunately also form linear zones of compaction which increase runoff due to reduced infiltration. Accelerated runoff deprives the soils of moisture, which is important for plants particularly during the dry spells in December to February. Besides runoff compacted surfaces can increase runoff generation that induce accelerated rill and gully erosion. Studies undertaken by Bamutaze (2010) demonstrate the role of compacted linear surfaces toward accelerated sediment production in the Manafwa River catchment. Increased sediment load undermines water quality and causes a great health risk to downstream users including those in Mbale town. Roads can also result in other ecological changes. Roads in Mt Elgon pass through a number of ecosystems such as wetlands, forests and agricultural lands, which is likely to have had some impacts on such fragmented ecosystems. Theobald et al. (1996) reported that roads are an important cause of habitat fragmentation; they act as corridors for exotic species, they create ecotones and add edge to adjacent patches.

24Conversion of forests to annual crops exposes soils to degradation processes such as erosion and increased decomposition of organic matter. This, combined with poor farming practices (e.g. non application of manure or erosion control), leads to reduced soil organic carbon. Reduction in soil organic carbon affects many key ecosystem services such as nutrient supply, moisture holding capacity and soil stability.

25Land use change has contributed to ecosystem fragmentation, characterised by patches of small remnant forests separated by cultivated farms, grazing lands, settlements and roads. The fragmentation poses health related risks due to exposure of humans to new diseases. Micro-environments such as water pools create favourable conditions for breading of anophiline mosquitoes that spread malaria. A risk of malaria has reportedly increased in the highlands of eastern Africa including Mt Elgon, thus affecting the wellbeing particularly of the children. These findings are consistent with Patz et al. (2004) observations that anthropogenic land use changes drive a range of infectious disease outbreaks and emergence events and modify the transmission of endemic infections.

Implications for policy and land use planning

26Rural and urban areas are interconnected; they closely interact and developments in one affect the other. Rivers and streams from rural areas flow through and/or supply water to the urban areas. Rural areas downstream are supplied by the same rivers navigating through the towns. A case in point is the River Atari in Kapchorwa town and Nabisyo in Mbale town. Those rivers receive a heavy sediment load plus other pollutants from farmlands (photo 10d) including urban centres. Those findings are in agreement with Salukvadze and Chaladze (2013) who observed that the physical and chemical composition of underground waters was significantly altered under the influence of anthropogenic factors especially in urban areas and downstream. There are health risks and high treatment costs associated with the domestic use of such waters. According to the Mbale Water Works Management, substantial funds are spent on cleansing the polluted water before supplying it to users. Therefore, there is need to formulate regional plans integrating both rural and urban areas for improved provision of ecosystem services. Municipalities should participate in improved management of water catchments as part of their payment for ecosystem services.

27Unsustainable rural land use practices have socio-economic implications; they can lead to reduced crop yield hence food insecurity and low incomes. These conditions can consequently induce outmigration mainly to urban areas, which are already stressed. Movements of environmental refugees from areas affected by landslides are reportedly common in the Mt Elgon region. This phenomenon is especially worrying considering the densely settled slopes; the population density exceeding 1,000 person/km2 matches that of urban areas in some places in Bulucheke sub-county. Development plans integrating the changing demands of the rural environments must be considered in a broad regional context.

28Agricultural malpractices lead to loss of rural farmland through debris flows and soil erosion. Poor land tenure practice in the area has also accentuated fragmentation. The loss of rural land and/or its fragmentation has many potential implications in terms of goods, services and functions provided by such landscapes (Alberti et al. 2003, Collins et al. 2000). There is a need for improved land tenure in order to promote consolidated land ownership and investment in land management for sustainable ecosystem services.

29Reforestation on private farmlands was perceived by rural communities to demonstrate the traditional or cultural value of having landscapes that provide multiple ecosystem services. This is in contrast with what Hunziker et al. (2008) found out in Switzerland that experts rated return to the traditional cultural landscape much higher, and both reforestation and intensification much lower than the general Swiss public. Public policies should build on this to create public-private partnerships to promote re-vegetation of degraded landscapes. Price incentives through existing carbon credit schemes (e.g. Carbon credit funds) are crucial for farmers to plant or maintain trees on their farmlands.

Conclusion

30This chapter has demonstrated that the rural landscape in mountain regions in East Africa is in rapid transition. The investigation shows that under prevailing conditions rapid rural landscape change is likely to characterise the future of these mountain areas. Areas of great change are and will be close to the towns and rural areas of high population density where increasing population will demand more houses for settlement and various ecosystem goods and services. Therefore, the goods and ecosystem services rendered by rural landscapes will be under tremendous stress leading to negative consequences. Lack of consistency, regularly and timely updated data on landscapes will constrain monitoring of these areas for improved planning and resource management. Proper management of rural landscapes amidst increasing pressures and stakes in Mt Elgon is important since it constitutes part of protecting the global mountain cultural and natural heritage. It is recommended that an integrated rural and urban planning approach be adopted in addressing the problems so as to ensure social, economic and ecological balance hence sustainable mountain development.

I am grateful to CORUS for the financial research support and IFRA for their collaboration. The local communities and authorities in Mt Elgon are highly appreciated for their cooperation during field data collection. I appreciate the reviewers’ comments that have contributed to improvement of the write up.

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Notes

1 Land use and landscape patterns in (a) Kapchorwa and (b) Mbale (Source: Google Earth, 2013) (c) Encroachment on forest reserve for agriculture use and settlement in Kapchorwa (d). Intensive land use on steep slopes in Wanale (it contributes to increased stream discharge and a health risk to rivers such as Nabisyo passing through Mbale town); flash floods have been experienced downstream (e) Ox ploughing across the slope in Kapchorwa (f) Undulating cultivated land adjacent National park . (Source: Image from Google Earth and Photos by Dr. Bob Nakileza).

2 Dense network of secondary earth roads extend into the more fragile part of the mountain particularly the southern part.

3 Figures in bracket indicate total population in urban area.

Table des illustrations

Titre Figure 17. Location of Mbale and Kapchorwa in relation to other districts and towns in Mt Elgon, Uganda
URL http://books.openedition.org/africae/docannexe/image/1233/img-1.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 29k
Titre Figure 18. Land use cover type in Mt Elgon in 2012
URL http://books.openedition.org/africae/docannexe/image/1233/img-2.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 32k
Titre Figure 19. Land use change on Mt Elgon.
Crédits Source: Kitutu G.M. and Bamutaze Y.
URL http://books.openedition.org/africae/docannexe/image/1233/img-3.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 46k
Titre Table 6. Arable land use types of change from 1960s to 2012
URL http://books.openedition.org/africae/docannexe/image/1233/img-4.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 19k
Titre Table 7. Status of the forests in some districts in Mt Elgon
Légende Updated from Soini, 2007; Topographic sheet.1: 50,000 and corroborated with personal field observations.
URL http://books.openedition.org/africae/docannexe/image/1233/img-5.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 92k
Titre Photo 10. Photos of Land Use in Mt Elgon (Nakileza)
URL http://books.openedition.org/africae/docannexe/image/1233/img-6.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 66k
Titre Figure 20. Road network in the Mt Elgon region
URL http://books.openedition.org/africae/docannexe/image/1233/img-7.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 58k
Titre Table 8. Urban centres in different districts in the Mt Elgon region3 (UBS 2014)
URL http://books.openedition.org/africae/docannexe/image/1233/img-8.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 34k
Titre Figure 21. Expansion of Mbale town over the years 1973 to 2005
URL http://books.openedition.org/africae/docannexe/image/1233/img-9.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 43k
Titre Table 9. LULC change metrics (area in Sq. Metres) in Mbale town
URL http://books.openedition.org/africae/docannexe/image/1233/img-10.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 19k

Auteur

PhD holder in Environmental geography (Cape Town University) and a Senior Lecturer at the Department of Geography and Environmental Management, Makerere University, Kampala (Uganda), nakilezabob@gmail.com
His recent research and publication orientation is on dynamics in rural-urban interactions, eco-disaster risk reduction, socio-ecological systems and how this shapes the geographical space in rural and urban environments. He is an active member of Afromont.

© Africae, 2016

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