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EVALITA Evaluation of NLP and Speech Tools for Italian - December 17th, 2020

 | 
Valerio Basile
, 
Danilo Croce
, 
Maria Maro
, 
et al.

AcCompl-it: Acceptability & Complexity evaluation

AcCompl-it @ EVALITA2020: Overview of the Acceptability & Complexity Evaluation Task for Italian

Dominique Brunato, Cristiano Chesi, Felice Dell’Orletta, Simonetta Montemagni, Giulia Venturi et Roberto Zamparelli

Résumé

The Acceptability and Complexity evaluation task for Italian (AcCompl-it) was aimed at developing and evaluating methods to classify Italian sentences according to Acceptability and Complexity. It consists of two independent tasks asking participants to predict either the acceptability or the complexity rate (or both) of a given set of sentences previously scored by native speakers on a 1-to-7 points Likert scale. In this paper, we introduce the datasets distributed to the participants, we describe the different approaches of the participating systems and provide a first analysis of the obtained results.

Texte intégral

1. Motivation

1The availability of annotated resources and systems aimed at predicting the level of grammatical acceptability or linguistic complexity of a sentence (see, among others, (Warstadt, Singh, and Bowman 2018; Brunato et al. 2018)) is becoming increasingly relevant for different research communities that focus on the study of language. From the Natural Language Processing (NLP) perspective, the interest has been recently prompted by automatic generation systems (e.g. Machine Translation, Text Simplification, Summarization) mostly based on Deep Neural Networks algorithms (Gatt and Krahmer 2018). In this scenario, resources and methods able to assess the quality of automatically generated sentences or devoted to investigate the ability of artificial neural networks to score linguistic phenomena on the acceptability and complexity scales are of pivotal importance. From the theoretical linguistics perspectives, controlled datasets containing acceptability judgments and analyzed with machine learning techniques can be useful to test the extent to which syntactic and semantic deviance can be induced from corpus data alone, especially for low frequency phenomena (Chowdhury and Zamparelli 2018; Gulordava et al. 2018; Wilcox et al. 2018), while the same data, seen from a psycholinguistic angle, can shed light on the relation between complexity and acceptability (Chesi and Canal 2019), and on the extent to which measures of on-line perplexity in artificial language models can track human parsing preferences (Demberg and Keller 2008; Hale 2001).

2The Acceptability & Complexity evaluation task for Italian (AcCompl-it) at EVALITA 2020 (Basile et al. 2020) is in line with this emerging scenario. Specifically, it is aimed at developing and evaluating methods to classify Italian sentences according to Acceptability and Complexity, which can be viewed as two simple numeric measures associated with linguistic productions. Among the outcomes of the task, we also include the creation of a set of sentences annotated with acceptability and complexity human judgments that we are going to share with the linguistic community. While datasets annotated for acceptability exist for English, see in particular the COLA dataset (Warstadt, Singh, and Bowman 2018), to our knowledge the present dataset is a first for Italian, and is also the first one to combine judgments of acceptability and complexity.

2. Definition of the task

  • We conceived AcCompl-it as a prediction task where participants were asked to estimate the average acceptability and complexity score of a set of sentences previously rated by native speakers on a 1-7 Likert scale and, if possible, to predict the actual standard error (SE) among the annotations. SE gives an estimation of the actual agreement between human annotators: the highest the SE, the lowest the agreement. The task is articulated in three subtasks, as follows:

  • the Acceptability prediction task (ACCEPT), where participants have to estimate the acceptability score of sentences (along with their standard error); in this case, 1 corresponds to the lowest degree of acceptability, while 7 corresponds to the highest level. The assignment of a score on a gradual scale is in line with the definition of perceived acceptability that we intend to empirically inspect. According to the literature, in fact, acceptability is a concept closely related to grammaticality but with some major differences (see, among others, (Sprouse 2007; Sorace and Keller 2005)). While the latter is a theoretical construction corresponding to syntactic wellformedness and it is typically interpreted as a binary property (i.e., a sentence is either grammatical or ungrammatical), acceptability can depend on many factors, such as syntactic, semantic, pragmatic, and non–linguistic factors;

  • the Complexity prediction task (COMPL), where participants have to estimate the complexity score of sentences (along with their standard error); in this case, 1 corresponds to the lowest possible level of complexity, while 7 indicates the highest degree. Similarly to the Acceptability prediction task, the use of the Likert scale as a tool to collect perceived values is motivated by the assumption that sentence complexity is a gradient, rather than binary, concept;

  • the Open task, where participants are requested to model linguistic phenomena correlated with the human ratings of sentence acceptability and/or complexity in the datasets provided.

3The three subtasks were independent and participants could decide to participate in any one of them, though we encouraged participation in multiple subtasks, since the complexity metrics might be influenced by the grammatical status of an expression and vice versa. In line with this intuition, we distributed a subset of sentences annotated with both acceptability and complexity scores in order to investigate whether and to what extent there is a correlation between the two phenomena.

4In all subtasks, participants were free to use external resources, and they were evaluated against a blind test set.

3. Dataset

3.1 Composition

5Acceptability dataset: it contains 1,683 Italian sentences annotated with human judgments of acceptability on a 7–point Likert scale. The number of annotations per sentence ranges from 10 to 85, with an average of 16.38. The dataset is constructed by merging the data of four psycholinguistic studies on minimal variations of controlled linguistic oppositions with different levels of grammaticality with a subset of 672 sentences generated from templates.

6The first subset (128 sentences), taken from (Chesi and Canal 2019), focuses on person features oppositions in object clefts dependencies where Determiner Phrases (DPs) are either introduced by determiners or by pronouns used as determiner as in (1).

(1)      {Sono | siete} {gli | voi} architetti che {gli |
          {are3Ppl | are2Ppl} {the | you} architects that {the |
          voi} ingegneri {hanno | avete} consultato
          you} engineers {have3Ppl | have2Ppl} consulted
          ‘it is {the|you} architects that {the|you} engineers have consulted’

7The second subset (515 sentences) is taken from the studies presented in (Greco et al. 2020) involving copular constructions (e.g. canonical (2a) vs. Inverse (2b) (Moro 1997).

(2)      a. [invcop] . Le foto del muro sono la causa della
          the pictures of_the wall are the cause of_the
          rivolta
          riot
          b. La causa della rivolta sono le foto
          the cause of_the riot are the pictures
          del muro
          of_the wall

8This subset also contains declarative and interrogative (yes/no) sentences with a minimal verbal structure (contrasting preverbal vs postverbal subject position in unergatives (3a), unaccusatives (3b) and transitive predicates (3c))

(3)      a. I cani hanno abbaiato | Hanno abbaiato i
          the dogs have barked | have barked the
          cani
          dogs
          b. Gli autobus sono partiti | Sono partiti gli
          The buses have left | have left the
          autobus
          buses
          c. Le bambine hanno mangiato il dolce |
          the girls have eaten the dessert |
          Hanno mangiato le bambine il dolce |
          have eaten the girls the dessert

9The third set (320 sentences) is based on a study in which number and person subject-verb agreement and unagreement cases are tested (Mancini, Canal, and Chesi 2018):

(4)      Qualcuno ha detto che io1Psg {scrivo1Psg |*
          Somebody has said that I1Psg {write1Psg |
          scriviamo1Ppl} una lettera.[agree]
          *write1Psg} a letter

10The fourth one (48 sentences) contains experimental items from (Villata et al. 2015) involving different types of wh-islands violations.

11(5)       {Cosa | Quale edificio}i ti chiedi {chi |
          {What | Which building}i do you wonder {who |
          quale ingegnere} abbia costruito ––i?
          which engineer} has built ––i?

12The last set of 672 sentences was generated by creating all the possible content word combinations from various structural templates designed to test acceptability patterns due to: (i) extra or missing gaps in Wh-extractions (6a) vs. Topic constructions (6b).

(6)        a. {Cosa | Quale problema}i lo studente
          {what | which problem}i the student
          dovrebbe descriver(e) {__i| -loi | questo
          should describe {__i| it | this
          problema}?
          problem}
          b. Questo problemai, lo studente dovrebbe
          this problem, the student should
          descriver(e) {__i| -loi | questo problema}
          describe {__i| iti | this problem}

(ii) Wh- and relative clauses with gaps inside VP conjunctions (in all conjuncts, i.e. "Across the Board", in only one conjunct, or not at all, see e.g. (7)).

(7)       Chii ... Maria vuole chiamar(e) {__i| -lo} e
          whoi ... Mary wants callinf {__i| him} and
          il dottore medicar(e) {__i| -lo}?
          the doctor cure {__i| him}?

(iii) embedded Wh-clauses and the possibility of subextractions from them (similar to 5).

(8)       Quale provvedimento Maria ha saputo {che |
          Which measure M. has heard {that |
          dove | perché | quando} il ministro prenderà?
          where | why | when} il ministro prenderà?

(iv) extractions from VPs in subject vs. object positions (9) (cf. (2)).

(9)       Carlo conosceva bene il compagnoi di classe
          Carlo knew well the classmatei
          che {incontrarei  divertiva sempre Anna | Anna
          that {meetinf __i  amused always Anna | Anna
          voleva sempre incontrare __i}
          wanted always meetinf __i}

(v) NEGPOLs (nessuno, alcunché, mai ‘any, anything, ever’) that are licensed by a higher negation, by a question, or not licensed, in simple or (deeply) embedded sentences (e.g. (10)).

(10)       {Maria | Nessuno} si aspetta che qualcuno
          {M. | No-one} self expects that someone
          possa aver {già | mai} finito questo
          could have {already | never} completed this
          esercizio (?)
          exercise (?)

13The use of expanded templates was designed to minimize the potential effect of collocations or specific lexical choices.

14Whenever possible each sentence was also manually annotated according to the linguistic-theoretic expectations for “grammaticality”, on a 4-points scale: * (ungrammatical, coded as 0), ?? (very marginal, coded as 0.66), ? (marginal, coded as 0.33) and OK (grammatical, coded as 1).

15Complexity dataset: it comprises 2,530 Italian sentences annotated with human judgments of perceived complexity on a 7–point Likert scale as for the acceptability dataset. The number of annotations per sentence ranged from 11 to 20, with an average of 16.753. The corpus was internally subdivided into two subsets representative of two different typologies of data, i.e. 1,858 naturalistic sentences extracted from corpora and 672 artificially-generated sentences drawn from the Acceptability dataset, and chosen to cover the range of linguistic phenomena represented in its templates. The first subset contains sentences taken from the Universal Dependency (UD) treebanks (Nivre et al. 2016) available for Italian, representative of different text genres and domains. In this regard, the largest portion contains 1,128 sentences taken from the newswire section of the Italian Stanford Dependency Treebank (ISDT) (Bosco, Montemagni, and Simi, n.d.), annotated with complexity judgments by . Beside these, we chose to include in this corpus smaller subsets of sentences representative of a non-standard language variety and of specific constructions, i.e. Wh-questions and direct speech. Non-standard sentences (for a total of 323) are in the form of generic tweets and tweets labelled for irony taken from two representative treebanks, i.e. PoSTWITA and TWITTIRÒ (Sanguinetti et al. 2018; Cignarella, Bosco, and Rosso 2019). Wh-questions (164 sentences) were extracted from a dedicated section (prefixed by the string ‘quest’) included in ISDT. Direct speech sentences (243) mainly include transcripts of European parliamentary debates (taken from the ‘europarl’ section of ISDT) and extracts from literary texts (mostly contained in the UD Italian VIT (Delmonte, Bristot, and Tonelli 2007)). The choice of annotating a shared portion of data with both acceptability and complexity scores was explicitly motivated by the attempt to empirically investigate whether there is a correlation between the two sentence properties, and whether complexity is judged differently in the case of ill-formed constructions.

16For the purpose of the task, both datasets were split into training and validation samples with a proportion of 80% to 20%, respectively.

3.2 Annotation with Human Judgments

17For the collection of judgments of sentence acceptability and complexity by Italian native speakers we relied on crowdsourcing techniques using different platforms. More specifically, for Acceptability, the set of sentences drawn from the psycholinguistic studies described in Section 3.1 was annotated using an on-line platform based on jsPsych scripts (De Leeuw 2015). For the Complexity dataset, the annotation of the subcorpus of sentences taken from (Brunato et al. 2018) was performed through the CrowdFlower platform1 (more details are reported in the reference paper), while the remaining sentences in this dataset were annotated using Prolific2. To make the annotation process comparable to the one followed by (Brunato et al. 2018), the whole process was split into different tasks, each one consisting in the annotation of about 200 sentences randomly mixed for the various typologies. For all tasks, workers were asked to read each sentence and answer the following question:

“Quanto è complessa questa frase da 1 (semplicissima) a 7 (molto difficile)?” ‘How difficult is this sentence from 1 (very easy) to 7 (very difficult)?’

18Beyond complexity, the 672 artificially-generated sentences were also labelled for perceived acceptability according to the following question:

“Quanto è accettabile questa frase da 1 (completamente agrammaticale) a 7 (perfettamente grammaticale)?” ‘How acceptable is this sentence from 1 (completely ungrammatical) to 7 (completely grammatical)?’

19After collecting all annotations, we excluded workers who performed the assigned task in less than 10 minutes, which we set as the minimum threshold to accurately complete the survey.

3.3 Analysis of Judgments across Corpora

20Table 1 shows the average value, standard deviation and minimum and maximum score of complexity and acceptability labels for the whole dataset. As it can be noticed, complexity values are on average lower and less scattered than the acceptability ones. For this corpus, the lowest value on the Likert scale (1) – which should have been used to label sentences perceived as very easy, in line to the task question – was given only twice, specifically to the following sentences:

(11)       Dimmi il nome di una città finlandese.
          tell me the name of a town Finnish
           ‘Tell me the name of Finnish town’

(12)       Quali uve si usano per produrre vino?
          Which grapes PRT they_use to make wine?

Table 1: Statistics collected for the two corpora of the AcCompl-it dataset.

COMPL

ACCEPT

SCORE

SE

SCORE

SE

μ

3.12

0.332

4.45

0.36

σ

1.04

0.08

1.7

0.14

min

1

0

1.13

0

max

6.46

0.63

7

0.74

21Conversely, for the acceptability corpus, the highest value on the Likert scale (i.e. 7, meaning in this case completely acceptable) was attributed to 26 sentences. For space reasons, we report here only two examples:

(13)       Le sorelle sono sopravvissute.
          The sisters are survived.
           ‘the sisters have survived’

(14)       I lupi hanno ululato.
          The wolves have howled.

22With respect to the ‘worst’ values, two sample sentences judged respectively as the most complex (i.e. 6.46 on the Likert scale) and (among) the least acceptable (1.55) in each dataset are the following ones, respectively:

(15)       Chi è che lui ha affermato che il professore
          who is that he has claimed that the professor
          aveva detto che lo studente avrebbe dovuto
          had said that the student hadsubj must
          considerare questo candidato?
          consider this candidate?

(16)       Il falegname è arrivato mentre noi
          The carpenter has arrived while we
          montavo la mensola.
          were_assembling1Psg the shelf.

23If we consider the internal composition of the two datasets we can see a more articulated picture depending on its various subparts (see Table 2 and 3). For complexity, average scores are higher for sentences created to display specific acceptability patterns, thus proving that acceptability does affect the perception of complexity. Note that the most complex sentence (reported in (15)) is contained in this set, and is ungrammatical (no gap).

Table 2: Average complexity score, standard error and minimum and maximum value across the different subsets of the Complexity dataset.

score

se

min

max

ISDT_news

3.28

0.33

1.25

5.7

Twitter

2.59

0.31

1.13

4.69

DirectSpeech

2.68

0.31

1.14

6

Wh-Quest

1.61

0.22

1

2.94

ArtifSent

3.63

0.37

1.42

6.47

Tabel 3: Average acceptability score, standard error and minimum and maximum value across the different linguistic phenomena of the Acceptability. Numbers in (•) refer to examples in the text.

score

se

min

max

clefts (1)

4.27

0.39

1.36

6

copular

5.01

0.48

2.90

6.5

 canonical (2a)

5.47

0.44

3.58

6.5

 inverse (2b)

4.56

0.51

2.90

5.9

unerg V (3a)

5.91

0.30

3.70

7

 SV

6.64

0.21

5.94

7

 VS

5.18

0.40

3.70

6.2

unacc V (3b)

6.28

0.27

4.86

7

 SV

6.61

0.20

5.82

7

 VS

5.96

0.33

4.86

6.72

trans V (3c)

4.91

0.34

2

7

 SV

6.47

0.24

5.06

7

 VS

3.34

0.43

2

4.52

S V agree (4)

3.81

0.31

1.25

6.93

 match

5.87

0.30

3.14

6.92

 mismatch

1.74

0.32

1.25

2.72

wh-island (arg) (5)

3.85

0.17

1.68

5.63

filler-gap dep.

3.56

0.51

1.5

6.69

 doubly filled (6)

3.28

0.42

1.5

6.69

 coord (7)

4.25

0.47

2.5

6

 wh-island (adj) (8)

3.02

0.41

1.38

5.6

    no extraction

6.26

0.29

5.26

7

 subj/obj (9)

3.70

0.51

2.66

5.15

NPIs (10)

4.75

0.45

2.27

6.6

 bad fillers

1.13

0.06

1.13

1.13

 good fillers

6.76

0.07

6.76

6.76

 medium fillers

4.07

0.18

4.07

4.07

24Among the treebank sentences, those extracted from journalistic texts (ISDT_news) were judged on average as the most complex, questions as the easiest ones. Twitter and direct speech sentences obtained scores in between the highest and the lowest value and very close to each other. This is in line with stylistic and linguistic analysis showing that the language of social media inherits many features from spoken language.

25For the whole acceptability dataset, the Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient between theoretically-driven grammaticality and mean acceptability labels is very strong (r(656)=.83, p<.001). While this could be somehow expected, when we focus only on the 672 sentences annotated for both complexity and acceptability, we still observe a significant but lower correlation between expected grammaticality and mean complexity (r(656)=.34, p<.001). Still considering this subset, an additional outcome is the moderate (and negative) correlation between the two metrics (r(672)=.49, p<.001), further suggesting that the more a sentence is perceived as complex, the less acceptable it is.

4. Evaluation measures

26For both the ACCEPT and COMPL Task, the evaluation metric was based on Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient between the participants’ scores and the test set scores. For each task, two different ranks were produced according to the prediction of the relative scores and to standard errors. In each task a different baseline was defined:

  • in the ACCEPT task, it corresponds to the score assigned by a SVM linear regression using unigram and bigram of words as features;

  • in the COMPL task, it corresponds to the score assigned by a SVM linear regression using sentence length as its sole feature.

5. Participation and results

27The AcCompl-it task received three submissions for each subtask from two different participants, for a total of 6 runs. Unfortunately, neither participant took part in the Open Task. Results for the other ones are reported in Tables 4 and 5.

Table 4: ACCEPT task results.**p value<0.001; *p value <0.05

PARTICIPANT

SCORE

SE

UmBERTO-MTSA (Sarti)

0.88**

0.52**

ItVenses-run1 (Delmonte)

0.44**

0.25**

ItVenses-run2 (Delmonte)

0.49**

0.41**

Baseline

0.30**

0.35**

Table 5: COMPL task results. **p value<0.001; *p value <0.05

PARTICIPANT

SCORE

SE

UmBERTO-MTSA (Sarti)

0.83**

0.51**

ItVenses-run1 (Delmonte)

0.31**

0.09*

ItVenses-run2 (Delmonte)

0.31**

0.07

Baseline

0.50**

0.33**

28The systems from the two participants in the task follow very different approaches : one is based on deep learning and trained on raw texts (Sarti 2020), the other relies on (heuristic) rules applied to semantic and syntactic features automatically extracted from sentences (Delmonte 2020). In spite of their very different nature, the two approaches also present some commonalities, such as the reliance on external resources. In particular, both make use of additional sentences taken from existing Italian treebanks, either to enrich the original training sets with additional annotated examples (Sarti’s case) or to check the frequency of a given construction and use this info among the features of the proposed system (ItVenses).

29Sarti’s systems obtained the best performance on both tasks using a similar multi-task learning (MTL) approach, which consists in leveraging the predictions of a state-of-the-art neural language model for Italian (i.e. UmBERTO3) fine-tuned on the two downstream tasks to augment the original development sets with a large set of unlabeled examples extracted from available Italian treebanks. The bigger dataset was then split into different portions to train an ensemble of classifiers. The resulting MTL model was finally used to predict the complexity/acceptability labels on the original test sets.

30Delmonte’s ItVenses system parses the sentences to obtain a sequence of constituents and a set of sentence-level semantic features (presence of agreement, negation markers, speech act and factivity). These features, along with constituent triples and their frequency in the training set and in the Venice Italian Treebank are weighed with various heuristics and used to derive a prediction. Agreement mismatches were checked using morphological analysis of verb and subject, while the argumental structure is inferred using a deep parser. The two versions of the system (run1 and run2) differ only in their use of features (run2 dispenses with proposional negation and certain verb agreement features).

31As it can be seen, ItVenses’s performance were considerably lower than Sarti’s system (lower, in fact, than the baseline based on sentence length, in the COMPL prediction task). However, as better explained in the following section, in the artificial data subset, which has complex but far less diverse structures, the gap with the winning system is reduced in the COMPL task (cfr. Table 7) and, even more robustly, in the ACCEPT task (Table 6).

Table 6: ACCEPT task results on different subsets of the official test set. **p value<0.001; *p value <0.05

PARTICIPANT

SCORE

SE

Psycholinguistics related

UmBERTO-MTSA (Sarti)

0.90**

0.55**

ItVenses-run1 (Delmonte)

0.42**

0.24**

ItVenses-run2 (Delmonte)

0.50**

0.48**

Artificial data

UmBERTO-MTSA (Sarti)

0.74**

0.33**

ItVenses-run1 (Delmonte)

0.50**

0.20*

ItVenses-run2 (Delmonte)

0.46**

0.25*

32Running an exploratory analysis based on expected grammaticality, we observed that Sarti’s system performs much better in predicting the acceptability score on expected grammatical sentences (r=.80, p<.001) than on expected ungrammatical ones (r=.76, p<.001). Similarly, but less robustly, the same numerical asymmetry is observed in both Delmonte’s runs: for grammatical predictions, RUN1 r=.33, RUN2 r=.35; for ungrammatical ones RUN1 r=.32, RUN2 r=.34, all correlations being equally significant (p<.001).

Table 7: COMPL task results on different subsets of the official test set. **p value<0.001; *p value <0.05

PARTICIPANT

SCORE

SE

Treebank sentences

UmBERTO-MTSA (Sarti)

0.86**

0.61**

ItVenses-run1 (Delmonte)

0.25**

0.13*

ItVenses-run2 (Delmonte)

0.24**

0.10*

Artificial data

UmBERTO-MTSA (Sarti)

0.70**

0.06

ItVenses-run1 (Delmonte)

0.44**

-0.07

ItVenses-run2 (Delmonte)

0.51**

-0.11

6. Discussion

33The extremely good performance of the winning system in both tasks is not wholly unexpected in light of the impressive results obtained by current neural networks models across a variety of NLP tasks. In this regard, it is worth noticing that, in his report, the author compared the performance of the best system based on multi-task learning to the one obtained by a simpler version of the UmBERTO-based model with standard fine-tuning on the two downstream tasks, achieving already very good results (.90 and .84 for acceptability and complexity predictions on the training corpus, respectively). Similarly, and especially for the automatic assessment of sentence acceptability, the scores obtained by the winning system (.88) are in line with those reported in (Linzen, Dupoux, and Goldberg 2016), who train a classifier to detect subject-verb agreement mismatches from the hidden states of an LSTM, achieving a .83 score. Most other systems at work on the ability of neural models to detect acceptability or grammaticality in a broader range of cases report much lower scores, but they try to read (minimal pair) judgments from metrics associated to the performance of systems that have not been expressly trained on giving judgments, reasoning that ‘judgment giving’ is not a task humans have a life-long training for, but which is nonetheless feasible.

34To have a better understanding of the potential impact of different types of data on the predictive capabilities of the two systems, we further inspected the final results by testing each system on sentences representative of diverse linguistic phenomena and textual genres. To this end, we split the whole test set into the distinct subsets defined in the corpus collection process (cfr. Section 3.1) and we assessed the correlation score between predicted and real labels for each type: note that, for the ACCEPT predictions, this analysis was performed considering only two ‘macro–classes’, i.e. artificial vs psycholinguistics-related data, in order to have a significant number of examples in the test set. Similarly, for COMPL, we distinguished the artificially–generated sentences from sentences drawn from all treebanks. Results of this fine-grained analysis are shown in Tables 6 and 7.

35Interestingly, although the gap between the two systems is still evident, we observed that artificial data have an opposite effect on their performance. In particular, as anticipated in the previous section, ItVenses is more accurate in predicting both the complexity and, especially, the acceptability level of this group of sentences. The opposite holds for Sarti’s system, which although still very good in both tasks, achieves lower correlation scores when tested against artificial data.

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Notes

1 Now known as Figure Eight, https://appen.com/

2 www.prolific.co

3 https://github.com/musixmatchresearch/umberto

Auteurs

CIMeC-UNITRENTO, Corso Bettini 31, Rovereto Italy – roberto.zamparelli@unitn.it

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